Princess Of Tyre Who Founded Carthage

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Princess Of Tyre Who Founded Carthage

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Dido of Carthage - First Ruling Queen of Carthage

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When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her and her brother, Pygmalion. She married her uncle Acherbas also known as Sychaeus , the High Priest of Melqart , a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between religion and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acherbas. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre , the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule. Her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise. Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy.

A spirit in the form of the messenger god, Mercury , sent by Jupiter , reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido, but to sail to Italy to found Rome. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, she orders a pyre to be built where she falls upon Aeneas' sword. As she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas' people and her own: "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" 4. Fitzgerald she says, an invocation of Hannibal. The details of Virgil's story do not, however, form part of the original legend and are significant mainly as an indication of Rome's attitude towards the city she had destroyed, exemplified by Cato the Elder 's much-repeated utterance, " Carthago delenda est ", "Carthage must be destroyed.

The Carthaginian Republic was one of the longest-lived and largest states in the ancient Mediterranean. Reports relay several wars with Syracuse and finally, Rome , which eventually resulted in the defeat and destruction of Carthage in the third Punic war. They spoke Canaanite and followed a predominantly Canaanite religion. According to Polybius, Carthage relied heavily, though not exclusively, on foreign mercenaries, [18] especially in overseas warfare. The core of its army was from its own territory in north Africa ethnic Libyans and Numidians modern northern Algeria , as well as "Liby-Phoenicians"—i. These troops were supported by mercenaries from different ethnic groups and geographic locations across the Mediterranean who fought in their own national units; Celtic , Balearic , and Iberian troops were especially common.

Later, after the Barcid conquest of Iberia modern Spain and Portugal , Iberians came to form an even greater part of the Carthaginian forces. Carthage seems to have fielded a formidable cavalry force, especially in its North African homeland; a significant part of it was composed of Numidian contingents of light cavalry. Other mounted troops included North African elephants now extinct , trained for war, which, among other uses, were commonly used for frontal assaults or as anti-cavalry protection. An army could field up to several hundred of these animals but on most reported occasions fewer than a hundred were deployed. The riders of these elephants were armed with a spike and hammer to kill the elephants, in case they charged toward their own army.

The Carthaginians also fielded troops like slingers, soldiers armed with straps of cloth used to toss small stones at several hundred kph. The navy of Carthage was one of the largest in the Mediterranean , using serial production to maintain high numbers at moderate cost. The sailors and marines of the Carthaginian navy were predominantly recruited from the Phoenician citizenry, unlike the multi-ethnic allied and mercenary troops of the Carthaginian armies. The navy offered a stable profession and financial security for its sailors. This helped to contribute to the city's political stability, since the unemployed, debt-ridden poor in other cities were frequently inclined to support revolutionary leaders in the hope of improving their own lot.

The trade of Carthaginian merchantmen was by land across the Sahara and especially by sea throughout the Mediterranean and far into the Atlantic to the tin-rich Cassiterides , [20] and also to North West Africa. There is evidence that at least one Punic expedition, that of Hanno , may have sailed along the West African coast to regions south of the Tropic of Cancer. Polybius wrote in the sixth book of his History that the Carthaginians were "more exercised in maritime affairs than any other people. The Romans, who had little experience in naval warfare prior to the First Punic War , managed to finally defeat Carthage with a combination of reverse engineering captured Carthaginian ships, recruitment of experienced Greek sailors from the ranks of its conquered cities, the unorthodox corvus device, and their superior numbers in marines and rowers.

In the Third Punic War Polybius describes a tactical innovation of the Carthaginians, augmenting their few triremes with small vessels that carried hooks to attack the oars and fire to attack the hulls. With this new combination, they were able to stand their ground against the numerically superior Roman for a whole day. The Romans pulled the Phoenician warships out into the harbour and burned them before the city, and went from house to house, capturing and enslaving the people.

Fifty thousand Carthaginians were sold into slavery. After the fall of Carthage, Rome annexed the majority of the Carthaginian colonies, including other North African locations such as Volubilis , Lixus , Chellah , and Mogador. Ridley found that the earliest such claim is attributed to B. Hallward's chapter in Cambridge Ancient History, published in Ridley contended that Hallward's claim may have gained traction due to historical evidence of other salted-earth instances such as Abimelech 's salting of Shechem in Judges Warmington similarly admitted fault in repeating Hallward's error but posited that the legend precedes and inspired repetitions of the practice.

