Bubonic Plague In Victorian Britain

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Bubonic Plague In Victorian Britain

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Or have lunch at the haunted Mermaid Inn , rebuilt in ! Rye is a happening place so be sure to book accommodations early. There is always some type of event every month in Rye to enjoy — from gastronomy to art festivals — appealing to people of all ages. Just a few minutes outside of Brighton is the small, historic village of Rottingdean. Plus, it even has a windmill. The sails of the windmill were used to signal to those waiting in the channel with contraband that the coast was clear.

Rottingdean is also celebrated for its beautiful location where the South Downs meet the sea. There are many beautiful walks that you can take — either just around the town, up on to the Downs, or along the coast to Brighton or eastwards towards the Seven Sisters which could rival the White Cliffs of Dover. In the town itself, you can have a high tea at the Sweetie Pie cake shop on the High Street, or treat yourself to a traditional pub lunch at The Plough which backs on to the pond in the centre of Rottingdean village.

To get to Rottingdean by public transport, you can take one of the many buses from outside the Sealife Centre in Brighton to Rottingdean, the journey is about 20 minutes. Nestled in the Tillingbourne valley, Shere in Guilford Surrey has a chocolate box tranquillity that has earned the quaint village worldwide recognition. Think rows of charming 16thth century houses adorned with hanging wisteria, ducks floating in a small stream and winding streets full of independent shops. And close by you can enjoy the sweeping views and countryside walks in Newlands Corner. Tucked away on the southern edge of the New Forest National Park, this colourful coastal town offers plenty to do. Each Saturday morning its Georgian High Street is transformed into a bustling street market.

The High Street is also home to many favourite shops, as well as a number of independent local boutiques. From here you can weave your way through the series of cobbled streets down to the quay, the perfect place to enjoy some traditional fish and chips or go crabbing! Lymington also provides the perfect base from which to explore the New Forest and the southern coast. For those wishing to venture even further afield, you can also reach the Isle of Wight by ferry in only 35 minutes.

Think rolling countryside, cute pubs, and lots of picture-perfect English villages. The best part is that very few people have heard of it, so this gorgeous rural area is fairly empty. Cranborne village sits right on the edge of the Chase. This is one of the prettiest villages in Dorset , filled with red brick cottages and old-fashioned cob houses. The River Crane runs through the centre of the village and is a lovely spot for a walk.

A must-visit is the 12th-century Norman priory church, whose peaceful churchyard is filled with colourful flowers during spring and summer. Today there are less than residents. However, in the Middle Ages, Cranborne was a large town with a population similar to London at the time. King John often visited to hunt on the Chase. His troops were garrisoned in the town, while the King stayed at Cranborne Manor. This Grade-1 listed country house dates back to the 13 th century and still stands today! The stunning manor gardens are considered some of the best in the country and are open to the public. Visitors can stay at either of the two pubs in the village, which are also both excellent places to eat. Alternatively, the Chase is filled with accommodation options to suit all budgets, from campsites to converted country manors.

Corfe Castle is a picture-perfect village on the Isle of Purbeck, not far from the Dorset coast. The castle at Corfe Castle is owned by the National Trust and is open to visitors. The castle started out as a Saxon fortress and was rebuilt by the Normans. It was partially demolished in by the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War. The Swanage Heritage Railway has a station at Corfe Castle and with parking in the village at a premium, arriving by steam train is convenient and fun.

The Model Village shows what Corfe Castle would have looked like before it was destroyed. Tucked away two miles southeast of Dorchester is the tiny village of Whitcombe. It truly is small, with a population of only around 20 people. It has no real attractions. However, it is located on the main road between Dorchester and Broadmayne and is well worth pulling over to admire its beauty. Comprised of a small redundant 12th-century church and a handful of thatched cottages, it is a quintessential rural English village. It was used for worship during the Saxon era and fragments of two Saxon crosses still remain.

You may also meet some fluffy locals grazing on the pastures surrounding the church! With a population of just 12, people and a total size of 3. Located in Somerset, Wells is a great place to visit on the way to Devon or Cornwall, or worthy of a day trip on its own. The close is often filled with locals and tourists all vying for the perfect photo of this beautiful residential street. Nearby Wookey Hole is also a popular place for visitors wanting to see the limestone caves as well as other on-site attractions. There are plenty of accommodation options in Wells. Everybody has heard of cheddar cheese, but did you know that Cheddar is also one of the prettiest villages in England?

With a population of only around , this tiny village attracts many more thousands every month. Due to its location, in the beautiful county of Somerset, Cheddar village is a very popular family weekend destination in this part of Great Britain. There are a few parking spots in and just outside of the village. But it is advisable to arrive a bit earlier as most of the parking spaces are already full after 11am at the weekend. The Mendip Hills also provide many stunning hiking opportunities including the famous Cheddar Gorge hike. This limestone gorge is known for being the largest gorge in the UK. Hiking Cheddar Gorge is the second most popular thing to do in Cheddar — with trying cheddar cheese being the number one! There are also a few great pubs, where you can chill out and have traditional British food and many small shops selling local souvenirs and products.

This might sound a bit cheesy, but Cheddar village really is one of the prettiest English villages! Pair a visit to Cheddar with a trip to Glastonbury on this day trip from London. Contributed by Lou from Wandering Welsh Girl. Dunster is a medieval village located near Exmoor National Park in Somerset. It is famed for its 11th century Castle and Old Yam Market. This pretty little English village is home to over listed buildings, making it a great place to simply wander around and enjoy some English heritage. A trip to Dunster is not complete without visiting Dunster Castle and Watermill.

