Philip Randolph Argumentative Essay
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How to Structure an Argumentative Essay
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Yellow leaves are a sign of too much water. Then place the potted plant in a sunny window and watch it grow. The more sunlight, the better; Then, when the stem is 12 inches high, cut it back to 6 inches to encourage the growth of side branches. In just a few more weeks, you will have a beautiful indoor plant. In conclusion, enjoy your new plant, but do not expect it to bear fruit. Avocados grown from seed occasionally flower and bear fruit; however, first you will have to plant it outside and then wait anywhere from five to thirteen years. I"Grow Your Own Tree. Your choice of one kind of logical order over another will, of course, depend on your topic and your purpose. You may even combine two or more different logical orders in the same paragraph.
The important point to remember is to arrange your ideas in some kind of order that is logical to a reader accustomed to the English way of writing. The model paragraph on how to grow an avocado tree page 33 uses time order to organize the steps. The model paragraph about gold on page 3 uses logical division. First, it discusses gold's beauty, and second its utility.
The paragraph about synonyms on page 5 compares and contrasts word meanings. Be able Recognizing to discuss the reasons for your choice. Circle all transition signals. Kinds of "Logical Order Paragraph 1 The process of machine translation of languages is complex. To translate a document from English into Japanese, for example, the computer first analyzes an English sentence, determining its grammatical structure and identifying the subject, verb, objects, and modifiers. Next, the words are translated by an English-Japanese dictionary. After that, another part of the computer program analyzes the resulting awkward jumble' of words and meanings and produces an intelligible sentence based on the rules of Japanese syntax 2 and the machine's understanding of what the original English sentence meant.
Finally, a human bilingual editor polishes the computer-produced translation. French meetings, for example, are long and rambling 3 and rarely end on time. Furthermore, meetings often end without closure. Another difference involves documentation. North Americans adore documentation; they have a procedure manual for everything. The French, in contrast, think this is childish. French managers find it difficult to stick to a schedule, but U. In addition, the French prefer to work alone, whereas North Americans like to work in teams. Another major difference in management style is that in French companies, authority comes from the top; French managers do not share information with subordinates and make decisions with little participation by employees beneath them.
In about B. There were more than 60 days missing from the calendar, so very soon the calendar did not match the seasons at all. Spring arrived when the calendar said that it was still winter. A few decades later, the Romans added the months of January and February to the end of the year. This calendar lasted about years. Then in 46 B. His calendar had days, with one day added every fourth year.
He also moved the beginning of the year to January 1, and he renamed a month for himself: Julius July. In Caesar's calendar, February had 29 days. The very next emperor, Augustus, not only renamed a month for himself August , but he also took one day from February and added it to August so that "his" month would be just as long as Caesar's. This calendar worked better than the previous ones, but it still was not perfect. By , the first calendrical day of spring was 10 days too early, so in , Pope Gregory XIII, the leader of the Roman Catholic religion, made a small change to make the calendar more accurate.
In the Gregorian calendar, the year is still Marin Independent Joumal30 Nov. The first kind of calendar is the lunar calendar, based on the phases of the moon. A month is calculated as the time between two full moons, The Islamic calendar used in Muslim countries is a lunar calendar. It has 12 months and a cycle of 30 years in which the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21 st, 24th, 26th, and 29th years have days, and the others days. A second kind of calendar is the solar calendar, which is based on the revolution of Earth around the sun. The ancient Egyptians used a solar calendar divided into 12 months of 30 days each, which left 5 uncounted days at the end of each year. A very accurate calendar developed by the Mayan Indians in North America was also a solar calendar.
It had days, of which were divided into 28 weeks of 13 days each. The new year began on the th day. Because the solar year is exactly days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds long, however, a solar calendar is not totally accurate, so many cultures developed a third kind of calendar, the lunisolar calendar. In a lunisolar calendar, extra days are added every so often to reconcile! The Chinese, Hebrew, and Gregorian calendars used today are lunisolar calendars. Every good paragraph has both unity and coherence. There are different types of transition signals. Each type is punctuated differently. Leap D 29th, the extra day added every four years to put th nch with the solar year. Eng and.
Accor ing to this xplanation, pe p there thought that because eap Day existed to fix a pro em in the calend r, It could also be used to fix-em old and unjust practice. In , the custo became an actual law in Scotland. Not only did the Scottish law allow wome to propose on any day during a Leap. Whatever its origins, the tradition of women taking the initiative one day a year lives on in Sadie Hawkins Day celebrations held in many communities in the United States even today.
