Pros And Cons Of Social Darwinism

Sunday, November 7, 2021 4:54:57 AM

Pros And Cons Of Social Darwinism

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It is relatively complex. The topics for a psychology research paper must be unique. In other words, you should be fairly certain that your classmates will not use them for their papers. The topic should be something you know about. However, you need to have a basic understanding of the underlying concepts at least. And not only do the topics influence your grade, but they may also do many other things: Picking good topics for a psychology research paper helps you write the essay a lot faster. Development communication is a contemporary field in social science. This suggests that both mediated and non-mediated forms of communication are relevant to the development issue.

This compromise is especially useful with the growing importance for development of the new information and communication technologies. Communication is not only about "selling ideas. It is applied to engage stakeholders, assess the situation, and devise effective strategies leading to better and more sustainable development initiatives. It is more than transmitting information. It is about using communication to generate new knowledge and consensus in order to facilitate change. It provides relevant information and adequate motivation to impact on attitudes and behaviors of individuals or groups of people. The artistic side of communication involves designing creative messages and products, and identifying effective interpersonal, group and mass-media channels based on the sound knowledge of the participants we seek to reach.

It is also about seeking change at different levels, including listening, building trust, sharing knowledge and skills, building policies, debating and learning for sustained and meaningful change. Development Communication and Policy Sciences are inextricably linked. The University of Chicago and SSRC developments were themselves an outgrowth of earlier efforts that dated to at least the middle of the 19th century. It is a new set of paradigm which is oriented towards the needs of applying structured rationality, systematic knowledge and organized creativity to the directed development of humanity. Policy making is not about its substantive content but rather with the improved methods, knowledge, and systems for better policy making. Lasswell's chosen phrase was "the policy sciences of democracy".

To stress "sciences" resulted in a vision of rational analysis, while to stress 'democracy; led to a vision of politicizes governmental processes. The distinction is important in drawing attention to policy analysis as an academic activity concerned primarily with advancing understanding; and policy analysis as applied activity concerned mainly with contributing to the solution of social problems. This vision of scientific method and democratic humanism, however, proved operationally difficult as the policy sciences moved to realize status and recognition during the and 's.

These two approaches- process and content strengthened their respective identities, each claiming some sort of conceptual superiority. The underlying disciplines of policy sciences are the management sciences operations research, cost-effective analysis, systems analysis, economics and more and the behavioral sciences political science, sociology, social psychology, organization theory, behavioral theory of the firm, psychology of judgment and more.

The management sciences can be viewed as sciences of normative knowledge- what one should do with the application of their methodologies involving optimization of some objective function. Policy Sciences has long been at the forefront of development issues. In essence, development communication is the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs and capacities of all concerned. It is thus a social process. It constitutes a major attempt to assert and achieve a central role for rationality and intellectualism in human affairs and to increase by jumps the capacity of humanity to direct its future. Policy sciences provide an integrated approach in solving various problems in local, national, regional and international level.

Coined by Harold D. Lasswell, policy sciences draw knowledge from various disciplines where recommendations are formulated, hence, its integrated approach. Because of its integrative nature, policy sciences follow a systems approach such that elements are interrelated and forms a 'generality principle'. Following its interdisciplinary nature is the idea that policy sciences encourage diversity of perspectives from various disciplines. This instigates consultative communication from various individuals in the principle of common interest.

In the pursuit of knowledge, policy scientists need to be careful in deciphering relevance of particular knowledge given the impact of various knowledge sources that are trying to influence policy decisions. In this regard, informed decisions are drawn from critiquing, careful analysis and recommendations that will be beneficial to many rather than a few individuals.

Lasswell 3 [] defines policy sciences as knowledge of the policy process as well as knowledge in this process. Torgerson [] states that Lasswell proposed the development of policy science-or policy sciences-as an interdisciplinary field to embrace all the social sciences and to produce knowledge applicable to public problems. The term "policy sciences" in its plural form, therefore, emphasizes its interdisciplinary nature Flor, According to Hale , [] the central aim of policy sciences is to resolve problems [in the service of human dignity] and the diverse human, historical, and contextual element in public policy-making. This is a reiteration of the Lasswellian maxim on public policy in the following key elements: "contextual"; "problem-oriented"; "multi-method inquiry" or diverse empirical methods, "political", "normative, welfare-oriented" in the case of social policy goals; and posing "interdisciplinarity" or moving between humanities and social sciences.

Indeed, Lasswell's original goal of the policy sciences was to provide, "intelligence pertinent to the integration of values realized by and embodied by interpersonal relations [such as] human dignity and the realization of human capacities" Lasswell and Kaplan, p. According to Harold Lasswell , the policy sciences are concerned with the knowledge of and in the decision processes of the public and civic order. At one moment, the analyst regards his subject-matter as an objective phenomenon, but this phase alternates with another in which the analyst comes to view himself as actively involved in the phenomenon which he investigates. Inquiry displays both tension and interplay between these moments; they are distinct yet interwoven, complementary in the ongoing development and refinement of contextual orientation Togerson, Empirical knowledge pertains to those generated through scientific inquiry and observation as applied to decision processes.