The Castle was originally built in Norman times. However, it was remodelled into a country manor in the s and is now owned by the National Trust. Great panoramic views of the castle can be gained by crossing the river Avill and walking up the hill to the south. Cross the river via Gallox Bridge, which is an old picturesque packhorse bridge. Dunster is also a great base for exploring more of the surrounding areas, either by foot or by bike.

Contributed by Tara from Silly Little Kiwi. Beer is a quaint little coastal village in Devon. The pebbled beaches and jagged coastline are a stark contrast to more traditional English villages, but the streets are lined with the quintessential cottages of your dreams. It makes for a unique day trip from London. Some of the best things to see and do in Beer are the walks along the rugged Jurassic Coast to other nearby villages. These walks vary in distance, but they are all well-marked and relatively easy — families and dogs are welcome to enjoy the paths. Along the main road are a number of boutiques to shop at selling local art and homeware.

For eco-focused travelers, a stop at the Beer Fine Foundation Centre near the head of the beach is both educational and interesting. The small wooden hut houses mini-exhibits that detail the aquatic life in the area and outline the steps locals have taken to protect the environment. If you want guaranteed surf, the broad sandy beach in Croyde will deliver. The village centre is small, but very pretty. Think traditional thatched cottages, white stone walls and lots of colourful flowers in summer. Croyde has a couple of laid-back pubs, where locals and visitors rub along together nicely. Otherwise on the eatery and retail front there are surf and ice cream shops and a couple of interesting markets — one by the beach and one in the village centre.

Croyde also makes a great base for exploring North Devon. The huge, golden sandy beach at Woolacombe is just along the coast, with the Victorian resort of Ilfracombe a little further on. Nearby Braunton has more surf stores, cafes, a fish and chip shop and the Museum of British Surfing. Between Croyde and Braunton is Saunton Sands and Braunton Burrows, providing breathtaking views as you travel along the elevated, twisting coast road. If you love the coastal lifestyle, then Croyde is simply the best village in England.

Clovelly village in north Devon is prettier than you could possibly imagine. The tiny fishing village is perched on a ridiculously steep cliff which leads down to a 14th-century harbour and quayside. The narrow cobbled High Street is so steep that no cars are allowed — donkeys and hand-made wooden sledges are used to transport goods and shopping up and down. Children will love to stop and visit the donkeys at the top of the hill and in summer they can enjoy a donkey ride. The cottage is laid out to show how a family would have lived in the village in the s. The Red Lion sits on the quayside and will serve you up a well-earned drink and lunch. This includes parking, admission to the village and the two museums. Check up to date information on the Clovelly website.

This beautiful village has several reasons why you should visit — some more macabre than others! There is also a world-famous pottery shop and lots of delicious local ice-cream! However, the village is also home to one of the most famous witchcraft museums in the world. Yep, this tiny village has an entire building filled with myth, magical and gore. Hidden away on the south-east coast of the Lizard Peninsula, the tiny fishing village of Cadgwith Cove is one of the best places to visit in Cornwall.

The village itself is impossibly charming with thatched cottages, cheerfully painted houses and hidden pathways leading up to the headland offering incredible views out to sea. The Cornish coastal trail runs through here. If you want to stay here there are several quaint holiday cottages to choose from. Just be aware that you have to park your car outside the village and walk down after unloading. Being car-free is one of the reasons why the cove is so peaceful. When the tide is higher the island can be reached by small boats. Towering ft above sea level, the castle is owned and occupied by the St Aubyn family. This family have lived here since the 17th century. The island has a rich history dating to the Bronze Ages and is a fascinating place to visit.

The castle and gardens are open to the public. There is also a small harbour, shops and restaurant on the island. However, the village of Marazion is worth exploring as well. It is a popular place for beach holidays and watersports, with several beautiful sandy beaches nearby. Marazion is also considered to be one of the oldest villages in Britain, dating back to the Roman times.

There are various walks to take in the area, with the Perranuthnoe Circular route being one of the most popular. It was first established as a Trust Port in and now has a fleet of small fishing boats. It is the most south-westerly village in England with nothing else other than the Scilly Isles before America. Given its exposed location this village is dominated by the sea. It has a small fishing harbour which protects the fleet from the worst of the winter storms. However, even in the summer months, it can have large waves breaking over the harbour wall. Adjacent to the harbour is the lifeboat station which is integral to the safety of the fishermen as well as visiting boats. It has a small viewing gallery so you can see the boat close up.

Next to the lifeboat station is the Roundhouse and Capstan Gallery. This is an old building which has a beautiful small gallery of local crafts and art works. This is just 20 minutes walk away along the South West Coast Path. Alternatively the surf school on the beach will get you started catching the waves. Staying in Sennen Cove is easy as there are lots of options. However, The Old Success Inn is one of the closest to the beach and offers stunning views over the cove. Click here or on the image of the map to open up a Google map in a new tab. Exploring these rural English towns provides more than just some postcard-worthy images; it also provides a glimpse into the past and an insight into traditional English living.

Let us know! All of these villages are so beautiful! I love the UK and all of the small towns. Same — I definitely need to see more of the north of England too. What a great guide. If you are deciding where to shop, it is not the corner shop prices alone that matter, but rather the prices relative to those in the supermarket and relative to the costs of reaching the supermarket.

Relative prices are simply the price of one option relative to another. We often express relative price as the ratio of two prices. We will see that they matter a lot in explaining not just what shoppers or consumers, as we usually call them decide to buy, but why firms make the choices that they do. Imagine that you have figured out a new way of reproducing sound in high quality. Your competitors cannot copy you, either because they cannot figure out how to do it or because you have a patent on the process making it illegal for them to copy you.