Writing Practice Step 1 Choose one of the topics suggested and write a paragraph that is 10 to 15 sentences in length. Focus on giving your paragraph unity and Unity and Coherence coherence. Follow the steps in the writing process. See Appendix A. Step 2 After you have completed your first draft, use Self-Editing Worksheet 2 on page Revise your paragraph and write a second draft if necessary.
Step 3 Exchange papers with a classmate and check each other's paragraph using Peer-Editing Worksheet 2 on page After your classmate has completed the checklist, discuss it and decide what changes you should make. Step 5 Hand in your first draft, your second draft, your final copy, and the page containing the two editing worksheets. Topic Suggestions The influence of birth order on personality One or two place s a visitor to your country should not miss The disadvantages of being left-handed A fad, fashion, or activity of your generation that drives an older generation crazy An interesting custom or special celebration from your culture PRACTI CE 13 Choose one of the topics listed below and write a well-organized paragraph.
Try to use a specific example to support your Writing under topic sentence. You get these kinds of supporting details from outside sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, Web sites, personal interviews, and so on. Opinions First, it is important to distinguish between facts and opinions. Opinions are sub- jective statements based on a person's beliefs or attitudes. Men are better drivers than women. Smoking is a bad habit. English is an easy language to learn.
Part 1 I Writing a Paragraph Opinions are not acceptable as support. It is certainly acceptable to express opinions in academic writing. In fact, most professors want you to express your own ideas. However, you may not use an opinion as support, and if you express an opinion, you must support it with facts. Facts are objective statements of truths.
At sea level, water boils at degrees Celsius. Women live longer than men. Cigarettes are addictive. Sometimes even facts need proof. While all three statements above are facts, the last two need proof. Your readers may not believe that women live longer than men, or they may not agree that cigarettes are addictive. You have to use specific suppOli- ing details to prove that these statements are true facts. Kinds of specific supporting details include examples, statistics, and quotations. The first three have been done for you as examples.
F-NP 1. People who steal identities do a lot of damage before their victims become aware of it. The writer could give an example of a person who was victilnized before noticing it. Punishment for identity thieves is not severe enough. The writer could give an example of a typical punishment. Identity theft is more serious than any other type of theft. Identity theft is increasing at a rapid pace. In , 31, cases of identity theft were reported to the Federal Trade Commission FTC ; in , the number was , Most people do not report identity theft to the police. In , 60 percent of identity theft victims did not notify the police, according to the FTC. Identity theft happens to ordinary people, not just to the wealthy. As grocery clerk Sue Jamison reported, "My wallet was stolen, and within a week, the thieves had ordered an expensive cell phone package, applied for a VISA credit card, and received a PIN from the Department of Motor Vehicles to change my driving record online.
It is easy for a thief to use the U. Postal Service to steal identities. For example, thieves steal credit card statements from mailboxes, and then send a change-of-address card to the postal service to have future statements sent to a different address. Most victims of identity theft are young adults. The Federal Trade Commission reports that there were more victims in the age group than in any other group. The police should do more to protect citizens from identity theft. Most identity thieves operate in large, organized gangs.
Using Outside Sources Where can you find specific supporting details to support your ideas? For some assignments, you may be able to use examples from your own personal experience, or you may be able to gather quotations and statistics by performing an experiment, taking a survey, or interviewing people. For other assignments, you may have to look for outside sources by researching your topic in a library or on the Internet.
There are three ways to insert outside information into your own writing: 1 You can quote it, 2 you can summarize it, or 3 you can paraphrase it. You will learn to use quotations in this chapter. In Chapter 8, you will learn to summarize and paraphrase. It is important to learn how to use information from outside sources without com- mitting plagiarism. Plagiarism is using someone else's words or ideas as ifthey were your own, and it is a serious offense. Students who plagiarize may fail a class or even be expelled from school. When you use information from an outside source without acknowledging that source, you are guilty of plagiarism.
One way to avoid plagiarism is to always put quotation marks around words that you copy exactly. You do not need to use quotation marks if you change the words. You are also guilty of plagiarism if you fail to cite the source of outside infonnation-words or ideas-that you use. To cite a source means to tell where you got the infonnation. Sources 1. Insert a short reference in parentheses at the end of each piece of borrowed information. This short reference is called an in-text citation. Prepare a list describing all your sources completely. This list is titled "Works Cited" and appears as the last page of your paper. Here is an example of an in-text citation and of its corresponding entry in a works-cited list.
