Nazi Germany Olympics

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Nazi Germany Olympics

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The Nazi Olympics: African-American Athletes (Part 2)

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The U. Groups on either side of the debate stated strong views of whether the United States should participate in the Olympics in Hitlers Nazi Germany. After an inspection on how the Jewish athletes were being treated, and the sports facilities in Germany, Avery Brundage, president of the American Olympic Committee, was against a boycott of the Olympics Hoadley 36 Olympic Hopefuls Remember Nazi Past 3. He stated that the Jews were being treated fairly at the time, and the games had to go on as planned.

His rival, Judge Jeremiah Mahoney, president of the Amateur Athletic Union, pointed out that Germany had broken Olympic rules forbidding discrimination based on race and religion. Brundage continued to fight to send an American team to Berlin. After the announcement in fall of the Nuremberg laws, which stripped German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having relations with Germanic Aryans, the support to boycott largely grew.

Judge Jeremiah Mahoney continued his efforts to boycott the Olympics. Mahoney was one of a number of Catholic leaders supporting a boycott. The Catholic Journal was another important group that advised boycotting the Olympics. They had strong views and reasons why they wanted the black athletes to participate. They thought that if blacks had victories against the Nazi athletes, it would show a sense of pride in America for blacks, and would change the views of superiority of the Aryans beliefs in Germany.

Beginning in , the American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Labor Committee, joined by the non-sectarian Anti-Nazi League, staged mass rallies to protest Nazi persecution of Jews, political opponents, and others. These groups supported the boycott of the Games as part of a general boycott of German goods. Other Jewish groups, such as the American Jewish Committee did not formally support a boycott, because they feared that an idea like that might trigger an anti-Semitic backlash in both the United States and Germany. The debate on whether to participate in the Olympics was not confined to the United States.

Once the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States decided they wanted America to participate in the Olympics, the other countries decided to end their fights for boycotts. Forty-nine teams from around the world competed in the Berlin Games, more than in any previous Olympics. Germany had the largest team at the Berlin Games with athletes. Hitler also ordered anti-Jewish signs temporarily removed from public view. Still, these Nazi ideas and propaganda were prevalent. For example, journalists around the world observed and reported troop maneuvers at Garmisch. The International press brought attention to the fact that the Reich Press used strict censorship over the German press, radio, film, and publishing. The German Chancellery issued numerous censors regarding coverage of the Olympic Games, limiting the content of reporting by German journalists.

On July 16, , some Gypsies were arrested and interned under police guard in a special Gypsy camp in the Berlin suburb of Marzahn. Also in preparation for the arrival of Olympic spectators, Nazi officials ordered that foreign visitors should not be subjected to the criminal strictures of the Nazi anti-homosexual laws. Germany promoted the Olympics with colorful posters and magazines. Athletic imagery drew a noticeable link between Nazi Germany and ancient Greece. In August Olympic flags covered houses and buildings in Berlin. Most tourists were unaware that the Nazi regime had temporarily removed anti-Jewish signs. Most tourists were also unaware that Gypsies were taken off the streets and were placed in a camp at the edge of Berlin Bachrach Hitler opened the Summer Games on August 1, The opening ceremony took place in a stadium filled with , people.

Athletes in opening day uniforms marched in the stadium, team by team. German middle-distance runner, Fritz Schilgen arrived with the lighted torch, which was relayed from the site of the ancient Olympic Games, in Olympia. The African Americans dominated the track and field games. Many American journalists hailed the victories the black athletes, because it was a blow to the Nazi myth of Aryan supremacy Kindersly The Olympic Games: Athens Sydney Jesse planned on proving to Hitler that the Aryans were not superior to everyone else. Jesse was outstanding in the meter dash, the meter dash and the broad jump. He was also a key member of the meter relay team that won the Gold Medal. In all but one of these events Jesse set Olympic records.

Jesse was the first American in the history of Olympic Track and Field to win four gold medals in a single day. Metcalfe trailed Owens by one tenth of a second in the meters. Matthew Robinson, whose younger brother was Jackie Robinson, the first black person to play major league baseball, took the silver in the meter dash. John Woodruff won the meter dash. Archie Williams, from the University of California, won the meter race, and James LuValle took third in that event.