After Boniface VIII 's destruction of Palestrina in he issued a papal bull referring to the plowing and salting of defeated Carthage. For this reason, Warmington suggested that the symbolic value of the legend is so great and enduring that it mitigates the deficiency of concrete evidence that it happened and is useful to understand how subsequent historical narratives have been framed. On top of Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum , a residential area from the last century of existence early 2nd century B. The neighborhood, with its houses, shops and private spaces, is significant for what it reveals about daily life there over twenty-one hundred years ago.

The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures of the later Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets approximately six metres wide, with a roadway consisting of clay; there are in situ stairs to compensate for the slope of the hill. Construction of this type presupposes organization and political will, and has inspired the name of the neighborhood, " Hannibal district", referring to the legendary Punic general or suffete consul at the beginning of the 2nd century BC. The habitat is typical, even stereotypical. In some places the ground is covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a characteristic red mortar.

When Carthage fell, its nearby rival Utica , a Roman ally, was made capital of the region and replaced Carthage as the leading centre of Punic trade and leadership. It had the advantageous position of being situated on the outlet of the Majardah River , Tunisia's only river that flowed all year long. However, grain cultivation in the Tunisian mountains caused large amounts of silt to erode into the river. This silt accumulated in the harbour until it became useless, and Rome was forced to rebuild Carthage. The purpose was to obtain arable lands for impoverished farmers. The Senate abolished the colony some time later, in order to undermine Gracchus' power.

After this ill-fated attempt a new city of Carthage was built on the same land by Julius Caesar in 49—44 BC period, and by the 1st century A. It was the centre of the Roman province of Africa , which was a major breadbasket of the Empire. Among its major monuments was an amphitheater. Carthage also became a centre of early Christianity see Carthage episcopal see.

The Carthaginians fought a battle outside Lilybaeum in BC, and lost. The ruthless treatment of the Sicilian cities in his preparations for this expedition, and the execution of two Sicilian rulers whom Pyrrhus claimed were plotting against him, led to such a rise in animosity towards the Greeks that Pyrrhus withdrew from Sicily and returned to deal with events occurring in southern Italy. Pyrrhus' campaigns in Italy were futile, and Pyrrhus eventually withdrew to Epirus. For Carthage, this meant a return to the status quo. For Rome, however, the failure of Pyrrhus to defend the colonies of Magna Graecia meant that Rome absorbed them into its sphere of influence , bringing it closer to complete domination of the Italian peninsula.

Rome's domination of Italy, and proof that Rome could pit its military strength successfully against major international powers, would pave the way to the future Rome—Carthage conflicts of the Punic Wars. In BC, a treaty was signed between Carthage and Rome indicating a division of influence and commercial activities. This is the first known source indicating that Carthage had gained control over Sicily and Sardinia , as well as Emporia and the area south of Cape Bon in Africa.

Carthage may have signed the treaty with Rome, then an insignificant backwater, because Romans had treaties with the Phocaeans and Cumae, who were aiding the Roman struggle against the Etruscans at that time. Carthage had similar treaties with Etruscan, Punic and Greek cities in Sicily. By the end of the 6th century BC, Carthage had conquered most of the old Phoenician colonies e. Hadrumetum , Utica and Kerkouane , subjugated some of the Libyan tribes, and had taken control of parts of the Northwest African coast from modern Morocco to the borders of Cyrenaica. It was also fighting wars in defence of Punic colonies and commerce. However, only the details of her struggle against the Greeks have survived — which often makes Carthage seem "obsessed with Sicily".

The emergence of the Roman Republic led to sustained rivalry with the more anciently established Carthage for dominion of the western Mediterranean. As early as BC. Carthage and Rome had entered into treaty status, chiefly regarding trading areas; later in , another similar treaty was made between Carthage, Tyre , Utica , and Rome; a third Romano-Punic treaty in regarded wars against the Greek invader Pyrrhus. The island of Sicily, lying at Carthage's doorstep, became the arena in which this conflict played out. From their earliest days, both the Greeks and Phoenicians had been attracted to the large island, establishing a large number of colonies and trading posts along its coasts. Small battles had been fought between these settlements for centuries.

Carthage had to contend with at least three Greek incursions, in BC, in BC, and a war in which the city of Heraclea was destroyed. Gelo had fought in the last war and had secured terms for the Greeks. Gelo, the tyrant of Greek Syracuse , backed in part by support from other Greek city-states , had been attempting to unite the island under his rule since BC. When Theron of Akragas, father-in-law of Gelo, deposed the tyrant of Himera in BC, Carthage decided to intervene at the instigation of the tyrant of Rhegion , who was the father-in-law of the deposed tyrant of Himera. Hamilcar prepared the largest Punic overseas expedition to date and, after three years of preparations, sailed for Sicily.