Notice the position and punctuation of the citation-at the end of the last sentence of the borrowed information, before the final period. There was no author. The date 26 Feb. More complete information on how to write in-text citations and works-cited lists is found in Appendix E: Research and Documentation of Sources. Quotations Quotations from reliable and knowledgeable sources are good supporting details. There are two kinds of quotations: direct and indirect. In a direct quotation, you copy another person's exact words spoken or written and enclose them in quotation marks. In an indirect quotation, you report the person's words without quotation marks, but with a reporting expression such as according to XYZ.
Direct Read the following model and notice how direct quotations are used to support Ouotations the topic sentence. Notice that a quotation can be a complete sentence or several sentences or a short phrase. Also notice the punctuation of each quotation. Michael Kar. Which sentence states the main idea of the first paragraph? What direct quotation suppOlis it? What phrase introduces the quotation? What is the main idea in the second paragraph? What three direct quotations support it? What verbs introduce the quotations in the second paragraph? Explain the in-text citation at the end of the second paragraph. How can you tell? Reporting To introduce borrowed information-direct quotations, indirect quotations, or Verbs and statistics-use the phrase according to or a reporting verb such as the following: Phrases assert insist report suggest claim maintain say write declare mention state IHerper, Matthew.
The fonn of this in-text citation shows that the words in quotation marks are from paragraph 4 of an online article written by a person whose last name is Herper. The form of this citation means that the words in quotation marks were spoken by Dr. Michael Karsten and were quoted on page 62 of an article written by two people named Bamberger and Yaeger. Reporting verbs can appear before, in the middle of, or after bon'owed information. The reporting phrase according to usually appears before or after but not in the middle.
One young bicyclist says, "To win in world-class competition, you have to take drugs" Jones. According to one young bicyclist, athletes have to take drugs to win Jones. Athletes have to take drugs to win, according to one young bicyclist Jones. Reporting verbs can be used either with or without the subordinator as. As one writer says when discussing the case of an Olympic medallist who unknowingly took a banned drug, "The human body, of course, doesn't distinguish intentional use from inadvertent exposure. One writer says when discussing the case of an Olympic medallist who unknowingly took a banned drug, "The human body, of course, doesn't distinguish intentional use from inadvertent exposure.
Reporting verbs can be in any tense. However, be aware that a past tense reporting verb may cause changes in verbs, pronouns, and time expressions in an indirect quotation. See Sequence of Tenses Rules on page Some critics claimed that the International Olympic Committee had been lax on enforcement of drug bans " Olympics," par. Including the source of the bon'owed information with the reporting expression gives authority to your writing because it lets your reader know immediately that your information is from a credible source. The institute of Global Ethics warns, "The Olympics could well become just another money-drenched media promotion in which contestants will be motivated less by athletic glory than by lucrative future contracts" Kidder, par.
Chapter 3 I Supporting Details: Facts, Quotations, and Statistics 45 punctuating Follow these generalmles for punctuating direct quotations. Direct 1. Do not use quotation marks with paraphrases, summaries, or indirect quotations. Normally, place commas and periods before the first mark and also before the second mark in a pair of quotation marks. According to Sports Illustrated, "Eliminating drug use from Olympic sports would be no small challenge. Charles Yesalis believes that "a large percentage" of athletes who have set new records have done so with the help of performance-enhancing drugs qtd. The Institute of Global Ethics warns, "The Olympics could well become just another money-drenched media promotion in which contestants will be motivated less by athletic glory than by lucrative future contracts" Kidder, par.
Capitalize the first word of the quotation as well as the first word of the sentence. Donald Catlin, director of a drug-testing lab eat UCLA, stated, "The sophisticated athlete who wants to take drugs has switched to things we can't test for" qtd. If you break a quoted sentence into two parts, enclose both parts in quotation marks and separate the pal1S with commas. Capitalize only the first word of the sentence. Donald Catlin, director of a drug-testing lab at UCLA, "has switched to things we can't test for" qtd. If you omit words, use an ellipsis three spaced periods. According to a article in Sports Illustrated, "The use of steroids has spread to almost every sport, from major league baseball to college basketball to high school football" Bamberger and Yaeger If you add words, put square brackets around the words you have added.
One athlete declared, "The testers know that the [drug] gurus are smarter than they are" qtd. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. A young athlete openly admitted, "My ethical inner voice tells me, 'Don't use drugs,' but my competitive inner voice says, 'You can't win if you don't'" Jones. If your quotation is four lines or longer, do not use quotation marks. Introduce this type of quotation with a colon and indent it one inch from the left-hand margin. A national news agency reported these shocking survey results: Several years ago [when] athletes were asked if they would take a performance-enhancing drug if they knew they would NOT be caught and they would win, said they would take the drug.