Jack Wilson won the silver. The triumphant African American Athletes were well received by the German populace. Everywhere Jesse Owens was, there were German spectators cheering for him. However, the Nazi leaders felt much different. The press reported that Hitler refused to shake Jesse Owenss hand, and refused to recognize any of the other black athletes. Nazi newspapers were not allowed to express their opinions freely because of censorship, and referred to the African American athletes as auxiliaries.

Even when the athletes returned to America after the Games, Owens was not offered a Hollywood contract, unlike some of the white athletes that competed in Berlin Sirracose History of the Olympic Games Jewish Athletes were especially discriminated against during the Nazi Olympics. Two weeks before the Games, German Officials informed Gretel Bergmann, a Jewish Athlete who had beaten a German womans record on the high jump, that she had been left without a place on the team. The Germans sacrificed the chance for a gold medal by discriminating against the Jews. To throw off the other countries competing that heard of this action, Hitler placed a half-Jewish, blonde fencer on the team. However, no other Jewish athletes competed for Germany.

Seven American Jewish men went to Berlin. Most of these athletes were pressured by Jewish newspapers to boycott the Games. But they all chose to go to Berlin Kastor 2. They had trained very hard for the meter relay, but were replaced at the last minute with Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalf. The American coachs gave many reasons for this move. He did not make that announcement before the class. It was a private thing. A touch of sadism. Teachers who did not support the Nazi Party were sacked. One girl who successfully left Nazi Germany when she was sixteen later wrote: "Teachers had to pretend to be Nazis in order to remain in their posts, and most of the men teachers had families which depended on them.

If somebody wanted to be promoted he had to show what a fine Nazi he was, whether he really believed what he was saying or not. In the last two years, it was very difficult for me to accept any teaching at all, because I never knew how much the teacher believed in or not. Effie Engel , who went to school in Dresden , pointed out: "The progressive teachers in our school all left and we got a number of new teachers.

In my last two years of school, we got some teachers who had already been reprimanded. The fascists allowed them to be reinstated if they thought they were no longer compromised by anything else. But I also knew two teachers who never got a job again in the entire Hitler period One of the new teachers was in the SA and came to school in his uniform. I couldn't stand him. In part, we couldn't stand him because he was so loud and crude. It has been estimated that by over 32 per cent of teachers were members of the Nazi Party. This was a much higher figure than for other professions. Teachers who were members, wore their uniforms in the classroom. It has been claimed that before Adolf Hitler took power a large proportion pf teachers were members of the German Social Democratic Party.

One of the jokes that circulated in Germany during this period referred to this fact: "What is the shortest measurable unit of time? The time it takes a grade-school teacher to change his political allegiance. By two-thirds of all elementary school teachers were indoctrinated at special camps in a compulsory one-month training course of lectures. What they learned at camp they were expected to pass on to their students. However, some anti-Nazi teachers survived: "I am trying through the teaching of geography to do everything in my power to give the boys knowledge and I hope later on, judgment, so that when, as they grow older, the Nazi fever dies down and it again becomes possible to offer some opposition they may be prepared.

There are four or five masters who are non-Nazis left in our school now, and we all work on the same plan. If we leave, Nazis will come in and there will be no honest teaching in the whole school. But if I went to America and left others to do it, would that be honest, or are the only honest people those in prison cells? If only there could be some collective action amongst teachers. By there were 8, full-time leaders of the Hitler Youth. There were also , part-time leaders, often schoolteachers, who had been trained in National Socialist principles.

One teacher, who was hostile to Hitler, wrote to a friend: "In the schools it is not the teacher, but the pupils, who exercise authority. Party functionaries train their children to be spies and agent provocateurs. The youth organizations, particularly the Hitler Youth, have been accorded powers of control which enable every boy and girl to exercise authority backed up by threats. Children have been deliberately taken away from parents who refused to acknowledge their belief in National Socialism. The refusal of parents to 'allow their children to join the youth organization' is regarded as an adequate reason for taking the children away. Teachers constantly feared the possibility that their Hitler Youth students would inform on them. Herbert Lutz went to a school in Cologne.

