Aircraft Design Process
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How to Design Your Own Aircraft
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With the rise of programming languages, engineers could now write programs that were tailored to design an aircraft. Originally this was done with mainframe computers and used low-level programming languages that required the user to be fluent in the language and know the architecture of the computer. With the introduction of personal computers, design programs began employing a more user-friendly approach.
All aircraft designs involve compromises of these factors to achieve the design mission. The wing of a fixed-wing aircraft provides the lift necessary for flight. Wing geometry affects every aspect of an aircraft's flight. The wing area will usually be dictated by the desired stalling speed but the overall shape of the planform and other detail aspects may be influenced by wing layout factors. The wing design depends on many parameters such as selection of aspect ratio , taper ratio, sweepback angle, thickness ratio, section profile, washout and dihedral.
Ribs can be made of wood, metal, plastic or even composites. The wing must be designed and tested to ensure it can withstand the maximum loads imposed by maneuvering, and by atmospheric gusts. The fuselage is the part of the aircraft that contains the cockpit, passenger cabin or cargo hold. Aircraft propulsion may be achieved by specially designed aircraft engines, adapted auto, motorcycle or snowmobile engines, electric engines or even human muscle power. The main parameters of engine design are: . The thrust provided by the engine must balance the drag at cruise speed and be greater than the drag to allow acceleration. The engine requirement varies with the type of aircraft. For instance, commercial airliners spend more time in cruise speed and need more engine efficiency.
High-performance fighter jets need very high acceleration and therefore have very high thrust requirements. The weight of the aircraft is the common factor that links all aspects of aircraft design such as aerodynamics, structure, and propulsion, all together. An aircraft's weight is derived from various factors such as empty weight, payload, useful load, etc. The various weights are used to then calculate the center of mass of the entire aircraft. The aircraft structure focuses not only on strength, aeroelasticity , durability , damage tolerance , stability , but also on fail-safety , corrosion resistance, maintainability and ease of manufacturing.
The structure must be able to withstand the stresses caused by cabin pressurization , if fitted, turbulence and engine or rotor vibrations. The design of any aircraft starts out in three phases . Aircraft conceptual design involves sketching a variety of possible configurations that meet the required design specifications. By drawing a set of configurations, designers seek to reach the design configuration that satisfactorily meets all requirements as well as go hand in hand with factors such as aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, structural and control systems.
Fundamental aspects such as fuselage shape, wing configuration and location, engine size and type are all determined at this stage. Constraints to design like those mentioned above are all taken into account at this stage as well. The final product is a conceptual layout of the aircraft configuration on paper or computer screen, to be reviewed by engineers and other designers. The design configuration arrived at in the conceptual design phase is then tweaked and remodeled to fit into the design parameters.
In this phase, wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic calculations of the flow field around the aircraft are done. Major structural and control analysis is also carried out in this phase. Aerodynamic flaws and structural instabilities if any are corrected and the final design is drawn and finalized. Then after the finalization of the design lies the key decision with the manufacturer or individual designing it whether to actually go ahead with the production of the aircraft.
This phase simply deals with the fabrication aspect of the aircraft to be manufactured. It determines the number, design and location of ribs , spars , sections and other structural elements. Flight simulators for aircraft are also developed at this stage. Some commercial aircraft have experienced significant schedule delays and cost overruns in the development phase. An existing aircraft program can be developed for performance and economy gains by stretching the fuselage , increasing the MTOW , enhancing the aerodynamics, installing new engines , new wings or new avionics. For a 9, nmi long range at Mach 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Establishing the configuration and plans for a new aeroplane. See also: Wing configuration. Main article: Fuselage.
Main article: Aircraft engine. Main article: Aircraft gross weight. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Flight maneuvers. Retrieved Airworthiness Directives. Transport Canada. Archived from the original on ICAO Regulations. Retrieved 5 October Jenkinson; Paul Simpkin; Darren Rhodes