Effort Reward Imbalance Model
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Effort-Reward Imbalance – Occupational Stress
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State Art Rev ;15 Suppl : S Oxford: Oxford University Press, Past, present and future. London, Philadelphia: Whurr Publishers, An updated guide to stress, stress-related diseases, and coping. New York: Freeman, J Behav Med ; Acta Psych Scand ; Administrative Science Quarterly ; New York: Basic Books, J Occupational Health Psychology ; Conditional Work Digest ; Gac Sanit ; The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press, Am Sci ; Testing construct validity and reliability of the Spanish version of effort-reward imbalance questionnaire ERI. Stress and the heart. Psychosocial pathways to coronary heart disease. London: BMJ Books, ; p. State Art Rev 1 J Epidemiol Community Health ; Am J Public Health ; Am J Epidemiol ; BMJ ; Am J Ind Med ; Occup Environ Med ; Scandinavian J Work Environ Health ; J Rheumatol ; Women Health ; Soc Sci Med ; Int J Behav Med ; J Intern Med ; Mai englisch.
Halbesleben u. Maslach u. In: Annual Review of Psychology , 52, Kristensen u. Auflage, Berlin , S. Schriftenreihe Health Technology Assessment, Band Meier: The construct validity of burnout. In: Journal of Occupational Psychology , vol. Nelting: Burnout. Maslach, S. Jackson, The measurement of experienced burnout. In: Journal of Occupational Behavior. Band 2, Nr. Springer, Berlin, S. Perrar: Die Messung von Burnout. In: Diagnostica , , Band 38, Nr. Juli-September ; 19 3 , S. Freiburg, Schaufeli, Michael P. In: Annual Review of Psychology, , 52, S. In Social Science and Medicine 58 , S. Publikationsserver: archiv. In: P. Ganster Hrsg. Volumen 2: Historical and current perspectives on stress and health. New York: Elsevier, , S. ISBN Friedman, R. Rosenman: Association of specific overt behaviour pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings.
Springer Verlag Springer Verlag , S. Wahrendorf, G. Sembajwe u. In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. PMID PMC freier Volltext. Karasek, Jr. Administrative Science Quarterly Vol. Johnson, E. Hall: Job strain, work place social support and cardio-vascular disease: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish population. Healthy work, stress, productivity, and the construction of the working life. New York: Basis Books. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs Hrsg. Guilford Publications, New York The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest , monsoon , tropical savanna , humid subtropical , humid continental , oceanic climate , Mediterranean climate , steppe , subarctic climate , tundra , polar ice cap , and desert.
Rain forests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1, and 2, mm 69 and 79 in. They are widespread on Africa, and are also found in India, the northern parts of South America, Malaysia , and Australia. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and from occasional tropical cyclones. An oceanic or maritime climate is typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, bordering cool oceans, as well as southeastern Australia, and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year-round. The climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Rain is measured in units of length per unit time, typically in millimeters per hour,  or in countries where imperial units are more common, inches per hour.
The standard way of measuring rainfall or snowfall is the standard rain gauge, which can be found in mm 4-in plastic and mm 8-in metal varieties. Plastic gauges have markings on the inner cylinder down to 0. After the inner cylinder is filled, the amount inside it is discarded, then filled with the remaining rainfall in the outer cylinder until all the fluid in the outer cylinder is gone, adding to the overall total until the outer cylinder is empty.
Any of the above rain gauges can be made at home, with enough know-how. One of the main uses of weather radar is to be able to assess the amount of precipitations fallen over large basins for hydrological purposes. Radar-derived rainfall estimates complement surface station data which can be used for calibration. To produce radar accumulations, rain rates over a point are estimated by using the value of reflectivity data at individual grid points. A radar equation is then used, which is,. Satellite derived rainfall estimates use passive microwave instruments aboard polar orbiting as well as geostationary weather satellites to indirectly measure rainfall rates.
Rainfall intensity is classified according to the rate of precipitation, which depends on the considered time. Euphemisms for a heavy or violent rain include gully washer, trash-mover and toad-strangler. The likelihood or probability of an event with a specified intensity and duration, is called the return period or frequency. As with all probabilistic events, it is possible, though improbable, to have multiple "1 in Year Storms" in a single year. The Quantitative Precipitation Forecast abbreviated QPF is the expected amount of liquid precipitation accumulated over a specified time period over a specified area.
Precipitation forecasts tend to be bound by synoptic hours such as , , and GMT. Terrain is considered in QPFs by use of topography or based upon climatological precipitation patterns from observations with fine detail. The forecasts can be verified through use of rain gauge measurements, weather radar estimates, or a combination of both. Various skill scores can be determined to measure the value of the rainfall forecast. Precipitation, especially rain, has a dramatic effect on agriculture. All plants need at least some water to survive, therefore rain being the most effective means of watering is important to agriculture. While a regular rain pattern is usually vital to healthy plants, too much or too little rainfall can be harmful, even devastating to crops.