As such, the notion of the policy sciences is construed in various shades since it was introduced in the s and over the years, Lasswell and his colleagues refined the concept, through practice and peer review, as the intellectual tools needed to support problem-oriented, contextual, and multi-method inquiry in the service of human dignity for all. As such, the emphasis of policy sciences is on applying scientific or empirical evidences in understanding problems so that more realistic, responsive and effective interventions are identified and implemented.

Since a problem is multidimensional, various scientific disciplines are needed to form a comprehensive analysis of a certain phenomenon. The trend toward a policy sciences viewpoint is a move away from fragmentation and the fragmented "worm's eye view" of policy matters. According to Yehezkel Dror in his article entitled, "Approaches to Policy Sciences," two of the main features of policy sciences can be summarized as follows: 1 Policy sciences, as with all applied scientific knowledge, are, in principle, instrumental-normative in the sense of being concerned with means and intermediate goals rather than absolute values. But policy sciences are sensitive to the difficulties of achieving "value free sciences" and try to contribute to value choice by exploring value implications, value consistencies, value costs, and the behavioral foundations of value commitments.

While the main test of policy sciences is better achievement of considered goals through more effective and efficient policies, policy sciences as such do not deal with discrete policy problems, but do provide improved methods and knowledge for doing so. Furthermore, he mentioned that the main foci of concern for policy sciences include, for example, i policy analysis, which provides heuristic methods for identification of preferable policy alternatives; ii policy strategies, which provide guidelines for postures, assumptions, and main guidelines to be followed by specific policies for example, with respect to incrementalism versus innovation, attitudes to risk and time, comprehensive versus shock policies, and goal-oriented versus capacity oriented policies ; iii evaluation and feedback, including, for instance, social indicators, social experimentation, and organizational learning; and iv improvement of the system for policymaking-by redesign and sometimes nova design designing anew , including changes in input, personnel, structure, equipment, external demands, and so forth.

As defined by Laswell , [] the policy sciences may be conceived as knowledge of the policy process and of the relevance of knowledge in the process. Its approach is anticipatory which aims to improve policymaking in order to provide as much lead time as necessary in the solution of societal problems. Therefore, one issue that may arise along the way is how to regard societal problems and issues scientifically.

However, according to Lasswell and McDougal , [] while the problems are addressed scientifically, there is also a need for considering the contextual and normative approach to solving problems. The reason is that the knowledge produced is not only universalizable but ethical and empirico-analytical. Through this, policy science is thought not only problem-oriented but also multidisciplinary and contextual. Generally, the relationship between development communication and the policy sciences can be described as inextricable [] although both fields of study have different concentration, scope, and limitations. Furthermore, both development communication and the policy sciences share the same practice: the need for actively applying knowledge from and principles of the social sciences in solving large-scale societal problems under conditions of social change.

The policy sciences provide an integrated and comprehensive approach for addressing issues and problems at all levels in ways that help clarify and secure the common interest. Policy sciences are concerned with helping people make better decisions toward fostering human dignity for all. Since we are living in a "turbulent field" environment, policy science is necessary to address issues before it will get bigger. The approach of policy sciences, [80] as cited by Flor in his article, is forward-looking or anticipatory.

Policy sciences tell us what we need to do and prepare before certain issues or problems occur. Using an allegorical definition, Dror , as cited by Ongkiko and Flor , explains that " one should not leave the problem of crossing a river until the river is reached; rather, one should survey the territory in advance, identify rivers flowing through it, decide whether it is at all necessary to cross the river—and if so, where and how to cross it—then prepare in advance the materials for crossing the river and design a logistics network so that the material is ready when the river is reached. These variables are important factors in coming up with a sound and relevant policy. In the context of communication policy development, the policy sciences are necessary to make more purposeful, responsive, and effective communication policies.

Profoundly influenced by Freud and Marx, Lasswell emphasized the importance of the contextual orientation of policy analysts, both individually and collectively Lasswell, When he first articulated this principle of contextuality, Lasswell indeed referred explicitly to the "exposition of the dialectical method" [] in Lukacs's History and Class Consciousness , adding that the insights of psychoanalysis provided a complement to the Marxian dialectic which would aid in understanding "the symbolic aspects of historical development" Laswell, , p. Here Lasswell proposed a mode of contextual-configurative analysis whereby, through "an act of creative orientation" Laasswell, , p.

In this regard, Lasswell considered such contextual orientation indispensable to the conduct of rational inquiry, and urged the use of contextual-configurative analysis in the development of a policy science profession. Hale , p. All for good reasons: first, no decision can adequately be understood apart from the larger social process in which it is itself apart. Thus contextuality is a key element in the policy sciences. As a reliance on ideology, principle, and grand historical projects cannot, given the complexity and contextuality of policy problems, serve with reliable solution, a discipline geared to resolve problems should expressly orient itself on those problems and should be purposeful.

