Authority And Conformity Analysis

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Authority And Conformity Analysis

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A Study of 'Obedience to Authority' - Milgram (1963)

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Basically, it's a piece of paper, which someone has to sign to say that the product meets the requirements of the directive s which apply to it. The idea is that making someone put their signature on a piece of paper concentrates their mind on whether or not the product really does comply. It also allows an enforcement authority to identify who is responsible for a product and what that person claims to have done to CE mark it. A properly issued Declaration of Conformity is always issued by the product's manufacturer or representative , importer or distributor; never by a test house or Notified Body.

The Declaration needs to be signed by someone who has the power to make binding commitments on behalf of the manufacturer, but for the Declaration to be truly meaningful the signatory should also be someone who has the authority to commit the resources required to ensure that the CE marking process is properly completed. The effect of the Declaration is to identify an individual in the company who can be held responsible if the CE marking on a product turns out to be invalid. Each directive has slightly different requirements for the content of its Declaration but some features are common to all:. If a Notified Body is required to be involved the CE marking process e. Some directives have special additional requirements:.

Most directives require the Declaration to be translated into the languages of the countries in which the product is placed on the market. In addition, some directives e. One particular requirement in the new Machinery Directive is worthy of special mention. This is that the Declaration must identify the name and address from where the technical documentation for the product may be obtained and that this must be an address within the European Community. However, this decision has no effect on the requirements of directives issued before With this in mind, we have prepared a series of documents, which will help you to draft declarations for the most common Directives.

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GOT IT. This option will restart the initial tutorial. They drew straws to determine their roles — learner or teacher — although this was fixed and the confederate was always the learner. Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used - one for the learner with an electric chair and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator. Wallace was strapped to a chair with electrodes. The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the level of shock each time. There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts slight shock to danger — severe shock. The learner gave mainly wrong answers on purpose , and for each of these, the teacher gave him an electric shock.

There were four prods and if one was not obeyed, then the experimenter Mr. Williams read out the next prod, and so on. All the participants continued to volts. Milgram did more than one experiment — he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was alter the situation IV to see how this affected obedience DV. Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being.

Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school, and workplace. I set up a simple experiment at Yale University to test how much pain an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person simply because he was ordered to by an experimental scientist. The extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation.

Milgram explained the behavior of his participants by suggesting that people have two states of behavior when they are in a social situation:. Agency theory says that people will obey an authority when they believe that the authority will take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. For example, when participants were reminded that they had responsibility for their own actions, almost none of them were prepared to obey. In contrast, many participants who were refusing to go on did so if the experimenter said that he would take responsibility.

The Milgram experiment was carried out many times whereby Milgram varied the basic procedure changed the IV. By doing this Milgram could identify which factors affected obedience the DV. In total participants have been tested in 18 different variation studies. In the original baseline study — the experimenter wore a gray lab coat as a symbol of his authority a kind of uniform. Milgram carried out a variation in which the experimenter was called away because of a phone call right at the start of the procedure.

The experiment was moved to a set of run down offices rather than the impressive Yale University. Obedience dropped to This suggests that status of location effects obedience. When participants could instruct an assistant confederate to press the switches, When there is less personal responsibility obedience increases. This relates to Milgram's Agency Theory. The teacher had to force the learner's hand down onto a shock plate when they refuse to participate after volts.

Two other participants confederates were also teachers but refused to obey. Confederate 1 stopped at volts, and confederate 2 stopped at volts. It is easier to resist the orders from an authority figure if they are not close by. When the experimenter instructed and prompted the teacher by telephone from another room, obedience fell to Many participants cheated and missed out shocks or gave less voltage than ordered to by the experimenter. The proximity of authority figure affects obedience. The Milgram studies were conducted in laboratory type conditions, and we must ask if this tells us much about real-life situations. We obey in a variety of real-life situations that are far more subtle than instructions to give people electric shocks, and it would be interesting to see what factors operate in everyday obedience.

The sort of situation Milgram investigated would be more suited to a military context. Yet a total of participants were tested in 18 separate experiments across the New Haven area, which was seen as being reasonably representative of a typical American town. Milgram also interviewed participants afterward to find out the effect of the deception. Apparently, Signs of tension included trembling, sweating, stuttering, laughing nervously, biting lips and digging fingernails into palms of hands. Three participants had uncontrollable seizures, and many pleaded to be allowed to stop the experiment. In his defense, Milgram argued that these effects were only short-term. Once the participants were debriefed and could see the confederate was OK their stress levels decreased.

Milgram also interviewed the participants one year after the event and concluded that most were happy that they had taken part. Milgram debriefed all his participants straight after the experiment and disclosed the true nature of the experiment. Participants were assured that their behavior was common and Milgram also followed the sample up a year later and found that there were no signs of any long-term psychological harm. In fact, the majority of the participants Did Milgram give participants an opportunity to withdraw?

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