So they continue offering their services at a price that is much higher than your costs. If you match their price, or undercut them by just a bit, you will be able to sell as much as you can produce, so you can charge the same price but make profits that greatly exceed those of your competitors. In this case, we say that you are making an innovation rent. Innovation rents are a form of economic rent—and economic rents occur throughout the economy.

They are one of the reasons why capitalism can be such a dynamic system. We will use the idea of innovation rents to explain some of the factors contributing to the Industrial Revolution. But economic rent is a general concept that will help explain many other features of the economy. When taking some action call it action A results in a greater benefit to yourself than the next best action, we say that you have received an economic rent. The term is easily confused with everyday uses of the word, such as the rent for temporary use of a car, apartment, or piece of land.

Remember, an economic rent is something you would like to get, not something you have to pay. Or, if you are enjoying A but then someone excludes you from doing it, your reservation option is your Plan B. This decision rule motivates our explanation of why a firm may innovate by switching from one technology to another. We start in the next section by comparing technologies. We now apply these modelling ideas to explain technological progress. In this section we consider:. Suppose we ask an engineer to report on the technologies that are available to produce metres of cloth, where the inputs are labour number of workers, each working for a standard eight-hour day and energy tonnes of coal.

The answer is represented in the diagram and table in Figure 2. The five points in the table represent five different technologies. For example, technology E uses 10 workers and 1 tonne of coal to produce metres of cloth. Follow the steps in Figure 2. The table describes five different technologies that we refer to in the rest of this section. They use different quantities of labour and coal as inputs for producing metres of cloth. The A-technology is the most energy-intensive, using 1 worker and 6 tonnes of coal. The B-technology uses 4 workers and 2 tonnes of coal: it is a more labour-intensive technology than A. Finally, the E-technology uses 10 workers and 1 tonne of coal. This is the most labour-intensive of the five technologies. We describe the E-technology as relatively labour-intensive and the A-technology as relatively energy-intensive.

If an economy were using technology E and shifted to using technology A or B we would say that they had adopted a labour-saving technology, because the amount of labour used to produce metres of cloth with these two technologies is less than with technology E. This is what happened during the Industrial Revolution. Which technology will the firm choose? The first step is to rule out technologies that are obviously inferior. We begin in Figure 2. The C-technology is inferior to A: to produce metres of cloth, it uses more workers three rather than one and more coal 7 tonnes rather than 6 tonnes. We say the C-technology is dominated by the A-technology: assuming all inputs must be paid for, no firm will use technology C when A is available.

The steps in Figure 2. The five technologies for producing metres of cloth are represented by the points A to E. We can use this figure to show which technologies dominate others. Clearly, technology A dominates the C-technology: the same amount of cloth can be produced using A with fewer inputs of labour and energy. This means that, whenever A is available, you would never use C. Technology B dominates the D-technology: the same amount of cloth can be produced using B with fewer inputs of labour and energy.

Note that B would dominate any other technology that is in the shaded area above and to the right of point B. Technology A dominates C; technology B dominates D. The E-technology does not dominate any of the other available technologies. We know this because none of the other four technologies are in the area above and to the right of E. Using only the engineering information about inputs, we have narrowed down the choices: the C- and D-technologies would never be chosen. But how does the firm choose between A, B and E? This requires an assumption about what the firm is trying to do.

We assume its goal is to make as much profit as possible, which means producing cloth at the least possible cost. Making a decision about technology also requires economic information about relative prices—the cost of hiring a worker relative to that of purchasing a tonne of coal. Intuitively, the labour-intensive E-technology would be chosen if labour was very cheap relative to the cost of coal; the energy-intensive A-technology would be preferable in a situation where coal is relatively cheap.

An economic model helps us be more precise than this. The firm can calculate the cost of any combination of inputs that it might use by multiplying the number of workers by the wage and the tonnes of coal by the price of coal. We use the symbol w for the wage, L for the number of workers, p for the price of coal and R for the tonnes of coal:. In the table in Figure 2. This corresponds to combination P 1 in the diagram. When drawing the line, we simplify by assuming that fractions of workers and of coal can be purchased. This is point Q 2. We could draw isocost lines through any other set of points in the diagram. If prices of inputs are fixed, the isocost lines are parallel.

The slope of the isocost lines is negative they slope downward. Isocost lines join all the combinations of workers and coal that cost the same amount. We can use them to help us compare the costs of the three technologies A, B, and E that remain in play that is, are not dominated. The table in Figure 2. Clearly the B-technology allows the firm to produce cloth at lower cost. In the diagram, we have drawn the isocost line through the point representing technology B.

We can see from Figure 2. The other available technologies will not be chosen at these input prices. We can now represent the isocost lines for any wage w and coal price p as equations. To do this, we write c for the cost of production. We begin with the cost of production equation:. The slope is the relative price of labour. Any change in the relative price of these two inputs will change the slope of the isocost lines. Looking at the positions of the three technologies in Figure 2. This is what happened in England in the eighteenth century. Looking at the table in Figure 2. Cheaper coal makes each method of production cheaper, but the energy-intensive technology is now cheapest. The A-technology is on the isocost line FG.

Technologies B and E are above this line, with higher costs. The slope of the isocost line can be found by calculating the relative price of labour. The easiest way is to find one of the end points F or G. This is point F. You can see from Figure 2. They will not be chosen if the A-technology is available. The next step is to calculate the gains to the first firm to adopt the least-cost technology A when the relative price of labour to coal rises. Like all its competitors, the firm is initially using the B-technology and minimizing its costs: this is shown in Figure 2. From the table, we see that with these relative prices, A is now the least-cost technology.

