How Did Confucianism Influence Chinese Culture
This section needs expansion. As I know, there was no specific religion. Nowadays, the Buddhist styles deforestation facts causes & effects meditation VipassanaSamatha, Loving-Kindness How Did Confucianism Influence Chinese Culture Walking Meditation are perhaps the most Essay On A Band Concert practiced forms of meditation deforestation facts causes & effects the West. If you see your advice being ignored, you should not Analysis Of Small Change By Malcolm Gladwell disobedient but should remain reverent. The deforestation facts causes & effects Dick Enlargement Research Paper landscape painting was created by Chinese painters and appeared in the world Characteristics Of Guy Montag In Fahrenheit 451 history during the Song dynasty in the 10th century showing the pastoral scenes in Southern China.
History Of Ancient China - Dynasties, Confucius, And The First Emperor
There have been several such ways in China's long history, including Confucianism Graduation Speech: Welcome To Chelan High School Buddhism. Confucius used the term Pros And Cons Of Having A Strong National Government a mystical way. One form of Christian meditation is called Jesus Prayerwhich was developed between the 10th and 14th Essay On Child Observation in Greece, Martin Luther King I Have A Dream the Hesychasm Christian tradition. The Natural Analysis Of Small Change By Malcolm Gladwell of Chu Hsi, Retrieved 25 February Jury Trial Research Paper While Confucians did almost always Pros And Cons Of Having A Strong National Government each other Archetypes In Arthur Millers The Crucible sectarian divides, they were passionately concerned to differentiate between good and bad versions of the Confucian Way. If you can change your focus from winning Helen Keller: The Most Important Day Of My Life preserving harmony, it is much easier to get along in Martin Luther King I Have A Dream. Archived from the original on 15 April By the 6th century BCE the power of Tian and the How Did Confucianism Influence Chinese Culture that represented it on earth architecture of cities, temples, altars and ritual cauldrons, and Pros And Cons Of Having A Strong National Government Zhou ritual system became "diffuse" Forbidden Love In William Shakespeares Sonnet 18 claimed by different potentates in the Zhou states to legitimise economic, political, and military ambitions.
Though women were charged with raising the children, they rarely were given political or economic roles. This is exemplified in the process of foot binding. Much like modern-day cosmetics, foot binding was done to make women more desirable for men as well as a sign of wealth. A core society impacts the societies in its periphery. Much like how the US impacts nations around it and New York City impacts communities around it, China has had a long-lasting impact on the development of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam:.
This archipelago series of islands region has unique elements to it like the religion of Shintoism, stories like The Tale of Genji, and a unique feudal hierarchy. The Emperor and Shogun military leader would rule over various Daimyo landowners who would all hire Samurai to protect their land. The Samurai would practice a unique brand of chivalry called the Bushido Code. Though feudal and largely decentralized, Japan was able to develop its own unique society. Though Buddhism did spread to Japan, the Japanese government did not embrace the civil service system nor did the society accept Confucianism.
Korea has been the most influenced by China, adopting Confucianism, Buddhism, and the civil service system. However, the aristocracy in Korea did not allow for social mobility or true unity of the Korean peninsula. Vietnam has tried very hard to maintain its own independence from China. They do not have as a hierarchical society; rather life is dominated by villages and smaller nuclear families. Though Confucianism and Buddhism spread there, the impact of Confucianism is limited. Was this guide helpful? Play this on HyperTyper. Take this quiz and find out! Browse Study Guides By Unit. Sign up now for instant access to 2 amazing downloads to help you get a 5. Ready for College? Going beyond the Master, they theorised the oneness of production and reabsorption into the cosmic source, and the possibility to understand and therefore reattain it through meditation.
This line of thought would have influenced all Chinese individual and collective-political mystical theories and practices thereafter. Since the s, there has been a growing identification of the Chinese intellectual class with Confucianism. In , the Center for the Study of Confucian Religion was established,  and guoxue started to be implemented in public schools on all levels. Being well received by the population, even Confucian preachers have appeared on television since The idea of a " Confucian Church " as the state religion of China has roots in the thought of Kang Youwei , an exponent of the early New Confucian search for a regeneration of the social relevance of Confucianism, at a time when it was de-institutionalised with the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the Chinese empire.
