President Johnsons Presidential Doctrine

Saturday, March 19, 2022 5:31:52 AM

President Johnsons Presidential Doctrine

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The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate

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She becomes the first black actor to win an academy award. Charles R. The thesis includes his research which discovers that plasma can replace whole blood transfusions. Dorris "Dorie" Miller is later awarded the Navy Cross for his heroism during that battle. The desperate need for factory labor to build the war machine needed to win World War II leads to an unprecedented migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West.

This migration transforms American politics as blacks increasingly vote. They will be known as the Montford Point Marines. The Naval Academy at Annapolis and other naval officer schools accept African American men for the first time. By summer, fourteen thousand African American soldiers of the 93rd Infantry Division and the 32nd and 33rd companies of the Womens Army Auxiliary Corps approximately women are stationed in the Arizona desert at Fort Huachuca for training.

They are th. On April 3, the U. Supreme Court in Smith v. Allwright declares white only political primaries unconstitutional. The fund is incorporated in New York. Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. He is the first African American to command a military base. By the end of the war one million African American men and women have served in the U. Nat King Cole becomes the first African American to have a radio variety show. The show airs on NBC. Ebony magazine, created by Chicago-based Johnson Publishing Company, published its first issue on November 1. Charles S. Supreme Court in Morgan v. Virginia rules that segregation in interstate bus travel is unconstitutional. Channing H. Tobias is the first African American to head the Phelps-Stokes Fund, a philanthropic organization that supports black education.

The work will become the most popular textbook on African American history published in the 20th Century. She wins the high jump competition in the London Olympics. On October 1, the California Supreme Court voids the law banning interracial marriages in the state. On May 3, the U. Supreme Court rules in Shelley v. Kraemer that state and local governments cannot enforce racially restrictive housing covenants. Businessman Jesse Blayton, Sr. It begins broadcasting in Atlanta on October 3. William A. Hinton is the first black professor at the Harvard University Medical School.

She wins the prize in Poetry. Juanita Hall became the first African American to win a Tony award. She was honored for her role in the Broadway play, South Pacific. On May 24, the U. Supreme Court rules racial segregation in District of Columbia restaurants is unconstitutional. On May 24, a mob of 3, whites attempt to prevent a black family from moving into a Cicero, Illinois apartment. Harry T. Johnson Publishing Company publishes the first issue of Jet, a weekly news magazine for an African American audience. Tuskegee Institute reported no lynchings in the United States for the first time in 71 years of tabulation.

Benjamin O. At the time he is the highest ranking black elected official in the nation. On May 17, the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education declares segregation in all public schools in the United States unconstitutional, nullifying the earlier judicial doctrine of separate but equal. He also is the first African American to command an airbase. Louis Housing Authority which ended racial discrimination in public housing in the city. Freeman was the first black woman to win a majo. On May 3 in Hernandez v. Texas, the U. Supreme Court ruled that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the U. Chuck Berry, an early breakthrough rock and roll artist, records "Maybellene" with Chicago's Chess Records.

Rosa Parks refuses to relinquish her bus seat to a white man on December 1, initiating the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Soon afterwards Dr. Martin Luther Kingbecomes the leader of the Boycott. On January 15 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order which creates the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce the federal government's policy of nondiscrimination in federal employment. On May 31 the U. Supreme Court rules in Brown II that public school desegregation must occur with all deliberate speed. Martin Luther King Jr.

Autherine Lucy is admitted to the University of Alabama on February 3. She is suspended on February 7 after a riot ensues at the university to protest her presence. Lucy is expelled on February On November 11, Nat King Cole becomes the first African American to host a prime time variety show on national television. He appears on NBC. Harry Belafonte's "Calypso," released by RCA Records, is the first album in history to sell more than one million copies.

