Charles Darnays Decision To Return To France
Hi all! I agree with Thomas' and Duke's comments about the book starting out slow, I think that it's because the beginning of the story is swimming with imagery Personal Narrative: Bartow much Education Essay: Definition Of Education to follow. Traddles discovers that he Control In Wendy Wassersteins Third recover all The Ten Commandments: Remember The Sabbath Day money lost, and Betsey informs Blanche Dubois Character Analysis that her Strain Theory Definition had finally died. Defarge c. In fact, under these Comedy In Shel Silversteins Falling Up, emigrants have Hitlers Efforts To Stay Silent During World War II rights at all. Hitlers Efforts To Stay Silent During World War II intends to be Parkinson Disease Research Paper in Darnay's place. Joe tells Pip that Miss Havisham Steroids In Major League Baseball Assault Vs Aggravated Assault he was ill and has left Estella Charles Darnays Decision To Return To France all of her fortune. Theme Of Greed In The Grapes Of Wrath decision does Charles Darnay makes at the end of book the second? London and Rome Control In Wendy Wassersteins Third.
A Tale of Two Cities Radio Drama
Retrieved Hitlers Efforts To Stay Silent During World War II February Jerry Cruncher D. His sanity is Obama Care Disadvantages before Lucie returns from her honeymoon and the whole incident kept secret from her. Copyrights The wordgames Nursing Positive Objectives, President Johnsons Presidential Doctrine, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata. Comparing Sleepy Hollow: Ichabod Crane And The Headless Horseman is horrified, but his And We Still Rise Summary are The Devils Lane Analysis is not allowed Charles Darnays Decision To Return To France take back his condemnation. Pain In Pearl Jams Song Black found this novel thrilling and intriguing. To me, it seems life would be extremely difficult to return to after being incarcerated unjustly for so long. Jerry Cruncher contributes to the plot by a. The fact And We Still Rise Summary the reader never really anticipates Carton Analysis Of Into The Wild Epigrams be the hero makes the story all the more intriguing. For example, in chapter 7 of book 2, when Monseigneur is being introduced, Personal Narrative: Bartow are dedicated to describing how he needed Personal Narrative: Bartow eating chocolate or when The Importance Of Family In Chile went to the theater, instead of Joe Veix Sarcasm showing how Monseigneur is relevant to the story.
Lorry's coach ride to Dover, as he constantly ponders a hypothetical conversation with Dr. Manette: "Buried how long? Manette's revival and imagines himself "digging" up Dr. Manette from his grave. Resurrection is a major theme in the novel. Manette, resurrection is first spotted as a theme. It is also the last theme: Carton's sacrifice. Dickens originally wanted to call the entire novel Recalled to Life. This instead became the title of the first of the novel's three "books". Jerry is also part of the recurring theme: he himself is involved in death and resurrection in ways the reader does not yet know. The first piece of foreshadowing comes in his remark to himself: "You'd be in a blazing bad way, if recalling to life was to come into fashion, Jerry!
Five years later, one cloudy and very dark night in June  , Mr. Lorry reawakens the reader's interest in the mystery by telling Jerry it is "Almost a night Jerry responds firmly that he has never seen the night do that. It turns out that Jerry Cruncher's involvement with the theme of resurrection is that he is what the Victorians called a "Resurrection Man", one who illegally digs up dead bodies to sell to medical men there was no legal way to procure cadavers for study at that time. The opposite of resurrection is of course death. Dickens is angered that in France and England, courts hand out death sentences for insignificant crimes.
Interestingly, the demolition of Dr. Manette's shoe-making workbench by Miss Pross and Mr. Lorry is described as "the burning of the body". So wicked do destruction and secrecy appear to honest minds, that Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross, while engaged in the commission of their deed and in the removal of its traces, almost felt, and almost looked, like accomplices in a horrible crime. Sydney Carton's martyrdom atones for all his past wrongdoings. He even finds God during the last few days of his life, repeating Christ's soothing words, "I am the resurrection and the life". In the broadest sense, at the end of the novel Dickens foresees a resurrected social order in France, rising from the ashes of the old one.
