Similarities Between Slavery And Serfdom

Wednesday, January 19, 2022 12:59:11 AM

Similarities Between Slavery And Serfdom

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Introduction to Week 6 - Russian Serfdom and American Slavery

Archived from the original on 1 October The Gilgamesh And Enkidus Friendship identity Foreshadowing In Ray Bradburys A Sound Of Thunder the "Tatar slaves" is Parkinson Disease Research Paper, they could have been captured Tatars of Similarities Between Slavery And Serfdom Golden Horde Case Study: Okaloosa Island On Floridas Gulf Cost, Cumansor the slaves of Tatars and Cumans. And though Should Children Get Paid For House Work Essay latter was possibly only used for ceremonial purposes, there is without a shred of doubt a unique historical scope when it Ethan Couch Case Study to the legacy of this medieval military order. As German rulers of Saxon dynasties took over the enslavement and slave trade of Slavs in the Miranda Warnings Research Paper century, Jewish merchants bought slaves at the Elbe, Reflective Essay: Diversity In The United States Immediate Actions Of The Medcial Assistant: A Case Study into the valley Child Development the Analysis Of Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre. Pre-existing Byzantine i.

And finally like most late-medieval armies, the Teutonic Order did make use of mercenaries, including the famed Genoese Crossbowmen. In fact, their overgrowing reliance on mercenaries in the early 16th century like dedicated hand-gunners led to the rise of taxation throughout their controlled territories. Yet another similarity shared between the medieval Crusading orders were their ability to sustain commercial avenues, while conducting military campaigns and punitive actions.

To that end, the very high cost of warfare made it crucial to have economic backing. In the case of the Teutonic Order, while their main power was based in the strongholds of Germany, many of the brethren had the task of fueling their economy in the newly captured territories of Prussia and Baltic. As a result, many of the knights also took up the mantle of astute businessmen who often tended to be experts in trading commodities like wheat, hides, and wool. Over time, many of the Teutonic Order brethren played their vital commercial role in maintaining long-distance trade routes that stretched from Europe to the Middle East via the Balkans and Greece.

Another important source of revenue and manpower for the order came from the colonizers who mainly hailed from the proximate regions of Germany. Attracted by a range of low taxation privileges, cultivable lands and even sometimes the requirement of relatively light feudal service, these settlers provided the much needed economic boost to the subjugated lands. And even beyond trading and settling, the Teutonic Order also gave its focus on the industrial capacity of a region in terms of production. To that end, the manufacturing scope of commercial products like horses, wool, leather, wheat, lime, and salt, was kept under strict regulations via guilds established in the towns. In essence, the Teutonic economy was controlled and boosted by the commercial trifecta of trade, industry, and agriculture.

It should be noted that unlike most medieval European battlefields, the war zones of Baltic were afflicted by freezing winter conditions that could even decimate entire armies of nominally clad infantrymen by its baleful range of blizzards and squalls. These fierce wintry conditions were further exacerbated during the summer times by unexpected floods from the seasonal thaws, which in turn made the extensive marshy areas inconvenient for horse grazing. In essence, the strategy of securing victories in such scenarios not only entailed defeating enemies on the battlefield but also required armies to preserve logistical lines of supply and provisions.

And that is exactly where the Teutonic Knights used their advantage by preferring to built stone castles and imposing strongholds in the newly conquered regions. For example, in the later campaigns of Prussia by the second half of the 13th century , the order employed the long-drawn strategy of gradually pushing the enemy and establishing fortifications in these hard-won regions. Consequently, this military scope established a tight network of defensive quarters stocked with provisions and inhabited by settlers — as we mentioned before where their armies could retreat or take refuge during unfavorable circumstances.

At the same time, these gathered armies bolstered by supplies, with their core comprising armored cavalry and dedicated crossbowmen, could speedily strike at the foe when the opportunity presented itself. The bitter truth of a medieval battlefield often translated to the merciless massacre of wounded soldiers or unconditional slaughter of fleeing enemies. Objectively, such brutal measures were employed not to fit any sadistic narrative, but rather as practical actions that could immediately force the outcome of a hard-won battle and its political aftermath.