On November 13, the U. Supreme Court in Gayle v. Browder bans segregation in intrastate travel, effectively giving a victory to those supporting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. On April 10 popular entertainer Nat King Cole is assaulted on stage during a segregated performance at the Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama. The Mississippi Sovereignty Commisison is formed in Jackson, the state captial, to maintain racial segregation in Mississippi. Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of , the first legislation protecting black rights since Reconstruction. The act establishes the Civil Rights section of the Justice Department and empowers federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against i. Dorothy Irene Height is appointed president of the National Council of Negro Women, a position she holds for 41 years.

She later launches a crusade for justice for black women and works to strengthen the black family. In September President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to ensure the enforcement of a Federal court order to desegregate Central High School and to protect nine African American students enrolled as part of the order. Perry H. Young becomes the first black pilot for a commercial passenger airline New York Airways. The following year, , Ruth Carol Taylor becomes the first commercial passenger airline flight attendant Mohawk Airlines.

Martin Luther King, Jr. Louis E. Lomax becomes the first African American newscaster for a major network station. Althea Gibson becomes the first African American woman to win the U. Open tennis championship in Forest Hills. It is the first play by an African American woman to be produced on Broadway. On February 1, , four students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College in Greensboro begin a sit-in at Woolworth's Drug Store to protest company policy which bans African Americans from sitting at its counters.

Eisenhower on May 6. The Act established federal inspection of local voter registration rolls and introduces penalties for anyone who obstructs a citizen's attempt to register to vote. Kennedy defeats Vice President Richard Nixon in one of the closest elections in history. Many observers credit African American voters with Kennedy's narrow margin of victory. On May 4, seven blacks and four whites leave Washington, D. Riots on the University of Georgia campus in September fail to prevent the enrollment of the institutions first two African American students, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter Gault. Ernie Davis, a running back at Syracuse University, becomes the first African American athlete to receive college football's Heisman Trophy. On October 1, James Meredith becomes the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi.

On the day he enters the University, he is escorted by U. On May 3, Birmingham police use dogs and fire hoses to attack civil rights demonstrators. Despite Governor George Wallace's vow to block the schoolhouse door to prevent their enrollment on June 11, Vivian Malone and James Hood register for classes at the University of Alabama. They are the first African American students to attend the universi. Over , people gather in Washington, D. On January 8, President Lyndon Johnson in his first State of the Union Address declares unconditional war on poverty in America, thus initiating a broad array of government programs designed to assist the poorest citizens of the nation including a disprop.

The act bans discrimination in all public accommodations and by employers. On March 7, six hundred Alabama civil rights activists stage a Selma-to-Montgomery protest march to draw attention to the continued denial of black voting rights in the state. The marchers are confronted by Alabama State Troopers whose attack on them at t. Thirty four people are killed and one thousand are injured in the five day confrontation. Weaver becomes the first African American to hold a cabinet post. She becomes the first African American woman elevated to a Federal judgeship. Soon after crossing into Mississippi Meredith is shot by a sniper. Civil Rights leaders including Martin. Andrew F. However he is denied the seat by the Georgia Legislature because of his opposition to the Vietnam War.

Bond is eventually seated after a bitter court battle. On April 4, Rev. It is his first public criticism of the Vietnam War. On June 12, the U. Supreme Court in Loving v. Virginia strikes down state interracial marriage bans. The six-day Newark Riot begins on July 12 and claims 23 dead, injured and 1, arrested. On July 23, the Detroit Race Riot erupts. Between July 23 and July 28, 43 are killed, 1, are injured and over 7, are arrested. Hatcher are elected the first black mayors of Cleveland and Gary, Indiana, respectively. Albert William Johnson is the first African American awarded a dealership from a major automaker when he opens an Oldsmobile dealership in a predominately black neighborhood in Chicago.

In the wake of the assassination cities in 29 states experience uprisings. By April 11, 46 people are killed and 35, are injured in these confrontations. In April Congress enacts the Civil Rights Act of which outlaws discrimination in the sale and rental of housing. Kennedy is assassinated on June 5 in Los Angeles. On May 5, Moneta Sleet, Jr. Howard N. At the time he is the first African American mayor of a predominately white Southern city.