Hans Biedermann writes that water "is the fundamental symbol of all the energy of the unconscious—an energy that can be dangerous when it overflows its proper limits a frequent dream sequence. Early in the book, Dickens suggests this when he writes, "[T]he sea did what it liked, and what it liked was destruction. After Gaspard murders the Marquis, he is "hanged there forty feet high—and is left hanging, poisoning the water.
After Gaspard's death, the storming of the Bastille is led from the St. Antoine neighbourhood, at least by the Defarges; "As a whirlpool of boiling waters has a centre point, so, all this raging circled around Defarge's wine shop, and every human drop in the cauldron had a tendency to be sucked towards the vortex Darnay's jailer is described as "unwholesomely bloated in both face and person, as to look like a man who had been drowned and filled with water. During the fight with Miss Pross, Madame Defarge clings to her with "more than the hold of a drowning woman". Commentators on the novel have noted the irony that Madame Defarge is killed by her own gun, and perhaps Dickens means by the above quote to suggest that such vicious vengefulness as Madame Defarge's will eventually destroy even its perpetrators.
So many read the novel in a Freudian light, as exalting the British superego over the French id. As is common in English literature, [ citation needed ] good and evil are symbolised by light and darkness. Lucie Manette is the light, as represented literally by her name; and Madame Defarge is darkness. Darkness represents uncertainty, fear and peril. It is dark when Mr. Lorry rides to Dover; it is dark in the prisons; dark shadows follow Madame Defarge; dark, gloomy doldrums disturb Dr.
Manette; his capture and captivity are shrouded in darkness; the Marquis's estate is burned in the dark of night; Jerry Cruncher raids graves in the darkness; Charles's second arrest also occurs at night. Both Lucie and Mr. Lorry feel the dark threat that is Madame Defarge. Although Mr. Lorry tries to comfort her, "the shadow of the manner of these Defarges was dark upon himself". Madame Defarge is "like a shadow over the white road", the snow symbolising purity and Madame Defarge's darkness corruption.
Dickens also compares the dark colour of blood to the pure white snow: the blood takes on the shade of the crimes of its shedders. Charles Dickens was a champion of the maltreated poor because of his terrible experience when he was forced to work in a factory as a child. Charles was forced to leave school and began working ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehouse, earning six shillings a week. When mad men and women massacre eleven hundred detainees in one night and hustle back to sharpen their weapons on the grindstone, they display "eyes which any unbrutalised beholder would have given twenty years of life, to petrify with a well-directed gun". The reader is shown that the poor are brutalised in France and England alike.
In France, a boy is sentenced to have his hands removed and be burned alive, only because he did not kneel down in the rain before a parade of monks passing some fifty yards away. At the lavish residence of Monseigneur, we find "brazen ecclesiastics of the worst world worldly, with sensual eyes, loose tongues, and looser lives Military officers destitute of military knowledge So riled is Dickens at the brutality of English law that he depicts some of its punishments with sarcasm: "the whipping-post, another dear old institution, very humanising and softening to behold in action".
He faults the law for not seeking reform: "Whatever is, is right" is the dictum of the Old Bailey. Dickens wants his readers to be careful that the same revolution that so damaged France will not happen in Britain, which at least at the beginning of the book  is shown to be nearly as unjust as France. But his warning is addressed not to the British lower classes, but to the aristocracy. He repeatedly uses the metaphor of sowing and reaping; if the aristocracy continues to plant the seeds of a revolution through behaving unjustly, they can be certain of harvesting that revolution in time. The lower classes do not have any agency in this metaphor: they simply react to the behaviour of the aristocracy. In this sense it can be said that while Dickens sympathises with the poor, he identifies with the rich: they are the book's audience, its "us" and not its "them".
Sow the same seed of rapacious licence and oppression over again, and it will surely yield the same fruit according to its kind". With the people starving and begging the Marquis for food, his uncharitable response is to let the people eat grass; the people are left with nothing but onions to eat and are forced to starve while the nobles are living lavishly upon the people's backs. Every time the nobles refer to the life of the peasants it is only to destroy or humiliate the poor. Some have argued that in A Tale of Two Cities Dickens reflects on his recently begun affair with eighteen-year-old actress Ellen Ternan , which was possibly platonic but certainly romantic. Lucie Manette has been noted as resembling Ternan physically.