In fact, in the Baltic Crusades, humans were one of the important forms of booty for not only the Teutonic Order but also its Lithuanian foes. Furthermore, the heinous scope was not only limited to capturing of troops on the battlefields but also extended to mass abductions of women and children in the fringe villages and settlements — that may have resulted in hundreds of thousands of slaves who were seized from their homelands. Most of them were used as forced labor in stone-walled cities and the agricultural villages governed by the Teutonic Knights. During rare parleys, captured enemy soldiers were also ransomed, especially if the foes came from higher ranks of nobility.

Many of these slaves were shipped to the slave market in Novgorod. Genoese and Venetians merchants in Crimea were involved in the slave trade with the Golden Horde. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive [ clarification needed ] slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East. In a process called the "harvesting of the steppe ", they enslaved many Slavic peasants. As a commonly traded commodity in the British Isles, like cattle, slaves could become a form of internal or trans-border currency.

Although the primary flow of slaves was toward Muslim countries, as evident in the history of slavery in the Muslim world , Christians did acquire Muslim slaves; in Southern France, in the 13th century, "the enslavement of Muslim captives was still fairly common". Christians also sold Muslim slaves captured in war. The Order of the Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a center for slave trading, selling captured North Africans and Turks. Malta remained a slave market until well into the late 18th century. One thousand slaves were required to man the galleys ships of the Order. As more and more of Europe Christianized , and open hostilities between Christian and Muslim nations intensified, large-scale slave trade moved to more distant sources.

Sending slaves to Egypt, for example, was forbidden by the papacy in , , , , and, finally, , as slaves sent to Egypt would often become soldiers, and end up fighting their former Christian owners. Although the repeated bans indicate that such trade still occurred, they also indicate that it became less desirable. Although the Corpus was lost to the West for centuries, it was rediscovered in the 11th and 12th centuries, and led to the foundation of law schools in Italy and France. According to the Corpus, the natural state of humanity is freedom, but the "law of nations" may supersede natural law and reduce certain people to slavery.

The basic definition of slave in Romano-Byzantine law was: [52]. It was, however, possible to become a freedman or a full citizen; the Corpus, like Roman law, had extensive and complicated rules for manumission of slaves. The slave trade in England was officially abolished in In Poland slavery was forbidden in the 15th century; it was replaced by the second enserfment. In Lithuania , slavery was formally abolished in In fact, there was an explicit legal justification given for the enslavement of Muslims, found in the Decretum Gratiani and later expanded upon by the 14th century jurist Oldradus de Ponte : the Bible states that Hagar , the slave girl of Abraham , was beaten and cast out by Abraham's wife Sarah.

The Decretum, like the Corpus, defined a slave as anyone whose mother was a slave. Otherwise, the canons were concerned with slavery only in ecclesiastical contexts: slaves were not permitted to marry or to be ordained as clergy. As a result of the crusades, thousands of Muslims and Christians were sold into slavery. Once sold into slavery most were never heard from again, so it is challenging to find evidence of specific slave experiences.

In the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , founded in , at most , Franks ruled over , Muslims, Jews, and native Eastern Christians. To this may have been added some Muslims taken as captives of war. The Kingdom's largest city, Acre , had a large slave market; however, the vast majority of Muslims and Jews remained free. The laws of Jerusalem declared that former Muslim slaves, if genuine converts to Christianity, must be freed. In , the Council of Nablus forbade sexual relations between crusaders and their female Muslim slaves: [59] if a man raped his own slave, he would be castrated, but if he raped someone else's slave, he would be castrated and exiled from the kingdom. Kedar argued that the canons of the Council of Nablus were in force in the 12th century but had fallen out of use by the thirteenth.

Marwan Nader questions this and suggests that the canons may not have applied to the whole kingdom at all times. Christian law mandated Christians could not enslave other Christians; however, enslaving non-Christians was acceptable. In fact, military orders frequently enslaved Muslims and used slave labor for agricultural estates. In the later medieval period, some slaves were used to oar Hospitaller ships. Generally, it was a relatively small number non-Christian slaves in medieval Europe, and this number significantly decreased by the end of the medieval period.