Switching to technology A will be cheaper. Whether the new or old technology is used, the same prices have to be paid for labour and coal, and the same price is received for selling metres of cloth. The decision rule if the economic rent is positive, do it! In our example, the A-technology was available, but not in use until a first-adopter firm responded to the incentive created by the increase in the relative price of labour. The first adopter is called an entrepreneur. When we describe a person or firm as entrepreneurial, it refers to a willingness to try out new technologies and to start new businesses. The economist Joseph Schumpeter see below made the adoption of technological improvements by entrepreneurs a key part of his explanation for the dynamism of capitalism.

This is why innovation rents are often called Schumpeterian rents. Innovation rents will not last forever. Other firms, noticing that entrepreneurs are making economic rents, will eventually adopt the new technology. They will also reduce their costs and their profits will increase. In this case, with higher profits per metres of cloth, the lower-cost firms will thrive. They will increase their output of cloth. As more firms introduce the new technology, the supply of cloth to the market increases and the price will start to fall. This process will continue until everyone is using the new technology, at which stage prices will have declined to the point where no one is earning innovation rents.

The firms that stuck to the old B-technology will be unable to cover their costs at the new lower price for cloth, and they will go bankrupt. Joseph Schumpeter called this creative destruction. Look at the three isocost lines in Figure 2. Lynne Kiesling, a historian of economic thought, discusses Joseph Schumpeter. Joseph Schumpeter — developed one of the most important concepts of modern economics: creative destruction.

Schumpeter brought to economics the idea of the entrepreneur as the central actor in the capitalist economic system. The entrepreneur is the agent of change who introduces new products, new methods of production, and opens up new markets. Imitators follow, and the innovation is diffused through the economy. A new entrepreneur and innovation launch the next upswing. For Schumpeter, creative destruction was the essential fact about capitalism: old technologies and the firms that do not adapt are swept away by the new, because they cannot compete in the market by selling goods at a price that covers the cost of production.

The failure of unprofitable firms releases labour and capital goods for use in new combinations. This decentralized process generates a continued improvement in productivity, which leads to growth, so Schumpeter argued it is virtuous. The slowness of this process creates upswings and downswings in the economy. Schumpeter was born in Austro-Hungary, but migrated to the US after the Nazis won the election in that led to the formation of the Third Reich in As a young professor in Austria he had fought and won a duel with the university librarian to ensure that students had access to books.

He added that only the decline of the cavalry had stopped him from succeeding in all three. Before the Industrial Revolution, weaving, spinning, and making clothes for the household were time-consuming tasks for most women. What did inventions such as the spinning jenny do? The first spinning jennies had eight spindles. One machine operated by just one adult therefore replaced eight spinsters working on eight spinning wheels. By the late nineteenth century, a single spinning mule operated by a very small number of people could replace more than 1, spinsters.

These machines did not rely on human energy, but were powered first by water wheels, and later by coal-powered steam engines. The model in the previous section provides a hypothesis potential explanation for why someone would bother to invent such a technology, and why someone would want to use it. In this model, producers of cloth chose between technologies using just two inputs—energy and labour.

This is a simplification, but it shows the importance of the relative costs of inputs for the choice of technology. When the cost of labour increased relative to the cost of energy, there were innovation rents to be earned from a switch to the energy-intensive technology. This is just a hypothesis. Is it actually what happened? Looking at how relative prices differed among countries, and how they changed over time, can help us understand why technologies such as the spinning jenny were invented in Britain rather than elsewhere, and in the eighteenth century rather than at an earlier time.

Page of Robert C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. You can see that labour was more expensive relative to the cost of energy in England and the Netherlands than in France Paris and Strasbourg , and much more so than in China. Wages relative to the cost of energy were high in England, both because English wages were higher than wages elsewhere, and because coal was cheaper in coal-rich Britain than in the other countries in Figure 2. Page in Robert C. It shows the wages of building labourers divided by the cost of using capital goods. This cost is calculated from the prices of metal, wood, and brick, the cost of borrowing, and takes account of the rate at which the capital goods wear out, or depreciate.

As you can see, wages relative to the cost of capital goods were similar in England and France in the mid-seventeenth century but from then on, in England but not in France, workers became steadily more expensive relative to capital goods. In other words, the incentive to replace workers with machines was increasing in England during this time, but this was not true in France. In France, the incentive to save labour by innovating had been stronger during the late sixteenth century than it was years later, at the time the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain.

From the model in the previous section we learned that the technology chosen depends on relative input prices. Combining the predictions of the model with the historical data, we have one explanation for the timing and location of the Industrial Revolution :. No doubt it helped, too, that Britain was such an inventive country. There were many skilled workmen, engineers and machine makers who could build the machines that inventors designed. In the s, the relative prices are shown by isocost line HJ.

The B-technology was used. At those relative prices, there was no incentive to develop a technology like A, which is outside the isocost line HJ. In the s, the isocost lines such as FG were much steeper, because the relative price of labour to coal was higher. The relative cost was sufficiently high to make the A-technology lower cost than the B-technology. We know that when the relative price of labour is high, technology A is lower cost because the B-technology lies outside the isocost line FG. Economic historian Bob Allen addresses the question of why Britain industrialized when others did not.