This enterprise coincided with the expedition of Xerxes against mainland Greece in BC, prompting speculations about a possible alliance between Carthage and Persia against the Greeks, although no documentary evidence of this exists. The Punic fleet was battered by storms en route, and the Punic army was destroyed and Hamilcar killed in the Battle of Himera by the combined armies of Himera, Akragas and Syracuse under Gelo. Carthage made peace with the Greeks and paid a large indemnity of silver talents, but lost no territory in Sicily. When Agathocles died in BC, a large company of Italian mercenaries who had previously been held in his service found themselves suddenly without employment.

Rather than leave Sicily, they seized the city of Messana. Naming themselves Mamertines or "sons of Mars" , they became a law unto themselves, terrorizing the surrounding countryside. The Mamertines became a growing threat to Carthage and Syracuse alike. Faced with a vastly superior force, the Mamertines divided into two factions, one advocating surrender to Carthage, the other preferring to seek aid from Rome. As a result, embassies were sent to both cities.

While the Roman Senate debated the best course of action, the Carthaginians eagerly agreed to send a garrison to Messana. A Carthaginian garrison was admitted to the city, and a Carthaginian fleet sailed into the Messanan harbour. However, soon afterwards they began negotiating with Hiero. Alarmed, the Mamertines sent another embassy to Rome asking them to expel the Carthaginians. Hiero's intervention had placed Carthage's military forces directly across the narrow channel of water that separated Sicily from Italy.

Moreover, the presence of the Carthaginian fleet gave them effective control over this channel, the Strait of Messina , and demonstrated a clear and present danger to nearby Rome and her interests. The Roman senate was unable to decide on a course of action and referred the matter to the people, who voted to intervene. Over the course of the next century, these three major conflicts between Rome and Carthage would determine the course of Western civilization. The wars included a Carthaginian invasion led by Hannibal , which nearly prevented the rise of the Roman Empire. Eventual victory by Rome was a turning point which meant that the civilization of the ancient Mediterranean would pass to the modern world via Southern Europe instead of Northwest Africa.

The war Carthage lost Sicily all of its former western portion and paid a huge indemnity. Evidently Carthage had not then been ready to wage war against an equal power. Following the defeat of Carthage, their mercenaries revolted against them, which threatened the survival of the Punic social order. During this crisis at Carthage, Rome refused to aid the rebels underpaid mercenaries and dissident Berbers , but later occupied Sardinia. As to the Second Punic War — BC , the ancient Greek historian Polybius gives three causes: the anger of Hamilcar Barca father of Hannibal whose army in Sicily the Romans did not defeat in the first war; the Roman seizure of Sardinia during the mercenary revolt; and, creation by the Barcid military family of a new Punic power base in Hispania.

After prevailing there, Hannibal Barca set out northward, eventually leading his armies over the Alps into Italy. At first Hannibal "grace of Baal" won great military victories against Rome on its own territory, at Trasimeno BC , and at Cannae BC , which came close to destroying Rome's ability to wage war. But the majority of Rome's Italian allies remained loyal; Rome drew on all her resources and managed to rebuild her military strength. For many years Hannibal enjoyed the support of those cities who defected from Rome, including Capua south of Rome and Tarentum in the far south; Hannibal remained on campaign there, maintaining his army and posing an existential threat to Rome and her remaining Italian allies.

Yet the passage of years appeared to forestall Hannibal's chances, although for a while Rome's fate appeared to hang in the balance. Meanwhile, Hispania remained throughout the year BC the domain of armies under Hannibal's two brothers: Hasdrubal and Mago , and also the Punic leader Hasdrubal Gisco. Yet Roman forces soon began to contest Carthage for its control. Rome became encouraged. By , the fortunes of war in Hispania had turned against Carthage; the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio later Africanus , — BC had decisively defeated Punic power in the peninsula. One Numidian king, Syphax , supported Carthage; however, Syphax met an early defeat. Rome found an old ally in another Berber king of Numidia, the scrambling Masinissa , who would soon grow in power and fame.

Decisively, he chose to fight with Rome against Carthage. Masinissa, traditional king of the Numidian Massyli , was restored to an enlarged realm. Carthage, reduced to its immediate surroundings, its actions restricted by treaty, was required to pay a very large indemnity to Rome over fifty years. Yet Carthage soon revived under the reforms initiated by Hannibal and, free of defence burdens, prospered as never before.