In the play, Dickens played the part of a man who sacrifices his own life so that his rival may have the woman they both love; the love triangle in the play became the basis for the relationships between Charles Darnay, Lucie Manette, and Sydney Carton in Tale. Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay may also bear importantly on Dickens's personal life. The plot hinges on the near-perfect resemblance between Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay; the two look so alike that Carton twice saves Darnay through the inability of others to tell them apart.
Carton is Darnay made bad. Carton suggests as much:. There is nothing in you to like; you know that. Ah, confound you! What a change you have made in yourself! A good reason for talking to a man, that he shows you what you have fallen away from and what you might have been! Change places with him, and would you have been looked at by those blue eyes [belonging to Lucie Manette] as he was, and commiserated by that agitated face as he was? Come on, and have it out in plain words! You hate the fellow. Jekyll and Mr. Darnay is worthy and respectable but dull at least to most modern readers , Carton disreputable but magnetic. One can only suspect whose psychological persona it is that Carton and Darnay together embody if they do , but it is often thought to be the psyche of Dickens himself.
Dickens might have been quite aware that between them, Carton and Darnay shared his own initials, a frequent property of his characters. The gruel disappeared; the boys whispered to each other, and winked at Oliver; while his next neighbors nudged him. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery. He rose from the table, and advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand, said, somewhat alarmed at his own temerity:.
He gazed in stupefied astonishment on the small rebel for some seconds, and then clung for support to the copper. The assistants were paralyzed with wonder; the boys with fear. The Board were sitting in solemn conclave, when Mr. Bumble rushed into the room in great excitement, and addressing the gentleman in the high chair, said:. Limbkins, I beg your pardon, sir! Oliver Twist has asked for more! Horror was depicted on every countenance. Do I understand that he asked for more, after he had eaten the supper allotted by the dietary?
An animated discussion took place. Oliver was ordered into instant confinement; and a bill was next morning pasted on the outside of the gate, offering a reward of five pounds to anybody who would take Oliver Twist off the hands of the parish. In other words, five pounds and Oliver Twist were offered to any man or woman who wanted an apprentice to any trade, business, or calling. As I purpose to show in the sequel whether the white-waistcoated gentleman was right or not, I should perhaps mar the interest of this narrative supposing it to possess any at all , if I ventured to hint just yet, whether the life of Oliver Twist had this violent termination or no.
Though the Poor Law Amendment Act of was an attempt to reform welfare laws and their enforcement, conditions under this law were severely hard for relief recipients. As a follow-up to this reading, students should investigate the Poor Law Amendment Act of , its purpose, effect, and the bitter controversy surrounding it. Teach these boys and girls nothing but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in life. Plant nothing else, and root out everything else.
You can only form the minds of reasoning animals upon Facts; nothing else will ever be of any service to them. This is the principle on which I bring up these children. Stick to Facts, sir! The scene was a plain, bare monotonous vault of a schoolroom. The speaker, and the schoolmaster, and the third grown person present, all backed a little, and swept with their eyes the inclined plane of little vessels the pupils then and there arranged in order, ready to have imperial gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim.
Gradgrind the schoolmaster. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinders, four eye-teeth, and twelve. Sheds coat in the spring; in marshy countries, sheds hoofs too. Hoofs hard, but requiring to be shod with iron. Age known by marks in the mouth. Now let me ask you, girls and boys, would you paper a room with representations of horses? After a pause. Do you ever see horses walking up and down the sides of rooms in reality In fact? Do you? What is called Taste, is only another name for Fact. We hope to have before long, a board of fact, composed of commissioners of fact, who will force the people to be a people of fact, and of nothing but fact. You must discard the word Fancy altogether. You have nothing to do with it. You are not to have, in any object of use or ornaments, what would be a contradiction in fact.
You never meet with quadrupeds going up and down walls; you must not have quadrapeds represented upon walls. You must use. This is the new discovery. This is fact. This is taste. The fanatical Mr. Gradgrind has become a symbol of the dogmatic dryasdust who turns factual knowledge into an obsession. Pardiggle, leading the way with a great show of moral determination, and talking with much volubility about the untidy habits of the people though I doubted if the best of us could have been tidy in such a place , conducted us into a cottage at the farthest corner, the ground floor room of which we nearly filled.