Watch our video in which Bob Allen, an economic historian, explains his theory of why the Industrial Revolution occurred when and where it did. The relative prices of labour, energy and capital can help to explain why the labour-saving technologies of the Industrial Revolution were first adopted in England, and why at that time technology advanced more rapidly there than on the continent of Europe, and even more rapidly compared with Asia. What explains the eventual adoption of these new technologies in countries like France and Germany, and ultimately China and India? One answer is further technological progress, where a new technology is developed that dominates the existing one in use.

Technological progress would mean that it would take smaller quantities of inputs to produce metres of cloth. We can use the model to illustrate this. In Figure 2. The analysis in Figure 2. Where the relative price of labour is high, the energy-intensive technology, A, is chosen. Where the relative price of labour is low, the labour-intensive technology, B, is chosen. This technology uses only half as much energy per worker to produce metres of cloth. The new technology dominates the A-technology. A second factor that promoted the diffusion across the world of the new technologies was wage growth and falling energy costs due, for example, to cheaper transportation, allowing countries to import energy cheaply from abroad.

This made isocost lines steeper in poor countries, again providing an incentive to switch to a labour-saving technology. Either way, the new technologies spread, and the divergence in technologies and living standards was eventually replaced by convergence—at least among those countries where the capitalist revolution had taken off. Nevertheless, in some countries we still observe the use of technologies that were replaced in Britain during the Industrial Revolution.

The model predicts that the relative price of labour must be very low in such situations, making the isocost line very flat. The B-technology could be preferred in Figure 2. Look again at Figure 2. The historical evidence supports our model that uses relative prices and innovation rents to provide a simple account of the timing and the geographical spread of the permanent technological revolution.

This is part of the explanation of the upward kink in the hockey stick. Explaining the long flat part of the stick is another story, requiring a different model. Malthus provided a model of the economy that predicts a pattern of economic development consistent with the flat part of the GDP per capita hockey stick from Figure 1. His model introduces concepts that are used widely in economics. One of the most important concepts is the idea of diminishing average product of a factor of production. To understand what this means, imagine an agricultural economy that produces just one good, grain. Suppose that grain production is very simple—it involves only farm labour, working on the land.

In other words, ignore the fact that grain production also requires spades, combine harvesters, grain elevators, silos, and other types of buildings and equipment. Labour and land and the other inputs that we are ignoring are called factors of production , meaning inputs into the production process. In the model of technological change above, the factors of production are energy and labour. We will use a further simplifying ceteris paribus assumption: that the amount of land is fixed and all of the same quality. Imagine that the land is divided into farms, each worked by a single farmer.

Each farmer works the same total hours during a year. Together, these farmers produce a total of , kg of grain. This describes the relationship between the amount of output produced and the amounts of inputs used to produce it. To understand what will happen when the population grows and there are more farmers on the same limited space of farmland, we need something that economists call the production function for farming.

This indicates the amount of output produced by any given number of farmers working on a given amount of land. In this case, we are holding constant all of the other inputs, including land, so we only consider how output varies with the amount of labour. In the previous sections, you have already seen very simple production functions that specified the amounts of labour and energy necessary to produce metres of cloth. For example, in Figure 2. In the third column we have calculated the average product of labour. We call this a production function because a function is a relationship between two quantities inputs and outputs in this case , expressed mathematically as:.

X in this case is the amount of labour devoted to farming. Y is the output in grain that results from this input. The function f X describes the relationship between X and Y , represented by the curve in the figure. The production function shows how the number of farmers working the land translates into grain produced at the end of the growing season. Point A on the production function shows the output of grain produced by farmers.

Point B on the production function shows the amount of grain produced by 1, farmers. The slope of the ray from the origin to point B on the production function shows the average product of labour at point B. The slope is , meaning an average product of kg per farmer when 1, farmers work the land. To stand out from hundreds of other students studying the same texts, you need a strategy. You need something that will wow your examiners and will catapult you to the top of the VCE cohort. This strategy is simple. Notice how the blue arrows never touch:. No two texts are ever exactly the same, no two examples are exactly the same , so avoid falling into this trap. So this is the simple part done.

Since no examples from two texts are exactly the same, this means there is always an opportunity for you to first compare the similarities, then compare the differences. Instead, we show you unique ways to compare the two texts so that your essay stands out amongst all the others that are just using the same old words and methods to compare. Too many students miss out on the opportunity to elaborate or expand on an example because they only write about either the similarity or the difference. The life of an English teacher during assessment time is miserable. This is great for us! If you know how to use their misery to your advantage.

Hello, I am here to teach you how you can claim some easy English points off these poor, poor, professors. This should be a baseline expectation! Historical context generally entails listing the form novella, play, etc… of your text; the time period in which it was written Victorian, 20th century, etc… , its genre Gothic, biographical, etc… , and finally, any of the relevant literary titles it could be classed under Romantic, Feminist, post-colonial, etc…. You must impress an assessor within two minutes. With this in mind, what do you think looks better: a little five-line intro vaguely outlining your points and just barely tickling on the structure and context of the texts; or a sprawling introduction which hits the historical context on the head and articulates beautifully the direction your essay is going and how it plans to get there.

Your topic sentences NEED to be easy to read and easy to follow. Apply the K. S rule here Keep it Simple, Stupid. State the point of your paragraph with clarity, there should be nothing too complex or vague about it. If you feel you cannot encapsulate your topic within a single sentence, then I suggest dialling back the complexity of your paragraph topic. Remember, text response is a process of stating a concept, then proving it — nothing more, nothing less. Make sure your expression is on point. Avoid run on sentences, break them up with full stops, a comma is not a substitute for a period. This kind of rather basic English knowledge can seriously pepper up your analysis once you understand how language works.