Over , people attend what is to that point the largest musical concert in history. Clifton Wharton, Jr. He is the first African American to lead a major, predominately white university in the 20th Century. On February 18, Bobby Seale and six other six defendants popularly known as the Chicago Seven are acquitted of the charge of conspiring to disrupt the Democratic National Convention. On July 1, Kenneth Gibson becomes the first black mayor of an eastern city when he assumes the post in Newark, New Jersey.

In July Captain Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. Four days later 29 inmates and ten hostages are killed when state troopers and correctional officers suppres. On December 18, Rev. Johnson Products, a hair care company, becomes the first black-owned company to be listed on a major U. Beverly Johnson is the first black woman to appear on the cover of a major fashion magazine Glamour.

Over the summer New York Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm makes an unsuccessful bid for the Democratic presidential nomination. She is the first African American to campaign for the nomination. South since Wilt Chamberlain of the Los Angeles Lakers becomes the first National Basketball Association player to score over 30, points during his career. He is reelected four times and thus holds the mayors office for 20 years. On April 8, Henry Hank Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hits his th home run surpassing Babe Ruth to become the all-time leader in home runs in major league baseball.

On June 21, U. District Judge W. Arthur Garrity issues a court order in Morgan v. Hennigan that initiates a busing program, involving several thousand students. The order is designed to desegregate the public schools of Boston. They are the first African Americans to hold these posts in the 20th century. The first dean and president of the Morehouse School of Medicine is Dr. Louis Sullivan who later becomes the U. Wallace D. Muhammad assumes control of the Nation of Islam after the death of his father, Elijah Muhammad. He changes the organizations direction and its name to the World Community of al-Islam.

Janie L. Mines becomes the first African American women cadet to enter. She graduates in College and university enrollment for African American students rises sharply from , in to 1,, in She becomes the first African American woman to hold a cabinet position. Ambassador to the United Nations. He is the first African American to hold that post. The eighth and final night for the miniseries based on Alex Haley's Roots is shown on February 3.

This final episode achieves the highest ratings to that point for a single television program. On March 8, Henry L. On June 28, the U. Bakke narrowly uphold affirmative action as a legal strategy for addressing past discrimination. On September 15, Muhammad Ali becomes the first boxer to win the heavyweight championship three times when he defeats Leon Spinks at the Superdome in New Orleans. Jill Brown becomes the first black female pilot for a commercial passenger airline Texas International Airlines.

Frank E. Petersen, Jr. In September Hazel W. Richard Arrington, Jr. He is the first black person to win the award in a category other than peace. Brown holds the Speakership until when he is elected Mayor of San Francisco. On May rioting breaks out in Liberty City, Florida near Miami after police officers are acquitted for killing an unarmed black man. The riot which generates 15 deaths is the worst in the nation since Detroit in Robert L. The struggle of Rev. Ben Chavis and his followers to block a toxic waste dump in Warren County, North Carolina launches a national campaign against environmental racism. Bryant Gumbel is named anchor of The Today Show, becoming the first African American to hold the post on a major network.

Michael Jackson's album, Thriller, is released. It will eventually sell 45 million copies worldwide, becoming the best selling album in music history. In July she relinquishes her crown to Suzette Charles when nude photos of her appear in Penthouse magazine. On August 30, Guion Guy S. Bluford, Jr. Robert C. Maynard become the first African American to own the major daily newspaper in a large city when he becomes the majority stockholder of the Oakland Tribune. On January 2, W. Wilson Goode becomes the first African American mayor of Philadelphia. Jesse Jackson wins approximately one fourth of the votes cast in the Democratic primaries and caucuses and about one eighth of the convention delegates in a losing bid for the Democratic presidential nomination.

The show runs for eight seasons and will become the most successful series in television history featuring a mostly African American cast. The bombing leaves 11 people dead and homeless. Gwendolyn Brooks of Chicago is named U. She is the first African American to hold that honor. Grambling State University's football coach Eddie Robinson becomes the coach with the most wins in college football history. On January 28, Dr.