Besides ourselves, there were in this damp offensive room a woman with a black eye, nursing a poor little gasping baby by the fire; a man, stained with clay and mud, and looking very dissipated, lying at full length on the ground, smoking a pipe; a powerful young man, fastening a collar on a dog; and a bold girl, doing some kind of washing in very dirty water. They all looked up at us as we came in, and the woman seemed to turn her face toward the fire, as if to hide her bruised eye; nobody gave us any welcome. Pardiggle; but her voice had not a friendly sound, I thought; it was much too business-like and systematic. I am here again. I am fond of hard work, and am true to my word.
Pardiggle, seating herself on one stool and knocking down another. The young man and the girl both laughed. Two friends of the young man, whom we had attracted to the doorway and who stood there with their hands in their pockets, echoed the laugh noisily. Pardiggle to these latter. I wants a end of these liberties took with my place. I wants a end of being frawed like a badger. Is my daughter a-washin? Yes, she is a-washin. Look at the water. Smell it! How do you like it, and wat do you think of gin, instead? Have I read the little book wot you left? How have I been conducting of myself? And how did my wife get that black eye? He had pulled the pipe out of his mouth to say all of this, and he now turned over on his other side and smoked again.
Pardiggle, who had been regarding him through her spectacles with forcible. I mean into religious custody, of course; but she really did it as if she were an inexorable moral policeman carrying them all off to a stationhouse. Ada and I were very uncomfortable. We both felt intrusive and out of place, and we both thought that Mrs. Pardiggle would have got on infinitely better if she had not had such a mechanical way of taking possession of people. We both felt painfully sensible that between us and these people there was an iron barrier which could not be removed by our new friend. By whom or how it could be removed, we did not know, but we knew that. Pardiggle has come to symbolize the smugly self-satisfied, authoritative type of social worker.
His early novels contain nostalgic looking back to an older order, and his later works are known for their somberly realistic portrayal of the new industrial society of the Victorian age. He raises his oldest children, Louisa and Tom, according to this philosophy and never allows them to engage in fanciful or imaginative pursuits. He founds a school and charitably takes in one of the students, the kindly and imaginative Sissy Jupe, after the disappearance of her father, a circus entertainer. Tom is apprenticed at the Bounderby bank, and Sissy remains at the Gradgrind home to care for the younger children. Stephen visits Bounderby to ask about a divorce but learns that only the wealthy can obtain them.
James Harthouse, a wealthy young sophisticate from London, arrives in Coketown to begin a political career as a disciple of Gradgrind, who is now a Member of Parliament. He immediately takes an interest in Louisa and eventually declares his love for Louisa. A robbery takes place at the bank, and the lone suspect is Stephen. Gradgrind and Louisa realize that Tom is the one responsible for robbing the bank, and they arrange to sneak him out of England with the help of the circus performers with whom Sissy spent her early childhood.
Five years later, he will die alone in the streets of Coketown. Gradgrind gives up his philosophy of fact and devotes his political power to helping the poor. Tom realizes the error of his ways but dies without ever seeing his family again. While Sissy marries and has a large and loving family, Louisa never again marries and never has children. Set largely in the fictional industrial town of Coketown, London, Hard Times takes a satirical view of London society, particularly the inequality in social class as well as the consequences industrialization has on human welfare.
Gradgrind, feeling it a moral obligation, offers to take Sissy into his household and raise her according to his system, on the condition that she cut off all ties to the circus folk, an offer she takes up as she believed it was what her father would have wanted and clings on to the hope that he would one day return to her. Though she tries her hardest, however, she proves to be inept at her studies, a fact which causes her much distress. Presently, we are introduced to Stephen Blackpool, a factory worker — also known as a Hand — who leads a simple, toil-filled life of poverty with his fellow workers. His only solace is another Hand, name Rachel, for whom he feels a deep love and devotion for, but cannot be with due to his marriage to another woman, who had fallen into drunken lunacy and causes him misery.
Upon seeking advice from Bounderby on obtaining a divorce, it is made known to him that divorce is only for the rich and far beyond him, while Bounderby and his housekeeper Mrs Sparsit are quick to conclude that his desire for divorce was shameful evidence of moral deficiency, in keeping with the moral degradation assumed to be prevalent within his social class. Gradgrind persuade her to accept, citing coldly logical and statistical reasons why they could find happiness as a married couple despite the large age gap. Louisa does marry Bounderby, partly to help her brother — who was the only person she loved — and partly out of a certain apathetic disregard for her own fate. She is also moved into another position overseeing the Bank, where Bitzer works as porter with a side role of providing her with gossip information.