The second question revealed a more frightening scenario. The athletes were asked if they would take a drug that would ensure they would win every competition for five years and wouldn't get caught, but the side effects would kill them-more than HALF said they would take the drug " Olympics," par. For more examples showing the use of quotation marks, see pages in Appendix B. Punctuating Direct Quotations 1. Yixuan Ma, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said they are the most interesting phenomena we astrophysicists have ever studied. As she explained in black holes the laws of nature do not seem to apply. A black hole is a tiny point with the mass 25 times the mass of our sun explained Ma's associate, Chun-Yi Suo Black holes are created by the death of a very large star she stated.
It is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space she added with tremendous gravitational pull. According to Dr. Su, if a person falls into a black hole, he will eventually be crushed due to the tremendous gravitational forces. Time will slow down for him as he approaches the point of no return she said and when he reaches the point of no return, time will stand still for him. For this reason, indirect quotations are sometimes called reported speech. Indirect quotations are introduced by the same reporting verbs used for direct quotations, and the word that is often added for clarity. The tense of verbs in indirect quotations is affected by the tense of the reporting verb.
Compare the following model with the second paragraph of the model for direct quotations on page Notice the changes that occur when you rewrite direct quo- tations as indirect quotations. Note: The same sentence numbers are used to help you compare the two para- graphs. Drugs and the Olympic Games 2? Michael Karsten, a Dutch physician who said he had prescribed anabolic steroids to hundreds of world-class athletes, stated that if [athletes] were especially gifted, [they] might win once, but from his experience [they] couldn't continue to win without drugs. Underline the verbs said and stated in sentence 6. What tense are these verbs? Underline the verbs in the indirect quotations following these two verbs.
Compare them with the same verbs in the model on page Are they in the same or a different tense? Compare sentence 7 in both models. What has been added to sentence 7 in the model for indirect quotations? How did the verb in the quotation change? In sentence 6, why are the words athletes and they in square brackets? Compare sentence 9 in both models. Did any words change? Changing Direct Ouotatiom; to lndirect Ouotatiom; To change a direct quotation to an indirect quotation: 1. Omit the quotation marks. Add the subordinator that. You may omit that if the meaning is clear without it. Change the verb tense if necessary. Follow the sequence of tenses rules. Change pronouns and time expressions if necessary to keep the sense of the original.
Also, pronouns and sometimes time expres- sions may change. Simple past and present She said, "We didn't have She said that they hadn't pertect change to past time to eat breakfast. He said, "The exam has He said that the exam just started. Will changes to would, Sam mentioned, "Today I will Sam mentioned that today can to could, may to might, eat Chinese food, and he would eat Chinese food and must to had to. Time expressions may The teacher said, "You must The teacher said that we change if the meaning finish the test right now.
He says, "I can finish it today. The lawyer said, "My client is innocent. He said, "Water boils at a lower temperature in the mountains. For additional examples of indirect quotations, look at Chapter Noun Clauses. Changing Direct 1. Television channel KSA General Manager Jim Bums said, "Not everyone Quotations can attend college in the traditional way; therefore, taking courses via to Indirect television will offer many more students the chance to earn a college Quotations degree.
Pre-med student Alma Rodriguez said, "I miss being on campus, but I have to work and take care of my family. Other students said, "Last year, we spent several hours a day commuting to and from school. Now we don't have to do that. Computer engineering student Amir Mehdizadeh stated, "I can choose when to study and how to study without pressure. Use the quotations for support.
You may use them either as direct or as indirect quota- Using Quotations as Support tions. Include some additional supporting sentences and transition signals to connect the ideas and make your paragraph flow smoothly. Step 1 Copy the topic sentence exactly as it is given. Step 2 Write several supporting sentences, using the main points and quotations supplied. Add supporting details such as examples if you can. Use the techniques and rules you have learned for direct and indirect quotations. Step 3 Add an in-text citation in the proper format after each direct and indirect quotation.
The book was published in New York by a company named Wexler in Completed Paragraph The increased use of computers in business has been accompanied by a costly increase in computer crime. The losses to victims of computer crimes are very high. In her book Cybercrime. Computer criminals steal not only money but also information. For example, they steal confidential business records, customer lists, and corporate plans. As Bruce stated, "It is not just the money they steal; they steal data, and data is power" QUOTATION "It has been estimated that the information-processing capacity of even the most powerful supercomputer is equal to the nervous system of a snail-a tiny fraction of the power available to the supercomputer inside the human skull.