Ronald McNair and six other crew members die when the space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after launch from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Spike Lee releases his first feature film, She's Gotta Have It, initiating a new wave of interest in black films and African American filmmakers. At the age of 20, Tyson is the youngest fighter to win the crown. Neurosurgeon Dr. Benjamin Carson makes medical history when he leads a seventy-member surgical team at Johns Hopkins Hospital in a 22 hour operation separating Siamese twins the Binder twins joined at the cranium.

Gordon is appointed Commandant of the Cadets at the U. Military Academy at West Point. Johnnetta B. In his second try for the Democratic Presidential nomination Jesse L. Jacksonreceives 1, delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention on July The number needed for the nomination, which goes to Michael Dukakis, was 2, This is the largest donation ever made by a black American to a college or university. On January 29, Barbara C.

Harris is installed as the first woman bishop in the Episcopal Anglican Church. On February 7, Ronald H. Brown is elected chair of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first African American to head one of the two major political parties. On August 10, General Colin L. On November 7, L. Douglas Wilder wins the governorship of Virginia, making him the first African American to be popularly elected to that office. Marcelite Jordan Harris is the first black woman brigadier general in the U. Army and the first woman to command a mostly male battalion. Walter E. On January 15, Roland Burris becomes the first black attorney general of Illinois.

From to he serves as U. The beating of King is captured on videotape and broadcast widely prompting, an investigation and subsequent trial of three officers. Bush, is confirmed by the U. Senate and takes his seat on the U. In March Willie W. Herenton was elected the first African American mayor of Memphis, Tennessee. The verdict triggers a three day uprising in Los Angeles called the Rodney King Riot that results in over 50 people killed, over 2, injured and 8, On September 12, Dr.

Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman in space when she travels on board the space shuttle Endeavor. William "Bill" Pinkney becomes the first African American and only the fourth American to singlehandedly navigate a sailboat around the world. Louis, Missouri. Joycelyn M. The work honored is her novel, Beloved. On June 12, O. Simpson's former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman are found stabbed to death. Simpson emerges as the leading suspect and is subsequently arrested on June 17 after a two hour low speed pursuit of Simpson and hi.

Corey D. On October 3, after an eight month televised trial, O. Simpson is acquitted of the charges of murder in the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman. Centers for Disease Control. It also substantially cuts programs designed to help t. On November 5, California voters pass Proposition which outlaws affirmative action throughout the state. At 21 he is the youngest golfer ever to win the title. He is also the first African American to hold the title. In June, Harvey Johnson, Jr.

On October 25 African American women participate in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help. President Bill Clinton makes a formal apology to black men exploited in the U. On June 7, churchgoers discover the dismembered body of James Byrd, Jr. It is later determined that three white supremacists chained Byrd, who is black, to the back of a pick-up truck and dragged him to his death.

President Bill Clinton appoints prominent historian John Hope Franklin to lead the President's Commission on Race to promote a national dialogue on issues affecting African Americans in the United States, and to ease racial tensions. On January 13, after thirteen seasons and six NBA championships, professional basketball star Michael Jordan retires from the game as a player. On September 10, Serena Williams wins the U. Maurice Ashley becomes the world's first black chess grandmasters, the game's highest rank. Vashti M. In January President-elect George W. Bush nominates Colin Powell to be Secretary of State.

This is the first time either post has been held by Af. In November Shirley Clarke Franklin becomes the first African American woman to head the government of a major Southern city whe she is elected mayor of Atlanta. Significant population shifts and reduced resistance to residential integration result in more African Americans living in the suburbs of Los Angeles and Seattle than in their city limits.

On June 23 the U. Supreme Court in Grutter v. Bollinger upholds the University of Michigan Law School's admission policy which supports affirmative action. In the simultaneously heard Gratz v. Bollinger case, the Supreme Court requires the University of. Senate from Illinois. He becomes the second African American elected to the Senate from that state and only the fifth black senator in U. She is the second woman and the first African American woman to hold the post. With the Democratic takeover of both the U. House of Representatives and Senate in the November mid-term elections, for the first time in U.