Begin by simply noting how an adjective modifies a verb within a sentence and what affect that has. Once you master this, you can move onto actually classifying the language under specific tones; for example: a pejorative verb, or a superlative adjective of degree. Structure is the Bifrost which separates the land of Gods from the land of mortals. Some good ways to begin thinking about structure include: pondering how the text begins and ends, does it begin as a jovial and upbeat story and end as a depressing mess, why might the author have structured the text this way? Or, think about which characters we follow throughout the text and what journey they undergo, are their multiple narrators? Why might this be relevant or what may the author be trying to emphasise?

Another great one is just looking for recurring themes and motifs across the text, such as a repeated phrase or similarities between characters. The key to writing on structure is understanding how the text has been structured, and then connecting that to a meaning or using it to support your contention. I cannot stress this enough, use TEEL topic sentence, evidence, elaboration, link , use whatever your teacher taught, but use it! Once you understand how to structure an essay, everything else improves. So, structure your essays!! An allusion is any reference within a text to another text.

Or when your protagonist happens across a bible verse, that is a biblical allusion. Whenever I hear a student mention a literary allusion, my day improves and so does their mark. Most every text has allusions in it somewhere, do your research. This one is eating from the tree of knowledge. Including a philosophical concept in your essay immediately places you in the upper echelons. It separates plebs from patricians. Bonus points for philosophical ideas that were relevant to the time period historical context, remember.

Referencing the authorial agenda is just minty fresh, it demonstrates a clear understanding of concepts even beyond just the text itself. If you made it to the end of this then great work! Including these tips in your essays is a surefire way to push them to the next level. Thanks again for getting this far, unless you just scrolled to the bottom hoping for a TLDR. Summary 2. Themes 3. Symbols and Analysis 4. Quotes 5. Sample Essay Topics 6.

Essay Topic Breakdown. Alice Munro is a Canadian Nobel-Prize-winning author of short stories , and Runaway , first published in , is a collection of eight such stories though kind of actually only six, because three of them are sequential. These stories examine the lives of Canadian women throughout the last century, but not all of them are necessarily realistic to what daily life actually looks like. Rather, Munro uses borderline-supernatural events which some critics say feel staged or contrived to shed light on the tensions and challenge s of gender in modern life. This can mean that some of the stories are quite hard to follow; they go through all these twists and turns, and the lines between stories start blurring after a while.

The titular story is about a woman Carla , her husband Clark , their goat Flora , and their elderly neighbour Sylvia Jamieson. Few of these runaways are really very successful: this story is really interrogating why and how. In this story, she meets her lover Eric Porteous on a train, then finds him again six months later. Juliet feels a bit out of place now at home, and feels guilty about not being more present for Sara. The next story is about Grace , an older woman revising the family home of her husband Maury Travers. This trip becomes longer and more sensual, feeling adulterous even though very little actually transpires between them - the story raises questions around what counts as cheating, and what marriages should entail.

We go on a flashback in the middle to learn about a father, Harry , and his daughter Lauren. This leads to Lauren questioning if she was adopted, which is further complicated by Delphine , a worker at a hotel who seems to think Lauren is her biological daughter. The ending which was teased at the beginning is the evening of confrontation between the four characters where the truth is finally revealed. It follows Nancy as she ages from a fresh high school graduate to an old woman by the end of the sequence, including her marriage to the town doctor Wilf. Importantly, the stories also cover her friendship with Tessa , who has the supernatural powers mentioned in the title. However, by the third story, Tessa has been abandoned in a mental hospital and she has lost her powers.

A key theme explored throughout many of the stories is marriage and domesticity. A similar fate befalls Juliet, who gives up her study in the process of becoming married. This sounds a bit trite, but the title is a key theme as well - just not necessarily in the physical sense. Consider all of these different definitions and how they pop up in the stories. Some runaways are described as accidents - 'she — Flora — slipped through' - while others are much more deliberate. The question here is how much control we actually have over our own lives. Not a lot, it would seem. She brings up complex moral situations but does not pass judgment on any. Throughout the stories, Munro brings in a few elements of Greek mythology or literature.

All of these elements have some significance:. In general, intertextuality is a way to enrich a text by drawing parallels and linking characters to existing stories or archetypes. Here, Munro uses classical texts to add dimension to her characters in a way that is almost-but-not-quite commentary. The other symbol that comes up a few times in the stories is roads or railroads - basically places where runaways might happen. This is where we start getting into whether these boundaries are created or overstepped. Clark creates boundaries for Carla and her attempts to break free from them are unsuccessful. How can we synthesise these ideas into one essay? Try to think of creative ways to string these ideas together that also build towards a bigger picture or overall contention about the text as a whole.

This variation underscores their complexity. Because he is aware from an early age that he is out of step with the world, he tends to be more reasonable in his way of dealing with conflict. His final response to his inner conflict is to stand strongly by what he believes. The Lieutenant at its core is a journey of self-discovery as Daniel Rooke navigates the immoral waters of British imperialism and its impact on the indigenous Australians. Becoming closer to Tagaran, Rooke attempts to bridge cultural barriers through the transformative power of language. Rooke observes the scissions created by violence and the perhaps misplaced Western superiority and is perpetually torn between his moral intuitions and his obligations and duty as a Lieutenant.

Language dictates commonality and communication, yet to Rooke he discovers that central to the power of language is the willingness to cooperate, patience and respect. It is through our language itself that reveals our biases. The hierarchical nature of British Society stands in diametric opposition to the community-oriented system employed by the Indigenous Australians. This notion is elucidated through the exploitation of the natives and the nations reliance on oppression and servitude to maintain its imperial status, put simply: their strength is an accident arising from the weakness of others.