The article appeared on pages of the news magazine U. Study the graph and then read the paragraph that uses data from it. Notice the reporting verb that gives the source of information. As you do with quotations, you must also cite the source of statisti- cal data. Underline the topic sentence of the paragraph. What is the source of the statistics that are used to support this idea? What reporting expression is used to identify this source? Population Reference Bureau. The graph appeared on page I.
Then complete the paragraph about world energy con- sumption by filling in the blanks with information from the graphs. World Marketed Energy. Figure 2. According to 1 , world energy consumption has been steadily 2. Currently, the nations of the world use between 3 and 4 quadrillion Btu British thermal units annually. Developing nations consumed approximately the same amount of energy as 9 until 10 , when the energy use of developing nations began to By 12 , it is projected that their use will nearly equal that of 13 "International" Energy Information Administration.
Both graphs appeared on page Chapter 3 I Supporting Details: Facts, Ouotations, and Statistics 53 riting Practice Choose one of the graphs that follow below and on page 54, and write a paragraph explaining its significance. Step 1 Decide what main idea the graph illustrates, and write this idea as a topic sentence. Step 2 Write five to ten supporting statements, using the statistical information shown in the graphs. Step 3 Use a reporting verb or phrase to identify the source of your statistics.
Step 4 Write an in-text citation in the proper form at the end of your paragraph. Graph 1. Tax payments are based on tax rates and do not incorporate the federal income reductions. Source: U. The bars in this graph show median eamings at each level of education. The color segments represellt the average federal, state, and local taxes paid at these income levels. The black segmellts show after-tax income.
Baum, Sandy, and Kathleen Payea. College Board Online. The graph appeared on page In academic writing, you are expected to use infonnation from outside sources to support your ideas. Keep in mind that the U. Use outside sources to support your own ideas. Don't write a paper that contains only the ideas of others. Search for specific supporting details in the library or on the Internet. Do not use quotation marks. Don't just drop a quotation or a statistic into your paper. Make the connection between the borrowed infonnation and your idea clear..
Cite your sources to avoid plagiarizing. ISource of data: Day, Sherri. It is about one topic, just as a paragraph is. However, because the topic of an essay is too complex to discuss in one paragraph, you need to divide it into several paragraphs, one for each major point. Then you need to tie the paragraphs together by adding an introduction and a conclusion. Writing an essay is no more difficult than writing a paragraph except that an essay is longer.
The principles of organization are the same for both, so if you can write a good paragraph, you can write a good essay. Parts of an "Essay An essay has three main parts: an introduction introductory paragraph , a body at least one, but usually two or more paragraphs , and a conclusion concluding paragraph. The following chart shows you how the parts of a paragraph correspond to the parts of an essay. Cbapter 4- I From Paragraph to Essay 51 Essay Paragraph Restatement or summary of the main points; final comment An essay introduction consists of two parts: a few general statements to attract your reader's attention and a thesis statement to state the main idea of the essay.
A thesis statement for an essay is like a topic sentence for a paragraph: It names the specific topic and gives the reader a general idea of the contents of the essay. The body consists of one or more paragraphs. Each paragraph develops a subdivision of the topic, so the number of paragraphs in the body will vary with the number of subdivisions or subtopics. The conclusion, like the concluding sentence in a paragraph, is a summary or review of the main points discussed in the body. An essay has unity and coherence, just as a paragraph does. Transition signals and the repetition of key nouns link the paragraphs into a cohesive whole.
Especially in the Western and southwestern regions of the United States, native crafts such as pottery, leather products, and beadwork can be found in many homes; In jeed,nativeart and handicrafts are a treasured part of U. Being skilled farmers, the Native Americans of North America taught the newcomers many things about farming techniques and crops. Every U. Furthermore, they taught the settlers irrigation methods and crop rotation. Many of the foods people in the United States eat today were introduced to the Europeans by Native Americans. For example, corn and chocolate were unknown in Europe. Now they are staples in the U. Five of the nati ad joined together in on called "The League of the Iroquois. This is exactly what happened. As s t form of government of the.
United States can be traced ative American model. The people of the United States are deeply indebted 19 Native for their contributions to U. How many paragraphs does this essay contain? How many paragraphs are in the body? Note: The topic sentence is not necessarily the first sentence in every paragraph. Notice which noun phrase appears four times in the introduction.