John Conyers Mi. While parliaments and parts of the government routinely express strong protest in reaction to a specific incident, there is sometimes a strong presumption that certain circles within the military and intelligence community are in fact cooperating with their US counterparts. According to the newspaper, US forces were allowed to conduct a unilateral raid inside Pakistan in search of bin Laden, whereas it was understood that Pakistan would vociferously protest the incursion. The US government for its part left no doubt that it considered the operation as a legitimate act of self-defence.

Article 51 of the UN Charter does not justify the use of force for purposes of retaliation or criminal punishment. According to Koh, bin Laden was the leader of an enemy force, a legitimate target in the armed conflict with Al Qaeda, and continued to pose an imminent threat to the USA. A different question is whether US Special Forces were allowed to enter Pakistan without any former notification of the Pakistani authorities. Already during the presidential election campaign in , Barack Obama had announced that as President he would be prepared to send US troops to Pakistan unilaterally if Islamabad failed to act on its own against high-value terrorist targets.

It is indeed hard to imagine how a mansion of considerable size could have been built and occupied by bin Laden in the immediate vicinity of a major military academy in an area under the control of the Pakistani Army. Unnamed US and European intelligence officials were reported to believe that active or retired operatives within the Inter-Services Intelligence ISI played a direct or indirect role in protecting Osama bin Laden. Whether the killing as such was lawful under international human rights law and IHL is a different question. From an international human rights perspective, the killing of Osama bin Laden would be extremely difficult to justify. As noted in Section 3A, the legal requirements of necessity and proportionality governing the use of lethal force by state agents against individuals in peacetime law enforcement operations are considerably different from the standards applicable to the conduct of hostilities during an armed conflict.

A cursory evaluation of the present case under international human rights law suggests that the killing of bin Laden would have been permissible only if: i the operation was designed so as to minimize the use of force to the greatest extent possible; ii Osama bin Laden actually attacked members of the SEAL team; iii there were no other means to effectively stop that attack; and iv the operation did not endanger third persons who were not themselves involved in the attack. Any order to kill bin Laden on sight irrespective of whether he actually posed an imminent danger to the operating forces would have amounted to a premeditated killing, which is prohibited by human rights law. Therefore, it must be explored whether the operation in Abbottabad was in fact governed by the law of armed conflict.

Whether the legality of Operation Neptune Spear has to be determined along the lines of IHL or international human rights law depends on how the geographic scope of the armed conflict with Al Qaeda is defined. The city of Abbottabad where Osama bin Laden was killed is located in the Orash Valley in the eastern part of the Khyber Pakthunkhwa province, around 50 kilometres northeast of the capital Islamabad and kilometres away from the Afghan border. Although the Khyber Pakthunkhwa province has already been partly affected by a spill-over of the hostilities from the war in Afghanistan, the Abbottabad area has so far not seen any active combat.

Nevertheless, it is plausible to argue that the raid against Osama bin Laden was directly linked to the existing armed conflict in Afghanistan. Since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom in October , US forces in Afghanistan were constantly attacked by the Taliban and other Islamist militants who used the Federally Administered Tribal Areas on the Pakistani side of the border as a safe haven and springboard for their raids into Afghanistan.

It was clear that this endeavour would require a long-term military engagement in the region. The fact that the local branch of Al Qaeda became one of the main parties to the armed conflict makes it difficult to hold that targeted measures against its leaders in Afghanistan or Pakistan would fall outside the scope of that armed conflict. Another critical issue was the status of Osama bin Laden under the law of armed conflict.

The ICRC draws a sharp line between operational commanders and persons who assume exclusively political, administrative or other non-combatant functions. Mere financiers and propagandists are also not considered as members of an organized armed group. A factual question is whether his role changed during the time he resided in his compound in Abbottabad see the discussion in Section 5A. From a legal perspective, it is also highly controversial whether bin Laden theoretically could have regained protection under IHL. According to the ICRC, the loss of protection lasts for as long as a person remains a member of an organized armed group.