Thus problem orientation is the second key element in the policy sciences. Finally, due to the multidimensionality and complexity of many of these problems it stands to reason that the policy scientist should draw from a diversity of methodologies. Thus methodological diversity is the third key element in the policy sciences. It is Lasswell's sincere belief that understanding the policy formation and decision-making process will eventually also be beneficial in the creation of public policy Hale, Hepp, A. It combines qualitative interviews on media appropriation, egocentric network maps, and media diaries.

Through the triangulation of these methods of data collection, it is possible to gain a differentiated insight into the specific meanings, structures and processes of communication networks across a variety of media. The approach is illustrated using a recent study dealing with the mediatisation of community building among young people. In this context, the qualitative communication network analysis has been applied to distinguish "localists" from "centrists", "multilocalists", and "pluralists". These different "horizons of mediatised communitisation" are connected to distinct communication networks. Since this involves today a variety of different media, the contextual analysis of communication networks necessarily has to imply a cross-media perspective.

Oancea, A. Sciences are policy sciences when they clarify the process of policy-making in society or supply data for the making of rational judgments on policy questions" Lasswell The 'art' of policy sciences, therefore, seek to improve decision-making by reinforcing and supporting human dignity to elide the blinders of instrumental reason by addressing the manifold of human experience Hale, The personalities who significantly play vital roles in this field are the policy scientists and analysts who are involved in the scientific design, formulation, analysis, and evaluation of policies in particular and are concerned with the study of the policy-making process in general Flor, Lasswell and McDougal [] called on "policy scientists to aid decision makers in clarifying goals, identifying trends relative to goals, analyzing the factors causing or contributing to specific trends, projecting the future, and inventing and evaluating policy proposals—alternative actions that may be taken related to the desired results.

To guide communication policy-makers in addressing challenges, Picard and Pickard [] proposed policy principles that aim to guide contemporary media and communications policymaking in democratic countries so the contributions of these operations and systems to society may be improved. They maintain that "Media and communications policies are central to many of the social and political issues that societies face today. On the other hand, fundamental principles are constant, thus providing guidance on how to respond to new concerns and challenges and making appropriate policies. Picard and Pickard [] note that "policy principles are coherent statements based on underlying norms and values that help policymakers and organisations respond to issues and take part in legislative and regulatory activities".

In practice, principles are articulated and then used to set policy objectives and determine the means to achieve them. The latter two stages opine Picard and Pickard , are subjected to political processes that determine the final policy outcome. Picard and Pickard [] therefore came up with the following rubric list of potential principles that they believe are crucial in crafting a much reflective communication policy:. Principles are therefore not neutral, because they are normative, reflecting specific values that are subject to contestation.

In choosing among policy principles, Picard and Pickard [] assert that policymakers should optimally be concerned about effects of policy on all stakeholders , giving primacy to fundamental communication needs of society and seeking to balance social and economic benefit. Flor , an expert on Knowledge Management for Development, which discusses the need for convergence in society through inter-cultural communication, using case studies in Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. It also examines environmental conflicts, indigenous peoples, and the official development assistance in the Philippines.

In the book, Flor noted that communication and culture are "inextricably linked". Societal conflict in this age of informatization is a "function of culture caused by a dysfunction of societal communication". The quality and degree of societal communication — the mass media and education—determine the ways that cultures are exposed to others. The higher the quality and degree of inter-cultural communication, the lower the propensity for conflict, and vice versa. He observed that many of the world's contemporary wars — in Rwanda, Basque, Bosnia, Kosovo, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Aceh, East Timor—are not being waged by national political struggles "but by cultures".

For example, Catholic bishops and Islam ulama agree that the conflict in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines is triggered by "opposing value systems on the use of natural resources , opposing social structures feudal vs. One of the first steps to help repair the situation is for communication policy scientists to "begin with tolerance as a short-term solution, and understanding as a long-term solution". Tolerance and understanding require "good communication" from both ends of the spectrum that are striving to achieve "mutual understanding" — the goal of Kincaid for communication in his Convergence Model. The concept of convergence looks at the communication process as cyclical between source and receiver, and interactive between their message and feedback.

This problem has resulted partly from the unintended consequence of Lasswell's distinction between 'knowledge of' and 'knowledge in' the policy process. In others words, there is a major gap between the ways in the development and use of policy process theories and policy analysis tools. A new policy sciences updates the language of the old to focus more on choice and contexts and embrace applied and basic science in conducting policy analysis and policy process research. The new policy sciences highlights 1. For example, policymaker's attention is fleeting and they engage emotionally with information, which limits the impact of a lengthy evidence-based analysis and puts the onus on policy analysts to tell a simple persuasive story. Further, given the changing landscape and the multitude of choices facing people engaged in the policy process, single-shot solutions will not work.