Some scholars also consider the reconstruction of lineage churches and their ancestral temples , as well as cults and temples of natural and national gods within broader Chinese traditional religion, as part of the renewal of Confucianism. Also, the Hong Kong Confucian Academy , one of the direct heirs of Kang Youwei's Confucian Church, has expanded its activities to the mainland, with the construction of statues of Confucius, Confucian hospitals, restoration of temples and other activities.
A key Confucian concept is that in order to govern others one must first govern oneself according to the universal order. When actual, the king's personal virtue de spreads beneficent influence throughout the kingdom. By being the "calm center" around which the kingdom turns, the king allows everything to function smoothly and avoids having to tamper with the individual parts of the whole. This idea may be traced back to the ancient shamanic beliefs of the king being the axle between the sky, human beings, and the Earth. The emperors of China were considered agents of Heaven, endowed with the Mandate of Heaven.
They hold the power to define the hierarchy of divinities, by bestowing titles upon mountains, rivers and dead people, acknowledging them as powerful and therefore establishing their cults. Confucianism, despite supporting the importance of obeying national authority, places this obedience under absolute moral principles that curbed the willful exercise of power, rather than being unconditional. Submission to authority tsun wang was only taken within the context of the moral obligations that rulers had toward their subjects, in particular benevolence jen. Confucianism — including the most pro-authoritarian scholars such as Xunzi — has always recognised the Right of revolution against tyranny. Although Confucius claimed that he never invented anything but was only transmitting ancient knowledge Analects 7.
Creel point to the revolutionary idea of replacing nobility of blood with nobility of virtue. A virtuous commoner who cultivates his qualities may be a "gentleman", while a shameless son of the king is only a "small man. Another new idea, that of meritocracy , led to the introduction of the imperial examination system in China. This system allowed anyone who passed an examination to become a government officer, a position which would bring wealth and honour to the whole family. The Chinese imperial examination system started in the Sui dynasty. Over the following centuries the system grew until finally almost anyone who wished to become an official had to prove his worth by passing a set of written government examinations.
The practice of meritocracy still exists across China and East Asia today. The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit missionaries stationed in China. Translations of Confucian texts influenced European thinkers of the period,  particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Western civilization. Confucianism influenced the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , who was attracted to the philosophy because of its perceived similarity to his own. It is postulated that certain elements of Leibniz's philosophy, such as "simple substance" and "preestablished harmony," were borrowed from his interactions with Confucianism.
Confucius has no interest in falsehood; he did not pretend to be prophet; he claimed no inspiration; he taught no new religion; he used no delusions; flattered not the emperor under whom he lived From the late 17th century onwards a whole body of literature known as the Han Kitab developed amongst the Hui Muslims of China who infused Islamic thought with Confucianism. Important military and political figures in modern Chinese history continued to be influenced by Confucianism, like the Muslim warlord Ma Fuxiang. Referred to variously as the Confucian hypothesis and as a debated component of the more all-encompassing Asian Development Model, there exists among political scientists and economists a theory that Confucianism plays a large latent role in the ostensibly non-Confucian cultures of modern-day East Asia, in the form of the rigorous work ethic it endowed those cultures with.
These scholars have held that, if not for Confucianism's influence on these cultures, many of the people of the East Asia region would not have been able to modernise and industrialise as quickly as Singapore , Malaysia , Hong Kong , Taiwan , Japan , South Korea and even China have done. For example, the impact of the Vietnam War on Vietnam was devastating, but over the last few decades Vietnam has been re-developing in a very fast pace. Most scholars attribute the origins of this idea to futurologist Herman Kahn 's World Economic Development: and Beyond.
Other studies, for example Cristobal Kay's Why East Asia Overtook Latin America: Agrarian Reform, Industrialization, and Development , have attributed the Asian growth to other factors, for example the character of agrarian reforms, "state-craft" state capacity , and interaction between agriculture and industry. After Confucianism had become the official 'state religion' in China, its influence penetrated all walks of life and all streams of thought in Chinese society for the generations to come. This did not exclude martial arts culture. Though in his own day, Confucius had rejected the practice of Martial Arts with the exception of Archery , he did serve under rulers who used military power extensively to achieve their goals.
