Disadvantages Of Apartheid Education

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Disadvantages Of Apartheid Education

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Apartheid Explained

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Our practice tests are free and there are no user names to create and no passwords to remember. If you need help preparing for the tests or gain a deeper understanding of a subject, you can go through essays on select topics. Various types of essays like compare and contrast, expository, and argumentative essays will help you expand your understanding as they provide different perspectives and detailed analysis.

Armed with this, you'll be better prepared to tackle tests. Last month, our free practice tests were taken over , times and we received 2,, page views from , unique visitors. We have example essays about every essay topic - K of them!! This, too, contributed to the inability of black workers to accumulate the wealth needed to move to equity-appreciating white suburbs. Segregation is now locked in place by exclusionary zoning laws in suburbs where black families once could have afforded to move in the absence of official segregation, but can afford to do so no longer with property values appreciated. Mid-twentieth century policies of de jure racial segregation continue to have impact in other ways, as well. A history of state-sponsored violence to keep African Americans in their ghettos cannot help but influence the present-day reluctance of many black families to integrate.

Today, when facially race-neutral housing or redevelopment policies have a disparate impact on African Americans, that impact is inextricably intertwined with the state-sponsored system of residential segregation that we established. Reacquainting ourselves with that history is a step towards confronting it. When knowledge of that history becomes commonplace, we will conclude that Louisville, Seattle and other racially segregated metropolitan areas not only have permission, but a constitutional obligation to integrate.

But this obligation cannot be fulfilled by school districts alone. In some small cities, and in some racial border areas, some racial school integration can be accomplished by adjusting attendance zones, establishing magnet schools, or offering more parent-student choice. This is especially true — but only temporarily — where neighborhoods are in transition, either from gradual urban gentrification, or in first-ring suburbs to which urban ghetto populations are being displaced. These school integration policies are worth pursuing, but generally, our most distressed ghettos are too far distant from truly middle-class communities for school integration to occur without racially explicit policies of residential desegregation.

Many ghettos are now so geographically isolated from white suburbs that voluntary choice, magnet schools, or fiddling with school attendance zones can no longer enable many low-income black children to attend predominantly middle class schools. Instead, narrowing the achievement gap will also require housing desegregation, which history also shows is not a voluntary matter but constitutional necessity — involving policies like voiding exclusionary zoning, placing scattered low and moderate income housing in predominantly white suburbs, prohibiting landlord discrimination against housing voucher holders, and ending federal subsidies for communities that fail to reverse policies that led to racial exclusion.

We will never develop the support needed to enact such policies if policymakers and the public are unaware of the history of state-sponsored residential segregation. And we are not doing the job of telling young people this story, so that they will support more integration-friendly policies in the future. Elementary and secondary school curricula typically ignore, or worse, mis-state this story. Even where there were no explicit laws, de facto segregation, or segregation by unwritten custom or tradition, was a fact of life. African Americans in the North were denied housing in many neighborhoods. Avoidance of our racial history is pervasive and we are ensuring the persistence of that avoidance for subsequent generations.

For the public and policymakers, re-learning our racial history is a necessary step because remembering this history is the foundation for an understanding that aggressive policies to desegregate metropolitan areas are not only desirable, but a constitutional obligation. In published work, I have documented much of what I have described, citing many previous historians who have recounted this story. Or, if you e-mail me at riroth epi. Richard Rothstein riroth epi. See more work by Richard Rothstein. The conclusion rests on two distinct analyses: — First, social and economic disadvantage — not only poverty, but a host of associated conditions — depresses student performance, and — Second, concentrating students with these disadvantages in racially and economically homogenous schools depresses it further.

With less literate parents, they are read to less frequently when young, and are exposed to less complex language at home. With less adequate housing, they rarely have quiet places to study and may move more frequently, changing schools and teachers. With fewer opportunities for enriching after-school and summer activities, their background knowledge and organizational skills are less developed. With fewer family resources, their college ambitions are constrained. In schools with high proportions of disadvantaged children, Remediation becomes the norm, and teachers have little time to challenge those exceptional students who can overcome personal, family, and community hardships that typically interfere with learning.

When classrooms fill with students who come to school less ready to learn, teachers must focus more on discipline and less on learning. Children in impoverished neighborhoods are surrounded by more crime and violence and suffer from greater stress that interferes with learning. When few parents have strong educations themselves, schools cannot benefit from parental pressure for higher quality curriculum, Children have few college-educated role models to emulate, and They have few classroom peers whose own families set higher academic standards. The share of black students attending schools that are more than 90 percent minority has grown in the last twenty years from about 34 percent to about 40 percent. Twenty years ago, black students typically attended schools in which about 40 percent of their fellow students were low-income; it is now about 60 percent.