The best way to structure the policy sciences is to direct the basic and applied science towards realistic depictions of choice in complex contexts. One cannot make people more rational, but one can establish choices from a mix of rationality and irrationality to help people adapt accordingly. The biggest contribution of the new policy sciences is to encourage critical thinking. Above all else, dispense with the idea of comparing real-world policymaking with the myth of comprehensively rational action, to advise people not to give up their bounded and irrational minds but to look for opportunities to learn and adapt their strategies to better achieve their goals.

The new policy sciences has one simple motto: "know your audience and their context. At the context level, although all audiences are embedded in decision-making venues, policy subsystems, and political systems, policy theories are used to make sense of complexity and that each theory only captures one piece of the puzzle. In the end, the "new policy sciences can help policy makers, policy scholars, policy scientists, policy advocates, and development communication practitioners who are in to policy-making by using: 1 psychology and cognitive science to describe the art of choice, in which people use reliable short cuts to gather information to make good enough decisions and 2 multiple policy process theories to describe a policy context's ever-changing complexity.

In a changing world communication about development challenges and advocacy for change have become increasingly complex. Navigating these challenges by offering insights and suggestions and new tools such as the rapid increase in the use of new and social media contrasted with the opportunities and risks it poses for development communication is helpful for various stakeholders such as policy makers. Various literature suggest new methods for policy sciences and development communication. Sudeep Uprety's [] article entitled "Engaging Policy Audiences - The dynamics of development communications," talks about visibility in the current digital era. Development organizations must now have cameras along with other essentials. The project teams, along with the researchers, engineers, medics and logistics personnel, also now have people carrying camera, pen and paper.

In other words, communication has become an integral component in the world of development. Also, creativity is essential in development communications. Development organizations need to come up with unique ways of engaging audiences. Reaching the right audience- finding the engagement community and communities who will find your information useful is very critical. Acknowledging the limitations of diverse and sometimes hard-to-reach audiences, development organizations often engage communications and give them creative and artistic freedom, allowing them to come up with content that generates interest across a range of audiences — beyond the circle of those working in the field of development.

Organizations aim to engage wider audiences with strong messages — linking local voices to the entire globe. Communications experts nowadays, apply the age-old art of story-telling, making their messages more visually interesting and exciting to hear about Uprety, Moreover, social media and online communications tools such as infographics and Graphics Interchange Format GIF videos have provided a great platform in terms of reaching out and engaging with a wide variety of audiences. This is useful for development communications practitioners to understand the extent of audience engagement with their content — be it a blog, a report, a video or an infographic- and mold their content and style of presentation accordingly Uprety, Furthermore, Development organizations are now focusing on the science of evidence uptake and knowledge management to synthesize project findings into user-friendly formats so that they are widely read with interest by various stakeholders.

Simply put, the delivery of the right kind of message to the intended audience in the right manner, is required. With the changing dynamics of internet and communications, the world of development is developing, therefore delivering key messages is also constantly evolving and adapting. In this continuous evolution, the core of any successful communication strategy is still the resonance and relevance of the message itself and, essentially, its ability to touch hearts and lives.

Taeihagh [] discussed crowdsourcing as rapidly evolving and applied in situations where ideas, labor, opinion or expertise of large groups of people is used. Crowdsourcing is now used in various policy-making initiatives such as in open collaboration platforms and specific stages of the policy process agenda-setting and policy evaluations.

Crowdsourcing is a considered a new tool for policy-making and the nuances of the technology and its use and implications for different stages of the policy process is explored. The study highlights the role of crowdsourcing, its impact as a policy tool or as a technological enabler and the current trends and future directions of crowdsourcing. Kerschberg [] also talks about the power of crowdsourcing in developing regions. There is optimism in a nascent paradigm shift of the realities of a poverty-stricken community.

Data flow has the power to effect change, not only politically and socially, but on more fundamental levels such as living standards and sheer survival. Most enjoy the benefits of digital technology to share and collate data. For years, Google flu trends allow people to prepare for flu outbreaks, either in the home or in the emergency room. When those services are placed in those areas that need them most, the potential is overwhelming. By supplying someone in a developing region with the physical means to access data, one not only automatically brings them into the loop of communication, but also introduces them into a whole new business infrastructure powered by crowdsourcing methodologies.

With all these new literature on policy sciences, now is a great time to work on more policy engagements in development communication and achieving development goals. His involvement in communication policymaking is facilitated by the so-called institutionalization of people power. His expertise may be directly tapped by the most important stakeholder, the media consumer.