Moreover, the ICRC advances the view that membership begins in the moment when a continuous combat function is de facto assumed and lasts until it is given up. According to this view, it is necessary to disassociate from the group in a concrete, objectively verifiable manner based on standards of good faith. In the case of Osama bin Laden, such disengagement never happened. Even if bin Laden was a legitimate target in the armed conflict with Al Qaeda, there was some discussion about the hypothetical issue of surrender.

In this case, the person is considered to be hors de combat and shall not be made the object of an attack. The acceptance of a declaration of surrender will usually depend on whether there is clear evidence of a genuine intent. IHL, however, does not precisely regulate how surrender may be accomplished in practical terms. It is generally assumed that the operating forces need not incur any risk to their own safety and security. Whether it is feasible to accept an offer of surrender depends on the circumstances of the situation.

In the present case, it had to be assumed that bin Laden would offer strong resistance and could probably use a hidden weapon or activate an explosive device. According to one of the SEAL members, bin Laden had roughly 15 minutes time to strap on a suicide vest or get a gun. In the reality of a combat situation, such an assessment may have to be made within a split second and can only be judged on the basis of the information available at the relevant moment and not ex post. For the time being, the international effort to curb Islamist terrorism will be focused to a large extent on the threat posed by ISIL. While the hostilities in these two countries clearly fall under the category of an armed conflict, it is most likely that the threat posed by ISIL will proliferate to other regions and that the USA will have to combat certain elements of that group also in areas where it is less clear whether the law of armed conflict actually applies.

We will find you eventually. Operation Neptune Spear was a prominent example illustrating the legal challenges of this approach. In the interest of the international rule of law, it is essential to identify the exact legal parameters applying to such operations. Many issues discussed in the present article are subject to varying interpretations of customary international law; and the Obama administration is by far the most resolute promoter of its opinio juris on the use of force. It still remains to be explored whether and to what extent the legal views expressed by the Obama administration are shared by other states.

Most governments, however, are fairly reluctant to publicly convey their positions on such sensitive matters. If states disagree, they should make their concerns and protest clearly heard on the international stage to maintain some influence on the evolution of the future legal framework for transnational counterterrorism operations. In the context of international terrorism, this principle has found expression in several conventions on combating terrorism, such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Or perhaps the individual is himself an operative, in the midst of actually training for or planning to carry out attacks against U.

Or perhaps the individual possesses unique operational skills that are being leveraged in a planned attack. The purpose of a strike against a particular individual is to stop him before he can carry out his attack and kill innocents. The purpose is to disrupt his plans and his plots before they come to fruition. See also Alston n This definition has been adapted by other international courts and bodies and has been integrated into various military manuals. Technically, a valid consent precludes the wrongfulness of an act in relation to the consenting state to the extent that the act remains within the limits of that consent.

While a valid consent may permit the use of force within the sovereign sphere of another state, it does not relieve the intervening state from its duty to respect IHL and applicable international human rights law. The legal experts taking part in the two-day workshop held at Chatham House agreed that during the period between and there were multiple parallel and overlapping non-international armed conflicts in Yemen see p 29 of the paper. The laws of armed conflict require acceptance of a genuine offer of surrender that is clearly communicated by the surrendering party and received by the opposing force, under circumstances where it is feasible for the opposing force to accept that offer of surrender. But where that is not the case, those laws authorize use of lethal force against an enemy belligerent, under the circumstances presented here.

State practice, however, does not support the assertion that these principles impose additional restrictions beyond what is already regulated with regard to means and methods of warfare on a conflict party when attacking persons who qualify as lawful targets ie combatants, members of organized armed groups and civilians taking a direct part in hostilities. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. He mitigates systemic, persistent and pervasive barriers by providing innovations in processes, systems and products that dramatically improve the impact and reach of higher education.

Katherine Maher has spent her career at the intersection of technology, human rights, democracy and international development. Previously, she was advocacy director for the international digital rights organization Access, where she worked on global policy issues related to freedom of expression, access to information and privacy. She is a fellow at the Truman National Security Project, and her writings on human rights, technology and foreign policy have appeared in various publications, including the book State Power 2.