In Carthage offered to pay off early the indemnity due Rome, causing alarm in the anti-Punic faction there. Then the corrupt and rigid oligarchy in Carthage joined with this Roman faction to terminate Hannibal's reforms; eventually Hannibal was forced to flee the city. Many Romans continued to nurse a hot, across-the-board opposition to Carthage. Terence was born in Carthage yet in Rome he had mastered the Latin language well and became a celebrated Roman playwright. There were likewise citizens of Carthage who increasingly accepted the cultural influence of the Hellenic world.

For example, Hasdrubal a son of Carthage also known as Cleitomachus became a student of Greek philosophy and travelled to join the Platonic Academy at Athens. Several decades later Hasdrubal himself became its leader, the scholarch — BC. Carthage eventually responded, yet by prosecuting this defensive war the city had broken its treaty with Rome. Hence when challenged by Rome Carthage surrendered to Rome's superior strength. The war faction in control at Rome, however, was determined to undo Carthage; cleverly hiding its true aims while talks proceeded wherein Carthage gave up significant military resources , Rome eventually presented Carthage with an ultimatum: either evacuate the city which would then be destroyed; or war.

Roman armies landed in Africa and began to lay siege to the magnificent city of Carthage, which rejected further negotiations. The end came: Carthage was destroyed; its surviving citizens enslaved. In the aftermath, the region much of modern Tunisia was annexed by the Roman Republic as the new Province of Africa. It later became capital of Africa Province and a leading city of the Empire. The entire province, Berber and Punic with a large Latin and multinational influx, then experienced a centuries-long renaissance. Long after the fall of Rome, the re-built city of Carthage would be again undone.

In spite of the initial devastating Roman naval losses at the beginning of the series of conflicts and Rome's recovery from the brink of defeat after the terror of a year occupation of much of Italy by Hannibal, the end of the series of wars resulted in the end of Carthaginian power and the complete destruction of the city by Scipio Aemilianus. The Romans pulled the Phoenician warships out into the harbour and burned them before the city, and went from house to house, slaughtering and enslaving the people.

The city was set ablaze, and in this way was razed with only ruins and rubble to field the aftermath. Since the 19th century, some historians have written that the city of Carthage was salted to ensure that no crops could be grown there, but there is no ancient evidence for this. When Carthage fell, its nearby rival Utica , a Roman ally, was made capital of the region and replaced Carthage as the leading centre of Punic trade and leadership.

It had the advantageous position of being situated on the Lake of Tunis and the outlet of the Medjerda River , Tunisia's only river that flowed all year long. However, grain cultivation in the Tunisian mountains caused large amounts of silt to erode into the river. This silt was accumulated in the harbour until it was made useless, and Rome was forced to rebuild Carthage. A new city of Carthage was built on the same land, and by the 1st century AD it had grown to the second largest city in the western half of the Roman Empire , with a peak population of , It was the centre of the Roman province of Africa , which was a major "breadbasket" of the empire.

Carthage briefly became the capital of a usurper, Domitius Alexander , in — AD. Carthage also became a centre of early Christianity. Tertullian rhetorically addressed the Roman governor with the fact that the Christians of Carthage that just yesterday were few in number, now "have filled every place among you —cities, islands, fortresses, towns, market-places, the very camp, tribes, companies, palaces, senate, forum; we have left nothing to you but the temples of your gods.

In the first of a string of rather poorly reported Councils of Carthage a few years later, no fewer than 70 bishops attended. Tertullian later broke with the mainstream that was represented more and more by the bishop of Rome, but a more serious rift among Christians was the Donatist controversy, which Augustine of Hippo spent much time and parchment arguing against.

The Vandals under their king Genseric crossed to Africa in , [] either as a request of Bonifacius , a Roman general and the governor of the Diocese of Africa , [] or as migrants in search of safety. They subsequently fought against the Roman forces there and by had defeated the Roman forces in Africa and established the Vandal Kingdom. After a failed attempt to recapture the city in the 5th century, the Byzantines finally subdued the Vandals in the 6th century. Using Gaiseric's grandson's disposal by a distant cousin, Gelimer , as either a valid justification or pretext, the Byzantines dispatched an army to conquer the Vandal kingdom.