The participation of information users and media consumers in policy making may be realized by the formation of a nationwide media consumer's organization or a federation of local organizations of this nature in which policy analysts play a significant role. This proposed organization could initiate media education in the formal and non-formal modes. Media education at the formal level may be facilitated by lobbying for the inclusion of such in existing secondary and tertiary curricula. Non-formal education may be conducted through media consumer sponsored awareness campaigns. This organization could also conduct its own audience related studies and policy research. It could establish a nationwide network involving the church, academic communities, grassroots organizations and cause-oriented groups.

Communication policy scientists may also serve as part of the staff of our legislators in the Congress and Senate. In their private capacities, they can form research and development outfits or "think tanks" whose services may be availed of by government agencies. Indeed, now is a fortuitous time for policy engagement in development communication. Culture, politics, economics and technology have an impact on policy decisions. In order to investigate the factors that influence communications policy, one has to go beyond conventional views of media and communication and should combine these with policy studies.

According to experts, communication policy science would be understood if the public just had access to the right scientific information. Coyle, in his article "Theory of Development Communication", articulates that people have options to change their ways of life through communication. People improve their lives and ways of thinking through communication, sharing their perspectives and understanding what is going on in their surroundings. As highlighted by Flor, communication development has something to do with policy science as these are anchored for improving policy making.

As stipulated in Walt Rostow's theory in Boado's article, societies progress through specific stages of development on their way to modernity. Policy makers and scientists can communicate directly with the public through social media and blogging. By using social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook, policymakers and scientists can serve as critical mediators in disseminating scientific information by sharing advancements directly with society. Citing an article, "Dimensions of an Information and Communication Policy": "for a national policy to be effective, it must attempt to be comprehensive, covering issues that are considered relevant for that particular society".

Such communication policy must be centered on development, in transforming the lives of marginalized people. Development encompasses economic benefits, health improvement, education and other transformative agents. The process involves people empowerment in identifying goals, needs, and solutions to various challenges. Thus, communication policy that is national in scope has broad objective dimensions as well as specific areas where community needs are addressed.

Intervention of communication strategies such as dissemination of information both mediated and personal where the latter constitutes participatory communication is deemed important. John A. By citing a Unesco report made by experts on communication and planning, Lee defines communication policies as "sets of principles and norms established to guide [] the behaviour of communication systems. He adds that the dimensions of communication policies as well as communication planning encompass the communication system, its components and structures; the functions of the system; the "clients" or audience using the system; the types of information carried by the system and its components; the values and qualities of the information content; and a variety of considerations about the system, its functions, audience, types of information and qualities.

Members of the audience are classified based on such characteristics as age, sex, occupations, socio-economic strata, urban-rural locations and persuasions. Types of information refer to the conversation, cultural forms, data, education, entertainment, general information, music, news and opinion. Meanwhile, truth, objectivity, relevance, educational effectiveness, violence, humour, sex, libel are examples of values and qualities of the information content. According to Lee, the "consideration, identification and determination" of the scope of specific communication systems and societal principles and norms are needed in formulating communication policies. In his paper, Lee also discusses participation in the formulation of communication policies by asking, "Who is involved?

They are government executive, legislative bodies, authorities in charge of social and economic planning, individual ministries and their planning boards, communication enterprises, professional organizations, the citizen, the social scientist and the economist. Lloyd Sommerland, UNESCO Regional Communication Adviser for Asia, [] points out the difference between communication policies and communication planning by saying that the former provides "the principles, rules and guidelines on which the communication system is built," while the latter is concerned with the policy implementation. He shares that every country engages in development planning that touches different sectors of a society like "agriculture, manufacturing, commerce, education, health, transport and communication, social and community services.

The word "communication" in this particular context includes telecommunications, mass media print and broadcast , face-to-face communication and traditional channels and these are resources tapped by a society "to enable information to flow within it", he adds. Sommerland also underlines that communication policies are not the ends and they provide a framework for action. Strategic planning translates into quantified targets and systematic approaches, the general objectives of communication policies," he says.

Sommerland also supports some claims of Lee that communication policies are either embedded or implied in the existing policies of a nation. Because communication is interdisciplinary and because it is the thread which binds a nation together, communication policies even if incomplete and implicit, are to be found in many different parts of a political and social system. Development communication and policy sciences exhibits mutuality as catalysts of change in this fluid environment. Both are geared towards effecting change in society. Will these two sciences be robustly beneficial if converged in one developmental framework?

Allen as cited in Flor, postulates that policy is a science of decision-making based on empirical data gathered from observation. How does it relate to development communication? Although a relatively young science, Development Communication has now been recognized and adopted by various agencies: the government and private sector as a means to institute effective changes using bottom-up approach. In the same vein, policy sciences grew out of this need to reorient actively the social sciences to the resolution of policy issues. A policy science is anchored on its intelligence function, followed by mobilization and bureaucratic reforms where mobilization is a key component of development communication.