Hrishikesh Hirway is a musician, songwriter and music producer. He helped launch Google's first original podcast and has executive produced original podcasts for Mailchimp. He also serves the Library of Congress as an advisor on digital strategy. Called a "gifted storyteller and deep thinker" by the New York Times , Steven Johnson is a leading authority on innovation. His books, podcasts and television series have explored the stories of some of the most crucial breakthroughs in the history of health, medicine and technology.

As a filmmaker, Parker's short films and music videos have received over 80 awards and distinctions. After spending seven weeks atop the charts, "Truth Hurts" became the longest running number one by a solo female rap artist in history. She kicked off with a showstopping opening performance at the 62nd Grammy Awards, took home three big wins and was the most nominated artist of the year. Greg Brockman is the cofounder and CTO of OpenAI, a research and deployment company whose mission is to ensure that general-purpose artificial intelligence benefits all of humanity.

As an editor at the Whole Earth Review, Wired magazine and the Cool Tools podcast and website, Kevin Kelly shares other people's concepts, views and ideas. He is also the author of bestselling book The Inevitable , a photobook called Vanishing Asia and Recomendo , a weekly newsletter. He is a raging optimist who believes that the only way to steer technology is to use it. Previously, he was an associate director of the Young Vic and a member of the United Theaters Europe for artistic achievement.

He is currently creating a show for Riksteatern Theater in Stockholm and writing a new play for the National Theatre in London. Zuabi has written and directed extensively for festivals and theaters around the world, including pieces such as I am Yusuf, Three Days of Grief and Grey Rock. Her research centers on the origins of life, early evolution, life in the universe and the molecular mechanisms of evolution. Alex Smith played college football at Utah, where he was recognized as an All-American and led his team to victory in the Fiesta Bowl. In , he joined the Kansas City Chiefs, where he guided the team to four playoff runs and one postseason victory, their first since He received three Pro Bowl selections during his Chiefs tenure and led the league in passer rating for Smith was traded to the Washington Football Team in During his first season with Washington, he suffered a life-threatening injury to his right leg that nearly resulted in amputation.

Although he was expected to never play again, he completed a lengthy rehabilitation process and started as quarterback in , leading Washington to an NFC East division title and earning him NFL Comeback Player of the Year. He retired after his incredible recovery, regarded as one of the greatest comebacks in NFL history. Home Program Speakers Partners. Program Learn more about the astonishing group of speakers who will share bold ideas, tough truths and jaw-dropping creative visions at TED.

TEDMonterey program. Sun Aug 1. Actor, singer. Soulful singer Tyrone Davis, Jr. Jamil Zaki Research psychologist. Ross Activist, professor, public intellectual. A professor at Smith College, Loretta J. Ross educates people on how to counter call-out culture in schools, businesses and relationships. Liam Young Director, production designer, architect. Liam Young is a speculative architect, production designer and director who operates in the spaces between design, fiction and futures.

Wendy MacNaughton Illustrator, graphic journalist. An illustrator and graphic journalist with a background in social work, Wendy MacNaughton believes drawing is an essential tool to help everyone -- young and old -- slow down, look closely and connect with one another. Adam Grant Organizational psychologist. Welcome party Come together on the first night of the conference to celebrate all things TEDMonterey! Your chance to catch up with old friends and make new connections over food, drinks, poetry and music.

Session 2: Mindset reset Hosted by Helen Walters. Stephanie Kelton Economist, author. Stephanie Kelton is a leading authority on "Modern Monetary Theory," a new approach to economics that seeks to liberate global policymakers. Trebor Scholz Activist, author, scholar. Jenny Scheinman Violinist, fiddler, singer, songwriter. Violinist Jenny Scheinman grew up on a homestead in Northern California and has been performing since she was a teenager.

Nels Cline Guitarist. A guitar polymath, Nels Cline's recording and performing career spans jazz, rock, punk and experimental music. Todd Sickafoose Bassist, composer. Todd Sickafoose straddles the worlds of folk, indie rock, jazz and chamber music. Saad Bhamla Curiosity-driven scientist. Saad Bhamla studies biomechanics across species to engineer knowledge and tools that inspire curiosity. Jennifer Aaker Behavioral scientist. Jennifer Aaker researches the intersection of technology and human behavior. She's a professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Naomi Bagdonas Corporate strategist, designer.