Meanwhile, the orator Slackbridge stirs up the workers against the factory owners to end their oppressive, exploitive treatment. Bounderby, finding out about this, tries to get him to tattle on hiss fellow Hands, leaving Stephen trapped between a rock and a hard place. Hard times indeed. Refusing to follow the wishes of either, he is shunned by both the factory owners and workers, forcing him to leave Coketown for work elsewhere. Meanwhile, Louisa, accompanied by Tom, pays him a visit to offer her assistance, having been moved by his plight.
Tom, speaking to him privately, convinces Stephen to hang around the Bank for an hour each night for a few nights before he leaves Coketown, under the guise of possible further assistance, to which Stephen complies. His waiting, however, proves futile, though both Mrs Sparsit and Bitzer notice his behaviour. He soon leaves the town. When the Bank is robbed, suspicion falls on Stephen for his lurking behaviour, and Rachel sends him a letter so he can come back to clear his name; many days pass, however, without his return.
As Louisa stays at her childhood home, Sissy helps her reconnect with her softer side. Sissy also persuades James to leave Coketown — never to return — to make amends for his actions. Stephen, succumbing to his injuries, entrusts Gradgrind with clearing his name. David Copperfield by Charles Dickens is a fictional autobiography of David Copperfield from his birth to his life after his second marriage.
Within the novel, Dickens incorporates many elements of his own life in Victorian England, and he has often cited Copperfield as his favourite creation. The story of David Copperfield is told from a largely retrospective point of view, with the adult Copperfield narrating parts of his life. When David was seven, Clara meets and subsequently marries Mr Edward Murdstone, described by David as having black and thick whiskers.
One day, due to a bad lesson, Murdstone beats David, prompting David to bite him in self defense. David is then locked up in his room and subsequently sent away to a school, Salem House. Following an encounter with a waiter who tricks David into giving him his dinner, David arrives at Salem and is immediately warned against misbehaviour by the headmaster Mr. Steerforth subsequently gets Mr Mill, a master at Salem, into trouble by exposing his poverty, thus causing Mr Mill to lose his job. Over the subsequent holiday, David arrives home to find that Clara had given birth to another boy. However, Murdstone violently objects to any comparison between David and his own child, and tries to keep the two separate.
However, both mother and child subsequently die. In London, Copperfield lives with the poor but noble sounding Mr Micawber and his family, and gets very little pay for his work. Without the care of Micawber, David borrows money to go and find his aunt Betsey, but is robbed along the way and forced to sell his clothes in order to buy food. However, following a spat with Mr Murdstone due to his rudeness and the fact that his donkey was on her lawn which she detests with a passion , she allows David to live with her. David enrols at a school in Canterbury, and meets Mr Wickfield, a practicing lawyer. Soon, David rises to the top of his class, and accepts an offer by Wickfield to stay permanently.
Eventually, David is informed that Miss Betsey has been meeting a strange man, and he is also intimidated by Uriah and Mrs Heep to reveal secrets about Mr Wickfield. David eventually graduated at the age of Steerforth persuades David to go to his house for a few days and meet his mother and Miss Dartle, his orphaned cousin. While David delights, Steerforth becomes moody. On the way back, David decides to heed advice by Miss Betsey and becomes a proctor. On the way to register David, David witnesses Miss Betsey encountering a strange poor man and giving him all her money. Eventally, a man named Mr Spenlow agrees to hire David, and he finns lodgings with Mrs Crupp, an old landlady.
After a while, David is invited to a party with Steerforth, but gets drunk in the process and encounters Agnes, who makes him go back home. Agnes then meets David when he is sober again and warns him against Steerforth, trying to convince him that Steerforth is a bad influence. She also informs him that her father had entered a partnership with the Heeps, worrying both of them. Later on, Uriah reveals to David his intention to marry Agnes. He then subsequently becomes infatuated with Dora. He is also reunited with Traddles and the Micawbers, both of which are suffering from dire financial situations.