On Sunday, 15 October , the Byzantine general Belisarius , accompanied by his wife Antonina , made his formal entry into Carthage, sparing it a sack and a massacre. These two exarchates were the western bulwarks of Byzantium, all that remained of its power in the west. The Byzantine Exarchate was not, however, able to withstand the Arab conquerors of the 7th century. The first Arab assault on the Exarchate of Carthage was initiated from Egypt without much success in A more protracted campaign lasted from to In , the Exarchate of Africa was finally overrun by Hassan Ibn al Numan and a force of 40, men.

The population was displaced to the neighbouring town of Tunis which in turn vastly eclipsed Carthage as the major regional centre. Carthage's materials were used to supply the expansion of Tunis. The modern Carthage is a suburb of Tunis , the capital city of Tunisia , situated at the site of the ancient capital of the Carthaginian empire. Carthage was little more than an agricultural village for nine hundred years until the middle of the 20th century; since then it has grown rapidly as an upscale coastal suburb.

In February , Ugo Vetere, the mayor of Rome, and Chedly Klibi, the mayor of Carthage, signed a symbolic treaty "officially" ending the conflict between their cities, which had been supposedly extended by the lack of a peace treaty for more than 2, years. The Carthage Palace the Tunisian presidential palace , is located in the city. The modern Carthage, beyond its residential vocation, seems to be invested with an affirmed political role. The geographical configuration of Carthage, as an old peninsula , save Carthage, of Tunis' inconveniences and embarrassments and increase its attractiveness as a residency place toward the elites. Some ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in Northwest Africa survive.

These authors came from cultures nearly always in competition and often in conflict, with Carthage. Recent excavation of ancient Carthaginian sites has brought much more primary material to light. Some of the finds contradict or confirm aspects of the traditional picture of Carthage, but much of the material is still ambiguous. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Sicilian Wars. Main article: Pyrrhic War. Main article: Treaties between Rome and Carthage. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Roman Carthage. Main article: Carthage municipality. Edmund Bosworth Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Press. ISBN Michael 2 November The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 7 June Translated by Antonia Nevill. Oxford: Blackwell. Hitti, History of Syria. At Patai notes the Jewish reliance on Phoenician shipwrights and craft in building and managing the ships, citing I Kings , as well as the biblical moral critique in II Chronicles — The ruins of Utica, within the modern Republic of Tunisia and now situated 10 km inland, have been excavated to some extent, especially regarding a cemetery dating to the 8th century B.

No conclusive earlier finds have been identified, but the ruins were very disturbed before its trained excavation and much work remains to be done. Elissa Greek version; from Phoenician Elishat is the feminine form of the remote Phoenician creator god El , also a name for the God of the Hebrews. Smith, Carthage and the Carthaginians , at Barton, Semitic and Hamitic Origins at Some place Jezebel's origin at Sidon , a Phoenician city-state and major rival to Tyre; more likely at that time Tyre and Sidon were united. Praeger at 52, Jezebel's daughter Athaliah wed the King of Judah, where Athaliah later became queen.

Her daughter Athaliah when Queen of Judah r. Allen C. Later on, she apparently connived in the execution of Adonijah , a rival to her son Solomon. Yet the Hebrew Bible condemns Jezebel who killed Hebrew prophets but not Bathsheba whose adultery was a youthful affair, and whose latter alleged offense is subject to different interpretations. Soren, Khader, Slim, Carthage at Historically, of course, similar criminality by royals is reported in many nations. Trogus appears to be following the events as recorded by the historian Timaeus c. Much of the writings of Trogus himself are lost, but its abbreviated content survives in an ancient summary by Justin , Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. Dates for Justin are approximate: the 2nd—4th centuries.

In the Aeneid Virgil attempted, in part, to personify Carthage and Rome, and mythically explain their subsequent antagonism. The story line follows Aeneas as he escapes from his city of Troy after its capture by the Greeks. Eventually, following adventures he arrives as steered by the gods in Italy where he acts in the foundation of Rome. In the meantime, during the course of his journeys, he landed at Carthage where the Queen Dido and Aeneas became lovers. For the Romans this exemplified Berber simplicity and Phoenician sophistry.

Lancel, Serge Social and Religious Univ. Farnell per Dido of the Aeneid. Searching our database for: Princess of Tyre in classical mythology who founded Carthage crossword clue answers and solutions. Found 1 possible answer matching the query Princess of Tyre in classical mythology who founded Carthage that you searched for. You should also be aware that same crossword clues might have different answers. Stealing content from DailyCrosswordSolver. Princess of Tyre in classical mythology who founded Carthage crossword clue appeared first on Daily Crossword Solver. Princess of Tyre in classical mythology who founded Carthage crossword clue.

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