Young Mens Christian Association: A Case Study
Occidental College. Bryant University. Ripon College. Current exceptions for eRA pre-awards approval Young Mens Christian Association: A Case Study National Research Foundation NRF : Step 1: Junot Diazs The Money Analysis who John Proctor Characteristics dulce et decorum est in english by the internal carr & hume deadline are guaranteed an internal review. Queens University of Charlotte. ElkinsWest Virginia.
the Youth Men's Christian Association - Valorant
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Step 2: Internal review is undertaken by the Research Office. Step 3: Feedback is provided to applicants and, if necessary, applications reopened for amendment. Step 4: Applicants resubmit applications before the NRF final deadline. The administrator will obtain institutional approval from the Deputy Dean for Research and forward this to the funder. The application then gets sent to an internal administrator in the Faculty of Health Sciences who takes the application to the Deputy Dean for Research for institutional approval. Once the signed application is received, the administrator uploads this and completes the online submission to the funder. Two standing subcommittees of the IRC will be responsible for the scientific review of protocols requiring human or animal ethics clearance.
The two standing subcommittees of the IRC namely the Human Research Scientific Review and the Animal Research Scientific Review subcommittees will be responsible for establishing an explicit and formal scientific review process that evaluates the scientific merit and potential risks of each protocol before the protocol is submitted to Faculty's Human or Animal Research Ethics Committees. Andruween in turn will log the application with a tracking number. Hardcopies will be requested only once the relevant IRC subcommittee has approved the application. For protocols requiring human scientific reviews , the following materials are to be submitted:.
If your protocol is a sub-study of an existing study, please include a brief description of the parent study, the current status of the parent study, and how the sub-study will fit with the parent study. Andruween will forward the proposal electronically to the subcommittee Chair who in turn assigns the proposal to a member of the subcommittee as primary reviewer.
The secondary reviewer will be assigned by the subcommittee member and will be drawn from the names of potential reviewers as per applicant's recommendation. Protocols to be reviewed within one week. Comments of primary and secondary reviewers will be sent to all members of the relevant subcommittee. During World War II , the Allies —known formally as the United Nations —adopted as their basic war aims the Four Freedoms : freedom of speech , freedom of religion , freedom from fear , and freedom from want.
The Committee met in two sessions over the course of two years. Chang of the Republic of China. Humphrey is credited with devising the "blueprint" for the Declaration, while Cassin composed the first draft. The Declaration's pro-family phrases allegedly derived from Cassin and Malik, who were influenced by the Christian Democracy movement ;  Malik, a Christian theologian, was known for appealing across religious lines, as well as to different Christian sects.
In her memoirs, Roosevelt commented on the debates and discussions that informed the UDHR, describing one such exchange during the Drafting Committee's first session in June Chang was a pluralist and held forth in charming fashion on the proposition that there is more than one kind of ultimate reality. The Declaration, he said, should reflect more than simply Western ideas and Dr. Humphrey would have to be eclectic in his approach. His remark, though addressed to Dr. Humphrey, was really directed at Dr.
Malik, from whom it drew a prompt retort as he expounded at some length the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. Humphrey joined enthusiastically in the discussion, and I remember that at one point Dr. Chang suggested that the Secretariat might well spend a few months studying the fundamentals of Confucianism! In May , roughly a year after its creation, the Drafting Committee held its second and final session, where it considered the comments and suggestions of member states and international bodies, principally the UN Conference on Freedom of Information, which took place the prior March and April; the Commission on the Status of Women, a body within ECOSOC that reported on the state of women's rights worldwide; and the Ninth International Conference of American States, held in Bogota, Colombia in spring of , which adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man , the world's first general international human rights instrument.
With a vote of 12 in favour, none opposed, and four abstaining, the CHR approved the proposed Declaration, though was unable to examine the contents and implementation of the proposed Covenant. The Third Committee of the General Assembly , which convened from 30 September to 7 December , held 81 meetings concerning the draft Declaration, including debating and resolving proposals for amendments by UN member states. Eleanor Roosevelt is credited with having been instrumental in mustering support for the Declaration's adoption, both in her native U.
The meeting record provides firsthand insight into the debate on the Declaration's adoption. The British delegation, while voting in favor of the Declaration, expressed frustration that the proposed document had moral obligations but lacked legal force;  it would not be until that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights came into force, giving a legal status to most of the Declaration.
The 48 countries that voted in favour of the Declaration are: . Eight countries abstained: . The majority of current UN member states gained sovereignty and joined the organisation later, which accounts for the relatively small number of states entitled to the historical vote. The commemoration is observed by individuals, community and religious groups, human rights organizations, parliaments, governments, and the United Nations. Decadal commemorations are often accompanied by campaigns to promote awareness of the Declaration and of human rights general. The UDHR is considered groundbreaking for providing a comprehensive and universal set of principles in a secular, apolitical document that explicitly transcends cultures, religions, legal systems, and political ideologies.
The Declaration was officially adopted as a bilingual document in English and French , with official translations in Chinese , Russian and Spanish , all of which are official working languages of the UN. In its preamble, governments commit themselves and their people to progressive measures that secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the human rights set out in the Declaration. Eleanor Roosevelt supported the adoption of the text as a declaration, rather than as a treaty, because she believed that it would have the same kind of influence on global society as the United States Declaration of Independence had within the United States.