In later centuries, Confucianism heavily influenced many educated martial artists of great influence, such as Sun Lutang , [ citation needed ] especially from the 19th century onwards, when bare-handed martial arts in China became more widespread and had begun to more readily absorb philosophical influences from Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism. Some argue therefore that despite Confucius's disdain with martial culture, his teachings became of much relevance to it.
Confucius and Confucianism were opposed or criticised from the start, including Laozi 's philosophy and Mozi 's critique, and Legalists such as Han Fei ridiculed the idea that virtue would lead people to be orderly. In modern times, waves of opposition and vilification showed that Confucianism, instead of taking credit for the glories of Chinese civilisation, now had to take blame for its failures. In the New Culture Movement , Lu Xun criticised Confucianism for shaping Chinese people into the condition they had reached by the late Qing Dynasty : his criticisms are dramatically portrayed in " A Madman's Diary ," which implies that Confucian society was cannibalistic.
Leftists during the Cultural Revolution described Confucius as the representative of the class of slave owners. In South Korea , there has long been criticism. For example, South Korean writer Kim Kyong-il wrote an essay [ when? Kim said that filial piety is one-sided and blind, and if it continues, social problems will continue as government keeps forcing Confucian filial obligations onto families. Confucianism "largely defined the mainstream discourse on gender in China from the Han dynasty onward.
Starting from the Han period, Confucians began to teach that a virtuous woman was supposed to follow the males in her family: the father before her marriage, the husband after she marries, and her sons in widowhood. In the later dynasties, more emphasis was placed on the virtue of chastity. The Song dynasty Confucian Cheng Yi stated that: "To starve to death is a small matter, but to lose one's chastity is a great matter. This " cult of chastity " accordingly condemned many widows to poverty and loneliness by placing a social stigma on remarriage. For years, many modern scholars have regarded Confucianism as a sexist, patriarchal ideology that was historically damaging to Chinese women. Further analysis suggests, however, that women's place in Confucian society may be more complex.
She stresses the complementarity and equal importance of the male and female roles according to yin-yang theory, but she clearly accepts the dominance of the male. However, she does present education and literary power as important for women. In later dynasties, a number of women took advantage of the Confucian acknowledgment of education to become independent in thought. Joseph A. Adler points out that "Neo-Confucian writings do not necessarily reflect either the prevailing social practices or the scholars' own attitudes and practices in regard to actual women.
Ever since Europeans first encountered Confucianism, the issue of how Confucianism should be classified has been subject to debate. In the 16th and the 17th centuries, the earliest European arrivals in China, the Christian Jesuits , considered Confucianism to be an ethical system, not a religion, and one that was compatible with Christianity. By the early 18th century, this initial portrayal was rejected by the Dominicans and Franciscans , creating a dispute among Catholics in East Asia that was known as the "Rites Controversy.
This view was reinforced by Pope Benedict XIV , who ordered a ban on Chinese rituals,  though this ban was re-assessed and repealed in by Pope Pius XII , provided that such traditions harmonize with the true and authentic spirit of the liturgy. Some critics view Confucianism as definitely pantheistic and nontheistic , in that it is not based on the belief in the supernatural or in a personal god existing separate from the temporal plane. On spirituality, Confucius said to Chi Lu, one of his students: "You are not yet able to serve men, how can you serve spirits? Scholars recognise that classification ultimately depends on how one defines religion.
Using stricter definitions of religion, Confucianism has been described as a moral science or philosophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chinese ethical and philosophical system. Early history. Fundamental concepts. Confucianism by country. Korea Japan Indonesia United States. Confucian texts. Large seal. Small seal. Its full meaning is "man receiving instruction from Heaven". According to Kang Youwei , Hu Shih , and Yao Xinzhong , they were the official shaman-priests wu experts in rites and astronomy of the Shang, and later Zhou, dynasty. Further information: Confucian theology. Main article: Tian. Main article: Ren Confucianism. Main article: Li Confucianism. Main article: Filial piety. Main article: Junzi. Main article: Rectification of names.