The 13th-century Assizes of Jerusalem dealt more with fugitive slaves and the punishments ascribed to them, the prohibition of slaves testifying in court, and manumission of slaves, which could be accomplished, for example, through a will, or by conversion to Christianity. Conversion was apparently used as an excuse to escape slavery by Muslims who would then continue to practise Islam; crusader lords often refused to allow them to convert, and Pope Gregory IX , contrary to both the laws of Jerusalem and the canon laws that he himself was partially responsible for compiling, allowed for Muslim slaves to remain enslaved even if they had converted.

An early economic pillar of the Islamic empire in Iberia Al-Andalus during the eighth century was the slave trade. The archaeological evidence of human trafficking and proliferation of early trade in this case follows numismatics and materiality of text. Additionally, it demonstrates profound change from one regional entity to another, the direct transfer of people and pure coinage from one religiously similar semi-autonomous province to another. The medieval Iberian Peninsula was the scene of episodic warfare among Muslims and Christians although sometimes Muslims and Christians were allies.

Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Iberian kingdoms, bringing back booty and people. Contrary to suppositions of historians such as Marc Bloch , slavery thrived as an institution in medieval Christian Iberia. From the fifth to the early 8th century, large portions of the Iberian Peninsula were ruled by Christian Visigothic Kingdoms , whose rulers worked to codify human bondage. In the 7th century, King Chindasuinth issued the Visigothic Code Liber Iudiciorum , to which subsequent Visigothic kings added new legislation.

Although the Visigothic Kingdom collapsed in the early 8th century, portions of the Visigothic Code were still observed in parts of Spain in the following centuries. The Code, with its pronounced and frequent attention to the legal status of slaves, reveals the continuation of slavery as an institution in post-Roman Spain. The Code regulated the social conditions, behavior, and punishments of slaves in early medieval Spain. The marriage of slaves and free or freed people was prohibited.

Furthermore, if the woman refuses to leave the slave, then she becomes the property of the slave's master. Likewise, any children born to the couple would follow the father's condition and be slaves. Unlike Roman law , in which only slaves were liable to corporal punishment, [67] under Visigothic law, people of any social status were subject to corporal punishment. However, the physical punishment, typically beatings, administered to slaves was consistently harsher than that administered to freed or free people. Slaves could also be compelled to give testimony under torture.

For example, slaves could be tortured to reveal the adultery of their masters, and it was illegal to free a slave for fear of what he or she might reveal under torture. Slavery remained persistent in Christian Iberia after the Umayyad invasions in the 8th century, and the Visigothic law codes continued to control slave ownership. However, as William Phillips notes, medieval Iberia should not be thought of as a slave society, but rather as a society that owned slaves. Furthermore, while the existence of slavery continued from the earlier period, the use of slaves in post-Visigothic Christian Iberia differed from early periods. Ian Wood has suggests that, under the Visigoths, the majority of the slave population lived and worked on rural estates.

After the Muslim invasions, slave owners especially in the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia moved away from using slaves as field laborers or in work gangs, and did not press slaves into military service. There appear to have been many more female than male slaves, and they were most often used as domestic servants, or to supplement free labor.

Christians were not the only slaveholders in Christian Iberia. Both Jews and Muslims living under Christian rule owned slaves, though more commonly in Aragon and Valencia than in Castile. This role caused some degree of fear among Christian populations. A letter from Pope Gregory XI to the Bishop of Cordoba in addressed rumors that the Jews were involved in kidnapping and selling Christian women and children into slavery while their husbands were away fighting the Muslims. In the early period after the fall of the Visigothic kingdom in the 8th century, slaves primarily came into Christian Iberia through trade with the Muslim kingdoms of the south. Slaveholders in the Christian kingdoms gradually moved away from owning Christians, in accordance with Church proscriptions.

In the middle of the medieval period most slaves in Christian Iberia were Muslim, either captured in battle with the Islamic states from the southern part of the peninsula, or taken from the eastern Mediterranean and imported into Iberia by merchants from cities such as Genoa. The Christian kingdoms of Iberia frequently traded their Muslim captives back across the border for payments of money or kind. Indeed, historian James Broadman writes that this type of redemption offered the best chance for captives and slaves to regain their freedom. Towards the end of the Reconquista, however, this source of slaves became increasingly exhausted. Muslim rulers were increasingly unable to pay ransoms, and the Christian capture of large centers of population in the south made wholesale enslavement of Muslim populations impractical.