In cities with the most struggling students, the isolation is even more extreme. The most recent data show, for example, that in Detroit, the typical black student attends a school where 2 percent of students are white, and 85 percent are low income. The Myth of De Facto Segregation In , the Supreme Court made integration more difficult when it prohibited the Louisville and Seattle school districts from making racial balance a factor in assigning students to schools, in cases where applicant numbers exceeded available seats. De Jure Residential Segregation by Federal, State, and Local Government The federal government led in the establishment and maintenance of residential segregation in metropolitan areas.

From its New Deal inception and especially during and after World War II, federally funded public housing was explicitly racially segregated, both by federal and local governments. Not only in the South, but in the Northeast, Midwest, and West, projects were officially and publicly designated either for whites or for blacks. Later, as white families left the projects for the suburbs, public housing became overwhelmingly black and in most cities was placed only in black neighborhoods, explicitly so. This was de jure segregation. Once the housing shortage eased and material was freed for post-World War II civilian purposes, the federal government subsidized relocation of whites to suburbs and prohibited similar relocation of blacks.

In addition to guaranteeing construction loans taken out by mass production suburban developers, the FHA, as a matter of explicit policy, also refused to insure individual mortgages for African Americans in white neighborhoods, or even to whites in neighborhoods that the FHA considered subject to possible integration in the future. Although a Supreme Court ruling barred courts from enforcing racial deed restrictions, the restrictions themselves were deemed lawful for another 30 years and the FHA knowingly continued, until the Fair Housing Act was passed in , to finance developers who constructed suburban developments that were closed to African-Americans.

Although specific zoning rules assigning blacks to some neighborhoods and whites to others were banned by the Supreme Court in , racial zoning in some cities was enforced until the s. Several large cities interpreted the ruling as inapplicable to their zoning laws because their laws prohibited only residence of blacks in white neighborhoods, not ownership. Some cities, Miami the most conspicuous example, continued to include racial zones in their master plans and issued development permits accordingly, even though neighborhoods themselves were not explicitly zoned for racial groups.

In other cities, following the Supreme Court decision, mayors and other public officials took the lead in organizing homeowners associations for the purpose of enacting racial deed restrictions. Baltimore is one example where the mayor organized a municipal Committee on Segregation to maintain racial zones without an explicit ordinance that would violate the decision. You may recall that in the s, the Internal Revenue Service revoked the tax-exemption of Bob Jones University because it prohibited interracial dating.

The IRS believed it was constitutionally required to refuse a tax subsidy to a university with racist practices. Yet the IRS never challenged the pervasive use of tax-favoritism by universities, churches, and other non-profit organizations and institutions to enforce racial segregation. The IRS extended tax exemptions not only to churches where such associations were frequently based and whose clergy were their officers, but to the associations themselves, although their racial purposes were explicit and well-known.

This was de jure segregation Churches were not alone in benefitting from unconstitutional tax exemptions. Consider this example: Robert Hutchins, known to educators for reforms elevating the liberal arts in higher education, was president and chancellor of the tax-exempt University of Chicago from to Urban renewal programs of the mid-twentieth century often had similarly undisguised purposes: to force low-income black residents away from universities, hospital complexes, or business districts and into new ghettos.

Relocation to stable and integrated neighborhoods was not provided; in most cases, housing quality for those whose homes were razed was diminished by making public housing high-rises or overcrowded ghettos the only relocation option. Where integrated or mostly-black neighborhoods were too close to white communities or central business districts, interstate highways were routed by federal and local officials to raze those neighborhoods for the explicit purpose of relocating black populations to more distant ghettos or of creating barriers between white and black neighborhoods. State policy contributed in other ways.

Real estate is a highly regulated industry. State governments require brokers to take courses in ethics and exams to keep their licenses. State commissions suspend or even lift licenses for professional and personal infractions — from mishandling escrow accounts to failing to pay personal child support. But although real estate agents openly enforced segregation, state authorities did not punish brokers for racial discrimination, and rarely do so even today when racial steering and discriminatory practices remain. This misuse of regulatory authority was, and is, de jure segregation. Local officials have played roles as well. Public police and prosecutorial power was used nationwide to enforce racial boundaries.

Illustrations are legion.

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