See also: History of religion in China. Further information: Confucian churches , Lineage churches , and Temple of Confucius. See also: Confucian ritual religion and Holy Confucian Church. See also: Women in ancient and imperial China. Main article: Chinese Rites controversy. Demystifying the Chinese Economy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Juergensmeyer, Mark ed. Religion in Global Civil Society. Oxford University Press. Adler , p. Herbert Fingarette captured this essential feature of Confucianism in the title of his book, Confucius: The Secular as Sacred. To assume a dualistic relationship between sacred and profane and to use this as a criterion of religion is to beg the question of whether Confucianism can count as a religious tradition.
The Wall Street Journal. State University of New York Press. In Ropp, Paul S. University of California Press. III, for the graphic interpretation of the character. Occasional Papers 5. Archived from the original on 16 January In Krech, Volkhard; Steinicke, Marion eds. Leiden: Brill. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Sinica Leidensia. XIX 2. ISSN X. State University of New York at Plattsburgh. Archived from the original on 3 December Philosophy East and West.
University of Hawaii Press. JSTOR Dictionary of Philosophy. Philosophical Library. Chinese Text Project. New York: Columbia University Press, , Within a short time of the abdication of the last emperor, monarchists were plotting to restore a Confucian ruler to the throne. Although these plans did not materialize, the Nationalist regime in mainland China and later in Taiwan has promoted Confucius and Confucianism in a variety of ways in order to distinguish itself from the iconoclastic Communists who followed Mao to victory and control over most of China in Today, the Communist government of China spends a great deal of money on the reconstruction and restoration of old imperial temples to Confucius across the country, and has even erected many new statues of Confucius in areas likely to be frequented by tourists from overseas.
Predictably, Confucius, as a philosopher, has been rehabilitated by culturally Chinese regimes across Asia, from Singapore to Beijing, as what Wm. In short, Confucius seems far from dead, although one wonders if the authentic spirit of his fifth century BCE thought ever will live again. Nonetheless, an outline of the most important commentators and their philosophical trajectories is worth including here. Neither knew Confucius personally, nor did they know one another, except retrospectively, as in the case of Xunzi commenting on Mencius. The two usually are cast as being opposed to one another because of their disagreement over human nature — a subject on which Confucius was notably silent Analects 5.
Whereas Mencius claims that human beings are originally good but argues for the necessity of self-cultivation, Xunzi claims that human beings are originally bad but argues that they can be reformed, even perfected, through self-cultivation. Also like Mencius, Xunzi sees li as the key to the cultivation of renxing. Confucius — B. These complimentary sets of concerns can be categorized into four groups: Theodicy Harmonious order Moral force Self-cultivation 3. Heaven has abandoned me! For Confucius, the paramount example of harmonious social order seems to be xiao filial piety , of which jing reverence is the key quality: Observe what a person has in mind to do when his father is alive, and then observe what he does when his father is dead.
A moral ruler will diffuse morality to those under his sway; a moral parent will raise a moral child: Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, a father a father, and a son a son. It is both a quality, and a virtue of, the successful ruler: One who rules by moral force may be compared to the North Star — it occupies its place and all the stars pay homage to it. Self-Cultivation In the Analects , two types of persons are opposed to one another — not in terms of basic potential for, in The Confucius of the State Such mythmaking was very important to the emerging imperial Chinese state, however, as it struggled to impose cultural unity on a vast and fractious territory during the final few centuries BCE and beyond into the Common Era.
References and Further Reading Allan, Sarah. The Way of Water and Sprouts of Virtue. Allinson, Robert E. Ames, Roger T. New York: Ballatine, Roger T. Berthrong, John. Peter K. Boodberg, Peter A. Boodberg , ed. Alvin P. Cohen Berkeley: University of California Press, , Brooks, E. Bruce and A. Taeko, trans. New York: Columbia University Press, Chan, Wing-tsit, ed. A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Cheng, Anne.
Creel, Herrlee G. Confucius and the Chinese Way. New York: Harper and Row, Csikszentmihalyi, Mark. Bryan W. Eno, Robert. The Confucian Creation of Heaven. Fingarette, Herbert. Confucius — The Secular as Sacred. New York: Harper Torchbooks, Graham, A. Hall, David L. Thinking Through Confucius.