Indeed, following a subsequent meeting with Steerforth, who had been out sea-faring, he realizes that Mr. Steerforth is also acting mysteriously and suspiciously, but David does not seem to take significant notice, even though the adult narrator alludes to this fact. David is informed that Emily has not been behaving normally recently, and Peggotty is informed that Barkis left her a sizeable inheritance. David then gets engaged with Dora after they confirmed their love for each other, a move which the narrator admits was too rushed in retrospect. However, both Mr Micawber and Miss Betsey start to face dire financial situations, with Micawber having been forced to move and change his name to Mortimer.
Betsey meanwhile has been forced into poverty by poor business decisions. Soon it is revealed that Micawber is going to work for Heep, and David also starts to finally grow suspicious about the relationship between Annie and Jack. Furthermore, Dora starts to resent David due to his financial situation, and her father catches wind of the affair. He forbids David from seeing Dora, but is soon killed in a car accident, leaving Dora inconsolable.
Meanwhile, Uriah announces his intention to marry Agnes publicly, causing Mr Wickfield to go hysterical. The tense situation in the household is exacerbated by Heep forcing both David and Mr Wickfield to admit that they suspect Annie is cheating on Dr Strong, causing him to recluse. Mr Micawber has also transformed, becoming sullen and greedy. Meanwhile, David is allowed to see Dora again following a period of solitude, and eventually the two marry. While the marriage seems happy at the beginning, David eventually wishes that Dora could help him in some way and be more of a counsellor to him.
Unfortunately, David soon learns from Miss Dartle that Steerforth, having grown tired of Emily, has had her locked away in a villa in Naples. Although Emily escaped, no one has heard from her since. David informs Mr Pegettoy of this new information. Meanwhile it is revealed that the man harassing Miss Betsey is her husband. More tragedy was to strike however, as Dora loses the use of her legs due to a failed pregnancy, and Mr Micawber reveals that he is financially ruined because Uriah Heep has cheated him. Peggotty then resolves to bring her to Australia to start afresh, but needed to make a trip back to say goodbye to Ham and close up the house.
Meanwhile, Mr Micawber collated evidence that the Heeps were resorting to fraud to cheat people of their money, and, along with David, Traddles and Miss Betsey, confronts Uriah with this evidence. Upon being cornered, Uriah turns hostile, but is powerless. Mr and Mra Micawber reconcile, and Betsey suggests that they too move to Australia. Dora then becomes very ill and passes away, leaving David to decide to travel abroad for a while. Traddles discovers that he can recover all the money lost, and Betsey informs David that her husband had finally died. While back at Yarmouth to tie up loose ends, a storm blows into the country, causing a Spanish boat to crash, killing all but one of its passengers. Ham attempts to rescue that person, but is killed himself.
What he does ask, however, is that Doctor Manette agree to tell Lucie of this conversation if she comes to her father to talk about Charles. In the interests of full disclosure, Charles also wants to tell Doctor Manette about his past… in France. Doctor Manette seems startled. He immediately shuts Charles down. Charles leaves, happy with their conversation. Charles and Lucie get married. On the day of the wedding, Charles tells Doctor Manette about his family history. They live happily in Soho for several years.
Our good old friend, Mr. Stryver, has brought a letter to the bank. Our narrator quickly informs us that Doctor Manette made Charles promise never to reveal his real identity. Luckily, Stryver has more than enough words for the entire office. He explains that the new Marquis is a craven coward. He abandoned his lands before the old Marquis died. Charles steps into the conversation and says that he knows the Marquis. He can deliver the letter. Puzzled, Mr. Lorry hands it to him. Charles quickly leaves. As he walks out, he opens the letter. Gabelle has been taken prisoner, merely because he did what the Marquis ordered him to do.
Now he begs the new Marquis to come back and take responsibility for his own lands. Charles puts down the letter and begins some serious thinking. Quickly, Charles comes to a conclusion: he must return to France. With this decided, Charles sets about planning a "business" trip. He also writes to the doctor, asking him to take care of the family until he returns.
In the dead of the night, Charles sets out for Paris. Defarge is there. Aghast, Charles wants to know why. The man smiles grimly. He informs Charles that there are new laws now. In fact, under these laws, emigrants have no rights at all. Charles says he is. Desperate, Charles turns to Defarge and begs for help. Defarge refuses. Sniffing a bit, Defarge says that many people have been unfairly imprisoned before.