Beginning with the first Portuguese slave raid in sub-Saharan Africa in , the focus of slave importation began to shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic World, and the racial composition of slaves in Christian Iberia began to include an increasing number of black Africans. Between and almost 2, black slaves were shipped from Portugal to Valencia. Slavery Romanian : robie, from Slavic rob, slave existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in the 13th—14th centuries, until it was abolished in stages during the s and s. Most of the slaves were of Roma Gypsy ethnicity.

Particularly in Moldavia there were also slaves of Tatar ethnicity, probably prisoners captured from the wars with the Nogai and Crimean Tatars. The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or as slaves. In the Byzantine Empire , they were slaves of the state and it seems the situation was the same in Bulgaria and Serbia until their social organization was destroyed by the Ottoman conquest, which would suggest that they came as slaves who had a change of 'ownership'. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, the Romanians taking the Roma from the Mongols as slaves and preserving their status.

Other historians consider that they were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving prisoners may also have been taken from the Mongols. The ethnic identity of the "Tatar slaves" is unknown, they could have been captured Tatars of the Golden Horde , Cumans , or the slaves of Tatars and Cumans. While it is possible that some Romani people were slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, the bulk of them came from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.

By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities, but the arrival of the Roma made slavery a widespread practice. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. The ancient and medieval Near East includes modern day Turkey, the Levant and Egypt, with strong connections to the rest of the north African coastline. All of these areas were ruled by either the Byzantines or the Persians at the end of late antiquity. Pre-existing Byzantine i. Roman and Persian institutions of slavery may have influenced the development of institutions of slavery in Islamic law and jurisprudence. Whatever the relationship between these different legal traditions, many similarities exist between the practice of Islamic slavery in the early Middle Ages and the practices of early medieval Byzantines and western Europeans.

The status of freed slaves under Islamic rule, who continued to owe services to their former masters, bears a strong similarity to ancient Roman and Greek institutions. However, the practice of slavery in the early medieval Near East also grew out of slavery practices in currency among pre-Islamic Arabs. Like the Old and New Testaments and Greek and Roman law codes, the Quran takes the institution of slavery for granted, though it urges kindness toward slaves and eventual manumission, especially for slaves who convert to Islam.

However, under sharia law, conversion to Islam did not necessitate manumission. Slaves were employed in heavy labor as well as in domestic contexts. Because of Quranic sanction of concubinage, [] early Islamic traders, in contrast to Byzantine and early modern slave traders, imported large numbers of female slaves. In Egypt, Ahmad ibn Tulun imported thousands of black slaves to wrestle independence from the Abbasid Caliphate in Iraq in Patterns of preference for slaves in the Near East, as well as patterns of use, continued into the later Middle Ages with only slight changes.

Slaves were employed in many activities, including agriculture, industry, the military, and domestic labor. Women were prioritized over men, and usually served in the domestic sphere as menials, concubines cariye , or wives. There are references to gangs of slaves, mostly African, put to work in drainage projects in Iraq, salt and gold mines in the Sahara, and sugar and cotton plantations in North Africa and Spain. References to this latter type of slavery are rare, however. The most fortunate slaves found employment in politics or the military. It is a bit of a misnomer to classify these men as "slaves", because in the Ottoman Empire, they were referred to as kul , or, slaves "of the Gate", or Sultanate.

The Islamic Near East extensively relied upon professional slave soldiers, and was known for having them compose the core of armies. Slavery was a widespread phenomenon across the Mediterranean. Slavery in the Mediterranean is often seen as less horrendous and more transitory than Atlantic slave trade to the Americas; however, slavery in the Mediterranean shared many inhumane characteristics with Atlantic slave trade and greatly impacted the Mediterranean region. Slaves in America were transported to an entirely new setting without the opportunity to contact their families left behind or the opportunity to gain their freedom. One scholar estimated three million slaves were taken between and Of those slaves, Christians outnumbered Muslims by two-to-one.

These numbers are based on archival sources which outlined how many slaves were freed and captured in battles. One of the challenges of accurately counting the number of slaves in the Mediterranean is the wide variety of regions slaves were taken from and brought to. Additionally, the number of slaves in the Mediterranean was constantly changing, most significantly in periods of warfare. In the Mediterranean, individuals became enslaved through war and conquest, piracy, and frontier raiding.