Naomi Bagdonas is a corporate strategist who has spent her career straddling the worlds of business and improv comedy. Bozoma Saint John is the global chief marketing officer at Netflix. Session 3: Well, well, well! Hosted by Chris Anderson. She leads the clinical development of "Project Lightspeed," the company's successful effort to develop and distribute an mRNA-based vaccine against COVID, a historic achievement completed in less than one year. Whitehead Engineer, teacher, innovator. Krosoczka Author, illustrator. Krosoczka creates stories with humor, heart and deep respect for young readers. Ian Kerner Psychotherapist. Ian Kerner is a licensed psychotherapist, nationally recognized sexuality counselor and best-selling author.

Li-Huei Tsai Professor, neuroscientist. Li-Huei Tsai investigates disorders of memory and cognition at the cellular and molecular level, especially neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Nabiha Saklayen Biotech entrepreneur. Nabiha Saklayen is the CEO and cofounder of Cellino, where she works to make personalized cell therapies accessible for all. Each TED Fellow was selected for their remarkable achievements, the potential impact of their work and their commitment to community building.

Daniel Alexander Jones Performance artist, writer, professor. Daniel Alexander Jones creates unique and ritualistic dramatic experiences through music, monologue and improvisation by channeling Jomama Jones, a mystical alter ego. Tom Osborn Mental health innovator. Lester Dermatologist. Lester is working to fix dermatology's problem with skin color. Alicia Chong Rodriguez Health care technology entrepreneur. Jim Chuchu Filmmaker, cultural innovator. Lei Li Medical imaging innovator. TED Fellow Lei Li is improving medical imaging that can track the progress of diseases, such as cancer, that can otherwise go undetected.

Nithya Ramanathan Technologist. Discovery Sessions Discovery Sessions take ideas from the mainstage one step further, letting you interact, learn and connect with other TEDsters. Lean into meaningful conversations, inspiring workshops and local activities! Session 4: Climate hope Hosted by Chris Anderson. Duarte Marine scientist. Duarte researches the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems -- and develops nature-based solutions to mitigate them.

Maria Gallucci Journalist. Maria Gallucci is an energy and environment reporter in New York City. Susan Graham Environmentalist, entrepreneur. Susan Graham works to restore biodiversity to Earth's natural ecosystems. Isha Datar Cellular agriculture ecosystem builder. A pioneer of cellular agriculture, Isha Datar is driven by a passion to see transformative technology create a better world. Ma Jun Environmentalist, writer, scholar.

Ma Jun developed the China Pollution Map, China's first environmental public database, and the Blue Map, a mobile app that helps the public report environmental violations. Jamie C. Beard Technologist, climate activist. Environmentalist Jamie C. Dinner: Table Talks Take part in inspired conversation over dinner and spend the evening discussing a shared topic of interest with a handful of other TEDsters. Topics include: - Technology for good - Health and wellness - Business systems with impact - Creativity in action. Session 5: Tech comeback?!

Zach King Filmmaker. Zach King runs a film studio in Los Angeles focused on making films that surprise, uplift and spark imagination. Steven Pinker Psychologist. Steven Pinker is a professor of cognitive science the study of the human mind who writes about language, mind and human nature. After a long career in journalism and publishing, Chris Anderson became the curator of the TED Conference in and has developed it as a platform for identifying and disseminating ideas worth spreading. Jeff Dean Computer systems developer. Wang Coder, artist, organizer, writer. Wang is the creative director at Logic Magazine, where they work on community-based and public art projects, data visualization, ecology and education.

Kayvon Tehranian Creative technologist. Kayvon Tehranian is the CEO and founder of Foundation, a platform that enables creators to use blockchain to monetize their work and build new connections with collectors. Ryan Phelan Biotech entrepreneur, conservation innovator. Session 6: Urban possibility Hosted by Helen Walters.

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