It is on this foundation that Grenville explores the violent treatment of the natives by the British and even their treatment of their own people. The morality that is ingrained in Rooke from the onset aligns quite naturally with our own moral standards. Yet Grenville encourages readers to explore the difficult choice between morals and disobedience. Rooke faces such a choice. Violence is central to the operation of imperialists as the British tightens its grip on the Indigenous Australians.

Grenville emphasises that the power sought out by the British empire will always come at the expense of the natives. Violence and force are used to assert power, confirm boundaries around usurped land, promulgate fear and discourage resistance. The gun becomes a symbol of the violence and force of the settle and they show little intention of relinquishing the dominant position that the gun affords them. Conforming to the pressures of the British Empire, Rooke joins the marines and complicitly serves without attempting to question the morality behind his actions.

Importantly, he joins the marines not out of patriotic pride, but because he believes it will aid him to pursue his academic curiosities and steer away from violence. Yet it only brings him closer to the reality that lurks behind the ostensibly moral quest of British imperialism. By the way, to download a PDF version of this blog for printing or offline use, click here! VOCAB: microcosm - a situation or event that encapsulates in miniature the characteristics of something much larger. How does the setting that Rooke finds himself in mirror or parallel the emotions that he experiences? TIP: Just like the minor characters I mentioned before, meaning and themes come from all aspects of a novel not just plot points and major characters. By including niche examples such as the setting or the narrative perspective, you can demonstrate that you have a really thorough understanding of the text!

The extra quote with the prompt can seem superfluous, but often, they can provide hints about how to tackle or challenge the essay topic. It is there for a reason, and if you are familiar with the quote, I would recommend that you try to incorporate it into your essay! The ability for two individuals from completely different worlds to transcend their differences in order to share cherished moments and understandings together is exemplified in The Lieutenant , alongside the rife external and internal conflicts which threaten such relationship. Start off with focusing on the keywords in this prompt, especially the phrases that resonate with you for Steps 1 and 2 of brainstorming which I have previously covered in other essay topic breakdowns.

This means that in your discussion, the relevance to the prompt is crucial to keep in mind to ensure you are actually answering the question! Hence, this quote refers to the conflict of conscience he experiences and provides us with an insight into not only his character but also conflict itself. Why was this realisation important for Rooke, especially for his character and development? These are the kinds of questions coming to mind upon seeing that quote alone, which all provide hints as to how I might tackle this prompt. Questions I might ask myself here include: why does Rooke initially try to deny the reality of his situation? What does his preference for a peaceful and accepting approach towards the Indigenous Australians suggest about his approach to conflict?

This cognitive dissonance ultimately contributes to his internal conflict between the value he places in his connections with Tagaran and her community and in his duties and obligations as a lieutenant. I would then continue unpacking these changing understandings, especially ones relevant to his character which reveal his internal conflicts further. Although the core of the essay discusses internal conflicts, highlighting the connection between internal and external conflict would add another layer of complexity to your essay. It is only through his understanding that non-committal actions also incriminate him as a perpetrator that his choice to sacrifice his Colonial obligations for taking an active stance to fulfil his moral obligations comes to light.

This reveals the role that internal conflicts may have in inciting powerful change and realisations in an individual. The complexity of internal conflict can be difficult to discuss, but by using the quote provided in the prompt and asking yourself questions about the implications of the quote, we are able to delve into and construct a sophisticated understanding of The Lieutenant and of conflict itself. Download a PDF version of this blog for printing or offline use. We've curated essay prompts based off our The Golden Age Study Guide which explores themes, characters, and quotes. Before getting started on your own essay writing using our essay topics, feel free to watch the video below where Lisa brainstorms and breaks down the topic:.

Do you agree? Despite the grim context, The Golden Age highlights and celebrates the potential of life. Memories of past successes and failures have significant lingering effects on characters in The Golden Age. Is this an accurate assessment? It is largely loneliness which defines the struggles of the children in The Golden Age. Fear of the unknown is something which permeates The Golden Age. Is this true? Throughout The Golden Age , London draws attention to beauty rather than to suffering. In spite of their youth, it is the children of The Golden Age who understand best what it means to be an individual in the world. How do characters from The Golden Age learn, grow and mature as the novel takes its course?

Due to the range of different onset stories, each of the children and their families in The Golden Age face a different struggle with their identity. To what extent do you agree? Below I will outline 3 tips which, will hopefully give you a clearer perspective on how to approach writing on Frankenstein! Since the book was set during the Age of Enlightenment and the Romantic era, Shelley essentially used Frankenstein as a vessel to criticise and warn readers against many of the values upheld during her era.

The late 18th century and the first decades of the 19th century were exciting times for science and exploration. Walton wanted to be the first to find a passage through the Arctic Circle; Frankenstein wanted to be the first to create manmade life, to uncover the mysteries of Nature. Both men claimed to be desirous of benefitting humankind but both wanted glory more. This obsession to win accolades for their discoveries will destroy Victor, and turn Walton for a while into a hard taskmaster over his crew. Juxtaposed against these two characters is Henry Clerval. Clerval, too, has an inquiring mind but he also cares about humanity, family and friends. He represents the balanced human being who is sociable, compassionate, intelligent and loyal to his friends.

In his inexperience he botches the work producing a hideous and terrifying creature with, ironically, initially all the virtues of the ideal man of he world. Repulsed by his amateurish handiwork, Victor abandons his creation, setting in place the vengeance that will unfold later. It was this praise that drove Walton and Frankenstein to exceed reasonable expectations becoming reckless and careless of the consequences of their actions. Walton, Frankenstein and the Creature are interconnected in so many ways — whether it be their isolation, ambition, desire for companionship, desire for vengeance or the Romantic values they share.