It has also served as the foundation for a growing number of national laws, international laws, and treaties, as well as for a growing number of regional, subnational, and national institutions protecting and promoting human rights. The Declaration's all-encompassing provisions serve as a "yardstick" and point of reference by which countries' commitments to human rights are judged, such as through the treaty bodies and other mechanisms of various human rights treaties that monitor implementation. In international law, a declaration is distinct from a treaty in that it generally states aspirations or understandings among the parties, rather than binding obligations.
Many international lawyers believe that the Declaration forms part of customary international law and is a powerful tool in applying diplomatic and moral pressure to governments that violate its articles. The Declaration continues to be widely cited by governments, academics, advocates, and constitutional courts, and by individuals who appeal to its principles for the protection of their recognised human rights.
One scholar estimates that at least 90 national constitutions drafted since the Declaration's adoption in "contain statements of fundamental rights which, where they do not faithfully reproduce the provisions of the Universal Declaration, are at least inspired by it. Judicial and political figures in many nations have directly invoked the UDHR as an influence or inspiration on their courts, constitutions, or legal codes. Indian courts have ruled the Indian Constitution "[embodies] most of the articles contained in the Declaration". The right to health or to protection of health is found in the constitutions of Belgium, Kyrgyzstan, Paraguay, Peru, Thailand, and Togo; constitutional obligations on the government to provide health services exist in Armenia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Finland, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Paraguay, Thailand, and Yemen.
A survey of U. In , the U. Supreme Court ruled in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law", and that the political branches of the U. The Universal Declaration has received praise from a number of notable activists, jurists, and political leaders. Lebanese philosopher and diplomat Charles Malik called it "an international document of the first order of importance",  while Eleanor Roosevelt —first chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights CHR that helped draft the Declaration—stated that it "may well become the international Magna Carta of all men everywhere. As a pillar of international human rights, the UDHR enjoys widespread support among international and nongovernmental organizations.
Specific provisions of the UDHR are cited or elaborated by interest groups in relation to their specific area of focus. Most Muslim-majority countries that were then members of the UN signed the Declaration in , including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and Syria; Turkey , which had an overwhelmingly Muslim population but an officially secular government, also voted in favor. Moreover, some Muslim diplomats would later help draft other UN human rights treaties. Pakistani diplomat Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah influenced the drafting of the Declaration, especially with respect to women's rights, and played a role in the preparation of the Genocide Convention.
In , the Iranian representative to the United Nations, who represented the country's newly installed Islamic republic, said that the Declaration was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition" that could not be implemented by Muslims without conflict with Sharia. On 30 June , member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation , which represents most of the Muslim world, officially resolved to support the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam ,   an alternative document that says people have "freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari'ah", without any discrimination on grounds of "race, colour, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations".
The Cairo Declaration is widely acknowledged to be a response to the UDHR, and uses similar universalist language, albeit derived solely from Islamic jurisprudence. Indeed, the preponderance of Muslim-majority countries is not Arab. It has long been recognized that the Muslim-majority Arab world ranks particularly poorly with respect to human rights. In terms of the UDHR, the core of the resistance is centered on issues of the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion Article 18 , prohibition of discrimination on the basis of religion Article 2 , and the prohibition of discrimination against women preamble, Article 2, Article A number of scholars in different fields have expressed concerns with the Declaration's alleged Western bias.
Riffat Hassan , a Pakistani-born Muslim theologian, has argued:. What needs to be pointed out to those who uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be the highest, or sole, model, of a charter of equality and liberty for all human beings, is that given the Western origin and orientation of this Declaration, the "universality" of the assumptions on which it is based is — at the very least — problematic and subject to questioning. Furthermore, the alleged incompatibility between the concept of human rights and religion in general, or particular religions such as Islam, needs to be examined in an unbiased way.
Faisal Kutty , a Muslim Canadian human rights activist, opines that a "strong argument can be made that the current formulation of international human rights constitutes a cultural structure in which western society finds itself easily at home It is important to acknowledge and appreciate that other societies may have equally valid alternative conceptions of human rights. Irene Oh, the director of the peace studies program at Georgetown University, has proposed that Muslim opposition to the UDHR, and the broader debate about the document's secular and Western bias, could be resolved through mutual dialogue grounded in comparative descriptive ethics.
The American Anthropological Association criticized the UDHR during its drafting process, warning that its definition of universal rights reflected a Western paradigm that was unfair to non-Western nations. They further argued that the West's history of colonialism and evangelism made them a problematic moral representative for the rest of the world. They proposed three notes for consideration with underlying themes of cultural relativism :. During the lead up to the World Conference on Human Rights held in , ministers from several Asian states adopted the Bangkok Declaration, reaffirming their governments' commitment to the principles of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
They stated their view of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights and stressed the need for universality, objectivity , and non-selectivity of human rights. However, at the same time, they emphasised the principles of sovereignty and non-interference, calling for greater emphasis on economic, social, and cultural rights—in particular, the right to economic development by establishing international collaboration directives between the signatories. The Bangkok Declaration is considered to be a landmark expression of Asian values with respect to human rights, which offers an extended critique of human rights universalism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from UDHR. Declaration adopted in by the United Nations General Assembly. It is not to be confused with All men are created equal. The human rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly of its rd meeting, held in Paris on 10 December Claim rights and liberty rights Individual and group rights Natural rights and legal rights Negative and positive rights. Civil and political Economic, social and cultural Three generations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We provide you with a sample paper on the topic you need, and this kind of academic assistance is perfectly legitimate. We check every paper with our plagiarism-detection software, so you get a unique paper written for your particular purposes.
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