Development communication practitioners are well-equipped when it comes to understanding social phenomena which can aid in the intelligence function of policy scientists. The development agenda of both sciences are anchored on contextuality, meaning both recognizes the human's social values and institutions in drafting interventions, plans and policies to achieve an enlightened society. These policies are products of Development Communication initiatives that can influence decision makers or the government in enacting pertinent laws for the benefit of the publics. Development communication's process is akin to policy science as both recognizes the context or the environment where humans socially interact. Both are using social science procedures in solving large-scale problems [67] and further acknowledges communication as an integral part of the process.

Hence one can surmise that policy decision-making is dependent on communication. In an era of rapid development, each field should not be viewed as dialectically superior against the other, rather both development communication and policy sciences should mutually work to advance for the social change. The thrusts and goals of Development communication can be sustainable if it is backed by certain policies. Following Quebral's definition of Development communication "the art and science of human communication applied to speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equality and the larger fulfillment of human potential ", Flor and Ongkiko explained each aspect of this definition for better understanding on why development communication was defined this way.

In relaying a message, creativity is needed to attract the attention of its audience. It does not focus only on beautifying the message or the image but the art of communicating with people that would help them understand and adapt to the changes that will happen to them. As Flor and Ongkiko emphasize, development communication is a social science. At the same time, it is both theory and practices.

We are all humans, and humans, as nature itself, are not perfect: we all make mistakes, but try not to. These are ordinary people, from children to the elderly, from the sick and dying to the robust. Their experience taught them and me much about life, about suffering, about achieving, about loving, forgiving, being compassionate and much more. As a child I observed the faith of these ordinary people, some "religious" some not. What they had in common was faith. Being raised and educated as a Catholic, I was immersed in my religion, from studying to be a priest to being married, having two children and three grandchildren.

I worked for the Catholic Church for forty years and I can say with certainty, for me, first, that "religion" has smothered the message of most of the great men and women who wanted to answer the question about God's existence. Second, for me, being a follower of Jesus, the message is simple: love, even your enemies, forgive, be merciful, compassionate,. If you don't, you are not listening, looking, or living as you should.

Creation is not a fairy tale, we all suffer and die. In helping one another we experience the Creator whose name is I AM. A mystery, yes, but then are each of us not a mystery? Thank you for taking the time to link some interesting sources. Don't think it was in vain, for I did get around to reading them. I found particularly interesting your claim that atheism was what was mostly in decline but soon realised that what you meant was that globally this was the case.

There it was confirmed once again that Christianity fell dramatically in every developed country whilst grew in impoverished ones, and atheism grew in every developed country whilst fell in poorer ones. The statistics are remarkably telling, where there was education and liberty atheism and agnosticism grew, where there was poverty and hardship, religion thrived. What the CNS article fails to address is why they think the countries that look after its people are ditching religion, and why the 'resurgence of religion' is only happening in troubled countries.

Of course, they wouldn't want to link being faithful to low education levels, lack of freedom and poverty as I have done in this article. Share this great article on Facebook, let the whole world read it!!! Let it spread more than the Bible. Help people see the truth! Many people already live what they believe in. Tbey already have taken religion out of the equation.

Ideas of science. And the belief of the big bang. Humans ccreated out of evolution. And otber beliefs that you die and be born as another human or animal. No it is far worse then ever. Believing in the sovereignty of a greater power then humans should not be hard to understand. If we can believe in humans. Good read, many good points on the subject. My personal feeling is religion is waning in many areas around the globe. Yet, the idea of God s and what that idea purports to people will be with us for many,many years to come. I love this quote from Richard Dawkins "We are all atheists about most of the gods that societies have ever believed in.

Some of us just go one god further. Region makes great stories. The story of Christianity, not yet, but it will take it's place among the great stories in the future. Our secular establishment is rational and disinterested and so very wonderful. I know this because they tell me so themselves at every opportunity. Some people have been terrorized into atheism by Communist regimes, but many of these regimes have lost their grip on power. I find it good that religion is dying out. We have better things to do then to commit ourselves to religions. With education we dont need any of that shit anymore. I hope religion will die out soon.

I found this very interesting even if I can't agree with it. Wonder what it will be like 20 years from now, and will religion continue to decline? If all religions are fake why do you quote from one? No one has been able to say the events in the old testament didn't happen. Some they haven't found evidence for yet. That does not mean it didn't happen. I am waiting for a big find on some of the New Testament's original writing to compare with what we have today. I believe the early bishops changed the text to suit them. No one needs to be surprised if the world becomes completely devoid of religions. As it is, all religions are fake though people may be faithful. It's always fascinating to me that the same people who think that God as creator of our intelligent universe is logically impossible, but they have no hesitation in believing that everything came from nothing which IS impossible.

Wake up! Genesis "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. John "For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. Your choice. It's that simple. Monkey see monkey do, meaning of course if a wide range of people are doing it. Chances that you or someone you know is probably a creationist.