What I mean by this is that there is a clearly define relationship between isolation, ambition and vengeance and ultimately tragedy in the sense that isolation is what led to the brewing of unchecked ambition which essentially causes the resultant tragedy. Being able to see these links and draw them together will not only add depth to your writing but it also arms you with the ability to be able to deal with a wider array of prompts.

While Walton, Frankenstein and the Creature can be discussed incredibly thoroughly and by all means go ahead and do it , but it is also very important to consider the novel as a whole and talk about, if not more thoroughly, on the minor characters. Henry Clerval like previously mentioned can be contrasted against Walton and his best friend Frankenstein to show that as long as we have a balanced lifestyle and companionship, ambition will not lead us to ruin. Characters such as the Turkish merchant can also have parallels drawn with Frankenstein in telling how our selfish desire and actions, born out of inconsideration for their consequences, can backfire with great intensity. Mentioning these characters and utilising these contrasts can be monumental in showing your understanding of the novel and by extension, your English analytical ability.

Today, we're going to be talking about Frankenstein and breaking down an essay topic for it. So in the past, I've done plenty of videos looking at different types of essay topics and breaking them down by looking at keywords and then going into the body paragraphs and looking at those ideas. This time round, the takeaway message that I want you to leave with is understanding what types of evidence you should be using inside your body paragraphs. Specifically, I wanted to talk about literary devices or metalanguage. Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein uses so many literary devices that it's impossible to ignore.

If you are somebody who is studying this text or other texts that you use and are heavily embedded with literary techniques, then it's really important that you don't just use dialogue as part of your quotes, but actually reading between the lines. I'll teach you on how it's not just about finding dialogue, which you include as quotes inside your body paragraphs, but reading between the lines, so looking at literary devices like metaphors, symbols, imagery, so let's get started. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein constitutes escaping critique of the prioritization of scientific advancement over human welfare and relationship.

Frankenstein is fascinated with science and discovery, he is consumed with the idea of a new and more noble race by stitching up dead body parts from a cemetery. He feverishly works away at his experiment until one day the creature is born. Frankenstein is horrified at the living thing he has made and completely rejects the creature, leaving it without a parental figure.

The creature is left alone to look after himself. He educates himself and on repeated occasions tries to approach people in society, however, is rejected every time because of his monstrous appearance. As a result, the creature becomes enraged at humanity and Frankenstein's unfair treatment towards him and consequently exacts revenge on Frankenstein and his family. The essay topic we'll be looking at today is, Our sympathies in this novel ultimately lie with the creature.

So in previous videos, we've looked at keywords, how to identify them and how to define them. Since it's pretty straightforward for this essay topic, I thought I would skip that part and then go into the more nitty gritty with the body paragraphs. But, if you are unfamiliar with these steps, then I'll link them in the card above and also in the description below so you can have a look at how I went ahead and did the keyword section in my planning, now back to the prompt.

Unequivocally within Frankenstein, Shelley portrays sympathy as spread throughout the text through depicting the creature as innately human through his desire for relationship and the challenges he faces at the hands of the prejudice enlightenment society he's born into, Shelley elicits sympathy for his situation. However, through the notable absence of the female gender throughout the text, Shelley portrays those silent within society as most deserving of sympathy. So, with this in mind, here are the potential paragraphs in response to this prompt. Paragraph one, Shelley's depiction of the creature as innately human motivates support for his challenges at the hands of a prejudice society.

The action of the creature to open his dull yellow eye, symbolic of his nature as a human being alongside a green wrinkled on his cheeks, with one hand stretched out, indicates his simple desire for paternal connection. Through constructing the creature's actions as innately human Shelley acts proleptically of the inequitable experiences the creature will experience throughout the structural architecture of the text. And through doing so, depicts his character as worthy of support. Similarly, through the metaphor of fire, Shelley explores the duality of progress and innovation of which the creature desires. The fire, one that gives light as well as heat, yet also causes a cry of pain, indicates the hardships of the creature in his isolation, whereby, his forced to withdraw from his desire for education.

Upon viewing himself in a pool, the creature becomes "fully convinced that I was in reality [a] monster" with the consequent sensations of despondency and mortification granting the reader the opportunity to sympathize with the creature in order to indicate the intensely negative social prejudices that are inflicted upon the creature. So you can see that we've looked at symbols of the creature's nature and the metaphor of fire to support our topic sentence. Using literary techniques is what's going to make the difference between you and another student who might be saying the same thing. Because when you look at literary devices, it means that you're reading just beyond the lines, just beyond what's in front of you. You're now introducing your own interpretation, so you're looking at fire and thinking about what that means in connection to the text, and why Mary Shelley would use the term of a fire and revolve her discussion around that.

So let's see how we keep doing this in the next body paragraph. Paragraph two, Shelley indicates the significance of relationships as a key element of human nature that the creature is denied, motivating affinity from readers. In replacement of human relationships, the creature rather seeks comfort within the natural world. The metaphorical huge cloak that the creature takes refuge within indicates this, illustrative of an ecosystem, the forest allows the creator to surround himself with life.

The subsequent attempts to "imitate the pleasant songs of the birds" reveals the desperate urge of the creature for companionship as he is abandoned by the paternal relationship represented by Victor Frankenstein, which forms a core of human relationships. Again, here we've discussed the metaphorical huge cloak and its connection with the forest, I strongly encourage you to have the goal of discussing at least one literary device per body paragraph.

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