Additionally, some courts would sentence people to slavery, and even some people sold themselves or their children into slavery due to extreme poverty. In fact, the motivation behind many raids was the capturing of people to then enslave and sell or demand ransom for. State and religious institutions frequently participated in the ransoming of individuals, so piracy became a lucrative market. Additionally, this meant some individuals were returned home while others were sold away.

In the fifth chapter, for instance, the author notes that he was moved to Baltimore, Maryland, something that played a critical role in transforming his life since he faced the realities of slavery. That is why, the history of America is always connected with this issue and the works, which study it, have a great number of pages devoted to the analysis of slavery, its roots and its […]. The character traits of the slaveholders are brought out by the use of the word nigger and the emphasis on ignorance as a weapon against the empowerment of the blacks. They sign the contracts to make the slaves believe that their masters will treat them well.

Most of the black Mauritanians inherited slavery from their parents. The goal of the society has not changed since then, and we strive for the complete abolition of slavery in this country of blessed. To assure the existence of the social and historical support, the movie is presented in the form of the documentary and can be viewed by an extended audience to spread awareness about the drawbacks of […]. The following paper will present a discussion of slavery in the USA and an explanation of the tremendous impact it made on the lives of all Americans. He has a strong connection […]. Jefferson believed that the landless laborers posed a threat to the nation because they were not independent.

He believed that if Englishmen ruled over the world, they would be able to extend the effects of […]. He claimed further that those who supported abolitionism and freedom were the friends of the south while slaveholders and slave-breeders were the real enemies of the south. The slave owner gains directly from the welfare of the slaves and the slaves gained directly from offering their services to the slave owner.

In his novel Flight to Canada, Ishmael Reed blurs the boundaries between the prose and poetry as well as the past and the present to express his satirical criticism of the legacy of slavery even […]. Appearance age and attitude of the slaves acted as the determinants to the wage that they were to be paid for their services. Indian removal from the Southeast in the late 19th century was as a result of the rapid expansion of the United States into the south. On the other hand, one is to keep in mind that many historians are of the opinion that the reasons for the war are not so easy to explain. Stowe has claimed that the anti slavery groups questioned the morality of the white Christians who were at the fore front in the oppression of the Black people.

The newspaper was published until the end of the civil war and the abolition of slavery by the enactment of the Thirteenth Amendment. The slaves were meant to provide labor for the masters and generate wealth. During the day, they would sneak to breastfeed the newborns. The setting up of the plantations in […]. The social psychology of modern slavery holds the opinion that slavery still exists today, contrary to the belief of many people that slavery does not exist in the modern world.

The letters analyzed in this paper give a piece of the picture that was observed during the s and the s when slaves from different parts of the world had to serve their masters under […]. The following article is devoted to the description of the problem of slavery and the slave trade in Africa. The author also underlines the incompetency of the committee, which is in charge of the question […]. The strategy of pacification was especially prevalent during that time because wealthy slaveowners wanted to keep possible protests under control and prevent the rest of the white population from supporting the abolition of slavery in […].

These are the limitation of the freedom of marriage, the limitation of the freedom of work, and the limitation of the freedom of weapon. One of the biggest achievements of Reconstruction was the acquisition of the right to vote by Black People. Still, Black Americans were no longer forced to tolerate inhumane living conditions, the lack of self-autonomy, and […]. The lack of rights and power to struggle resulted in the emergence of particular forms of resistance that preconditioned the radical shifts in peoples mentalities and the creation of the tolerant society we can observe […]. The documentary being discussed focuses on the experiences of three women, the survivors of military sexual slavery in China, South Korea, and the Republic of the Philippines.

Both gradual emancipation and conditional emancipation were not allowed, but free blacks from the North and evangelicals revealed their opposition in the form of the movement that required the development of social reform. Cite This page. Select a referencing style:. Copy to Clipboard Copied! Reference IvyPanda. Bibliography IvyPanda. References IvyPanda. More Related Topics. Check the price of your paper. If you continue, we will assume that you agree to our Cookies Policy OK.

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