The lack of scientific minds can be accounted for the fact that people are less challenged, on top of that we have economic and geopolitical problems. The lack of advancement in say technology sectors would be an example of an underdeveloped society. Where as a highly developed society would lack the stigma that follows atheism, simply put people would be more into things and their own lives than something as silly as god. Lets see it another way, we watch endless movies about possible futures. Some frightening, some adventurous and sometimes downright deep.

Then we step away from the big screen we look around and then we ask ourselves, well gee why aren't living in that kind of world. A world free of age, famine, disease, death would constitute as a highly developed civilization. One that would find it difficult to accept the ideas of an after life where most of society has now adapted to extremely long life spans perhaps even immortality. So if you reach that state could you really think up a reason why you would want to except the creationist views. That is a wonderful way to think about the concept of religions - any religion.

Although I would change the end to say, " And to 'Maveth' above who is haughty about the growth of Islam Their attention is not diverted by 'realizing there is anything wrong' with their spiritual beliefs or questioning their god, as much - it is largely in defending their religion. That sympathy is something that ebbs and flows; and does things like funnel weapons and money into the hands of Islamic fanatics. Hey nice article I feel that region is being less shown and more shows about crime, sex and evil are being glorified. I don't know why this is happening but I believe the book of revelations talks about this. This is interesting and made me think good post. I am now following you. This hub's premise is the classic "blame god paradox" whereby non sequitur arguments claim God doesn't exist but is to blame for our problems!

It is illogical, unscientific and contradictory and simply designed to offend. Such "arguments" are often spouted by the cafe set and don't rely on commonsense or logic at all. I believe some religion is better than none. With the exception of those that today allow, beheadings, child marriages, lying to the infidel, the tax, death to those that can't pay said tax.

God wants us to be like him. Not just some robot. God may not have suffered any and needs to via the small part we each have. It is a long learning curve and if you don't succeed you will have to do lives many times till you finally become like Him with the experiences He may not have had. Just knowing something is not like experiencing it. The reason I left the established Christian religions is because they do not believe in reincarnation. And the one I left insisted they were the one and only.

Even when they were only 2 million as opposed to the 7 billion other souls. The internet has been the biggest mind opener. Before you just went along to get along so you had some religion as opposed to none. We have free will. All time is happening at the same time. We can change the final play to some extent. Our present mind normally cannot access the higher mystical features, like the akashic records. I believe there are many like me that have left religions and learn on their own. Not that there is less. How many are in religions just because they don't know what else there is or that is what is expected of them. Cute little article. Irrelevant, however, in the face of the huge worldwide growth of Islam. Such a pity that the author s of this article are unable to see such obvious signs counter to their specific "beliefs".

Ac I know that after my going away oppressive wolves will enter in among you and will not treat the flock with tenderness,. But if you are warned about something that is happening , this also is another reality that the subject exist. Example some one comes home and say their car was in an accident, the car was towed away at the scene, just because you are at home and did not visually witness the accident is not valid for you to say , this is not the case , there was no accident.

The same with the bible is it the report of things past done in our history written by secretaries of men who are not bias of race , man and woman and child. Religion cannot die fast enough. Religion almost caused the demise of the human species more than once. Not all forms of all religions truck in "fear and fallacies. DK, a lot of comments over here. This was an interesting and useful hub about your thoughts on religion dying, which was well thought out and written.

Voted up! I would like to say that I was a non-practicing Catholic for many years. Once I graduated from college I settled in to a great job. I had many successful friends and I met and married a terrific husband. Accept for the husband, I was miserable. The job was demanding and my coworkers were horrible. These so-called successful people who had so much and should have been happy with it were horrible people. I seemed to attract the most attention with my marriage and travels and the things I chose to spend my money on.

Eventually, they all turned on me. After all, I had so much and they were so blinded that they only felt jealousy instead of friendship. Fast-forward, the job is gone, my house is gone, my husband is gone, the nice car is gone and I haven't traveled in a long time. I suffered for a while until someone told me that those so called good people were practicing spiritual warfare on me. I researched it and it led me back to my religion and now I realize what a blessing all of it was. It is true that while I worked I suffered, but God provided me with a good husband to see me through. I found out later that these people all got involved in my marriage and did everything they could to destroy it. Anyway, I had time to help my father who broke his hip and then became ill with cancer.

I had time to help a stroke victim who is bed-ridden and now I help my mother who has dementia. I have taken time out to pray. Prayer has led me back to Catholicism. Catholicism has led me back to the world and it has all healed the incredible amount of pain. It has also blocked the spiritual warfare and cleared the way for some wonderful things. I still can't keep a regular job because of my mother, but I have a car, food, shelter and money to have a few nights out a month. One more contrast. When I was in the secular world living a secular life, I was very liberal. I am not so liberal anymore, but as a good Catholic, I don't judge anyone and certainly would not harm anyone for having different views than my own.