Drought can kill crops and increase erosion,  while overly wet weather can cause harmful fungus growth. For example, certain cacti require small amounts of water,  while tropical plants may need up to hundreds of inches of rain per year to survive. In areas with wet and dry seasons, soil nutrients diminish and erosion increases during the wet season. The previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature. Cultural attitudes towards rain differ across the world. In temperate climates , people tend to be more stressed when the weather is unstable or cloudy, with its impact greater on men than women.
In dry places, such as India,  or during periods of drought ,  rain lifts people's moods. In Botswana , the Setswana word for rain, pula , is used as the name of the national currency , in recognition of the economic importance of rain in its country, since it has a desert climate. The source of this scent is petrichor , an oil produced by plants, then absorbed by rocks and soil, and later released into the air during rainfall. Rain holds an important religious significance in many cultures. Approximately , km 3 , cu mi of water falls as precipitation each year across the globe with , km 3 95, cu mi of it over the oceans. Deserts are defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than mm 10 in per year,   or as areas where more water is lost by evapotranspiration than falls as precipitation.
The northern half of Africa is occupied by the world's most extensive hot, dry region, the Sahara Desert. Some deserts are also occupying much of southern Africa : the Namib and the Kalahari. Across Asia, a large annual rainfall minimum, composed primarily of deserts, stretches from the Gobi Desert in Mongolia west-southwest through western Pakistan Balochistan and Iran into the Arabian Desert in Saudi Arabia. Most of Australia is semi-arid or desert,  making it the world's driest inhabited continent.
Since rain only falls as liquid, it rarely falls when surface temperatures are below freezing, unless there is a layer of warm air aloft, in which case it becomes freezing rain. Due to the entire atmosphere being below freezing most of the time, very cold climates see very little rainfall and are often known as polar deserts. A common biome in this area is the tundra which has a short summer thaw and a long frozen winter. Ice caps see no rain at all, making Antarctica the world's driest continent. Rainforests are areas of the world with very high rainfall.
Both tropical and temperate rainforests exist. Tropical rainforests occupy a large band of the planet mostly along the equator. Most temperate rainforests are located on mountainous west coasts between 45 and 55 degrees latitude, but they are often found in other areas. The equatorial region near the Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ , or monsoon trough, is the wettest portion of the world's continents. Annually, the rain belt within the tropics marches northward by August, then moves back southward into the Southern Hemisphere by February and March.
Its poleward progression is accelerated by the onset of the summer monsoon which is characterized by the development of lower air pressure a thermal low over the warmest part of Asia. Westerly flow from the mild north Atlantic leads to wetness across western Europe, in particular Ireland and the United Kingdom, where the western coasts can receive between 1, mm 39 in , at sea level and 2, mm 98 in , on the mountains of rain per year. Bergen , Norway is one of the more famous European rain-cities with its yearly precipitation of 2, mm 89 in on average.
During the fall, winter, and spring, Pacific storm systems bring most of Hawaii and the western United States much of their precipitation. There is also evidence that global warming is leading to increased precipitation to the eastern portions of North America, while droughts are becoming more frequent in the tropics and subtropics. Cherrapunji , situated on the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya in Shillong , India is the confirmed wettest place on Earth, with an average annual rainfall of 11, mm in. The highest recorded rainfall in a single year was 22, mm The year average at nearby Mawsynram , Meghalaya , India is 11, mm Its summit is considered one of the rainiest spots on earth, with a reported days of rain per year. This amount is more than what falls in many cities in a year's time.
Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur on the gas giant planets , Jupiter and Saturn ,  as well as on the ice giant planets , Uranus and Neptune. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rainfall. Precipitation in the form of water droplets. For other uses, see Rain disambiguation and Rainy disambiguation. For the mathematical pseudonym, see John Rainwater.
Typical sound of rain with thunder. Temperate and polar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms. Play media. Main article: Raindrop size distribution. Main article: Virga. Main article: Weather fronts. Main articles: Orographic lift , Precipitation types meteorology , and United States rainfall climatology. See also: Monsoon and Tropical cyclone. Main article: Wet season. See also: Global warming and Urban heat island.
Main article: Rainband. See also: Acid rain. See also: Rain gauge , Disdrometer , and Snow gauge. See also: Weather radar. Heavy rain in Glenshaw, Pennsylvania. The sound of a heavy rain fall in suburban neighborhood. See also: year flood. Main article: Quantitative precipitation forecast. See also: List of rain deities. See also: Earth rainfall climatology. Main article: Desert. Main articles: Polar desert and Polar climate. See also: Rainforest. See also: Monsoon and Monsoon trough. See also: Westerlies. Ecology portal Environment portal Water portal Weather portal. Atmospheric river Hydropower Intensity-duration-frequency curve Precipitation types Rain dust Rain sensor Rain water harvesting Rainbow Raining animals Red rain in Kerala Petrichor — the cause of the scent during and after rain Sanitary sewer overflow Sediment precipitation Water resources Weather Rainmaking Johad.
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