Well written hub. You gave excellent reasons why religion is declining, and I see that today. The bible says we will know we are living in the end times when less and less people are worshipping God. We are closer than ever to the return of Jesus! So while it is a bad thing that people are turning away from the faith, it is also a good sign that He is coming back! So those that dont believe in God says we need to put more faith into man. Just curious you said teach morals through education and teach understanding. First who is annointed to come up with these morals. Thirdly the unfaithful think merely men wrote the bible to begin with and refuse what it says.

So why men writing anything else would they like? I really appreciate you writing this post. Personally, i myself have evolved and don't really see religion as necessary. Religion annoys me. What upsets me the most is the bigotry and religious fundamentalism that is slowly taking over the world. Good thing is people are seeking more and more answers and are not blinded entirely by religion anymore. Hi Niko, you raised several good points and so I'll be happy to answer them for you, both in respect of satisfying questions asked and in answering for my own decisions!

Perhaps that was an original title for it, or this is merely a revised hub? Indeed the truth is a mixture of both, the original title for the article was 'God is a Sadist' and that was perhaps only appropriate for its original form: a short, poignant and overall more controversially toned article. This also may in part explain why you mistakenly came out with this:. I read this figuring that it would be a broad approach to all religion and spiritual systems out there only to get partway through the article and find these points against mainly Christianity.

Aside from the fact that, had this indeed been a problem it would not have been one that you 'see with atheism'; the single belief of something's non-existence does not 'teach' or 'encourage' anyone to 'focus on ONE religion' - this is better explained by the fact that Christianity is the majority religion in the world, this article only mentions the word Christianity once and it is not in relation to any point in particular, merely used as an example of something that is illogical. Yes, many if not all of these points apply to Christianity, as they do to the other abrahamic religions which is even specifically mentioned when speaking of the three omni's "as such, many people upon realising this simply cannot adhere to any abrahamic religion.

Of course, this also applies to any other religion that claims to have Gods with these three conflicting characteristics". Your point intrigues me further when you claim that the none of the points in this article have any relevance to "Paganism, Buddhism" or "other spiritual practises and systems. In short, I'm happy to argue that "If you mean Christianity, just say Christianity" does not apply to this hub and that people won't be able to counter its points with Buddhism just because not all points apply as strongly or at all to all religions in the world.

It would be difficult to find an account of Jesus setting out his spiritual teachings to not relieve people of suffering, for example - Buddha is not unique to this concept. I think not. Taking religion out of the picture will not make mankind automatically more rational, logical, or moral - though I'm not saying it'll make society less moral either. But there's more to solving the problems of war, disharmony, dissonance, and hatred than the mere removal of a spiritual idea.

To paraphrase an Objectivist, the removal of religion and advocacy of atheism will not solve these problems alone, as just simply being "atheist" leaves lots of room for what you do believe. Here is, of course, something that we both agree with. Although the picture states that society may 'perhaps' be note: not WILL be more moral without religions, the text it accompanies makes the final and most important point to which the image applies. That is, leaving religion behind is not enough, an emphasis on education and understanding is required too.

This hub is an example of one problem I see with atheism - they tend to focus on ONE religion, and act like it's the only one on the block. What about Paganism, Buddhism, other spiritual practices and systems? Often times I hear Atheists and Irreligious crusading against "Religion" only to hear them speak a tome's worth about Christianity. If you mean Christianity, just say Christianity, else people can counter you with say Buddhism when you attempt to talk about how harmful religion can be - especially since The Buddha set out with his spiritual teachings to relieve people of suffering. I also disagree with that last image's caption - a Religionless society being "More moral" without God? In my opinion we are at a very unique junction in mankind's spiritual evolution.

If we are to free ourselves, we have to look at the foundations of the incorrect way we have been taught to think about it, and extricate ourselves from these fallacies entirely. A sort of super-someone that created everything, knows everything, owns everything including heaven and decides who's allowed to go into them pearly gates. Once you get rid of that, there is space for the realisation that yes, God exists, but not as a "He" or a "something".

We're all part of God, and that it's our job to to create heaven in this reality. You don't need to look far to see what happens when we deny God the opportunity to create through us because we abdicated that divine responsibility to a fictional character somewhere out there. Yes i think religon is on a downward path in participation. Which is from the very thing your promoting. And that is to listen to man and a huministic ideas of what is right. To many pastors and the catholic church teaching and making doctrine that is not in the Holy Bible.

Such as some of referenced a flat earth which was taught by the sciences at the times and wrong church leaders. Many times the Bible tells of the circle of the earth even in the oldest written book of the Bible Job. Now you said if God was all loving he would had created a perfect world. Well he did and adam sinned. Prior to that sin the Lord walked and talked with adam. Since sin was brought into the earth hes stepped back to allow his creation to see and feel the impacts of sin.

And his angels needes to see this. You say he could had done this and he could of done that. Your right he could have but that would have made the Lord a tyrannt and not full imbodiment of love. So he allows freewill.

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