I remember that one day he asked me a question. I was wearing my uniform, and I stood up, clicked my heels, and he blew up. I want you to act like a human being. I don't want machines. You're not a robot. Lutz later recalled: "He was probably afraid that I might report him to the Gestapo. She immediately realised that she had made a mistake and pleaded with the children not to tell anybody about it. One of the children told his parents and they promptly informed the Gestapo. She immediately lost her job and sent to prison for three-weeks.

Tomi Ungerer claims that his teachers encouraged his students to inform on his parents. Irmgard Paul went to school in Berchtesgaden. Monday mornings each pupil had to weigh in with at least two pounds of used paper and a ball of smoothed-out silver aluminum foil to help with the war effort. One day Irmgard asked her grandfather asked if she could take some of his old journals to school to help Germany win the war. How dare he not support the war that we were told every day was a life-and-death struggle for the German people?

I left the workshop without the journals but what I felt would be a permanent resentment against my grandfather. It was not long before Irmgard discovered why she had been asked to visit her teacher: "After a few polite words she asked point-blank what my grandfather thought about Adolf Hitler and what he said about the war. On the one hand, grandfather was withholding paper for the war effort On the other hand, he was my grandfather.

I knew the twinkle in his eyes when he was amused and had seen tears running down his face when one after another the messages arrived that both his apprentices had been killed on the eastern front After much too long a pause I came to the decision that I liked this nosy teacher less than my grandfather. Something had made me protect my grandfather, but it took a long time before I realized how lucky I and he had been in making that decision.

On that particular day, though, I felt thoroughly sick of these conflicts forced on me by adults. She later recalled how the students controlled the curriculum: "As time went on more and more girls joined the BDM, which gave us a great advantage at school. The mistresses were mostly pretty old and stuffy. They wanted us to do scripture and, of course, we refused. Our leaders had told us that no one could be forced to listen to a lot of immoral stories about Jews, and so we made a row and behaved so badly during scripture classes that the teacher was glad in the end to let us out.

Erich Dressler played an active role in getting rid of teachers he considered not to be supporters of the Nazi Party: "In , when I had reached the age of ten, I was sent to the Paulsen Realgymnasium. This was still a regular old-fashioned place with masters in long beards who were completely out of sympathy with the new era. They still expected us to know as much as the pupils used to under the Jewish Weimar Republic, and they pestered us with all sorts of Latin and Greek nonsense instead of teaching us things that might be useful later on. This brought about an absurd state of affairs in which we, the boys, had to instruct our masters. Already we were set aflame by the idea of the New Germany, and were resolved not to be influenced by their outdated ideas and theories, and flatly told our masters so.

Of course they said nothing, because I think they were a bit afraid of us, but they didn't do anything about changing their methods of teaching. It was decided to get rid of the Latin teacher. We just did not do it, and excused ourselves by saying that we had been on duty for the Hitler Youth during the afternoon. Once one of the old birds got up courage to say something in protest. This was immediately reported to our Group Leader who went off to see the headmaster and got the master dismissed. He was only sixteen, but as a leader in the Hider Youth he could not allow such obstructionism to hinder us in the performance of duties which were much more important than our school work Gradually the new ideas permeated the whole of our school.

A few young masters arrived who understood us and who themselves were ardent national socialists. And they taught us subjects into which the national revolution had infused a new spirit. One of them took us for history; another for racial theory and sport. Previously we had been pestered with the old Romans and such like; but now we learned to see things with different eyes. I had never thought much about being well educated; but a German man must know something about the history of his own people so as to avoid repeating the mistakes made by former generations. Teachers encouraged members of the Hitler Youth to inform on their parents. For example, they set essays entitled "What does your family talk about at home?

Their children became strangers, contemptuous of monarchy or religion, and perpetually barking and shouting like pint-sized Prussian sergeant-majors. Ilse Koehn started high school in She found that the young teachers were strong supporters of Adolf Hitler. Lauenstein was the only male teacher. Young and tall, handsome too, he was quite a contrast to the ladies, who were all in their fifties. Old German soil soaked with German blood, as he put it.

He was unbearably bombastic when he talked about the superior Aryan race. When he finally turned to Goethe, there was always a sigh of relief. No one, certainly not I, had any idea what he had been talking about. Irmgard Paul first went to her Berchtesgaden school in April A true believer. Surely she had become a teacher not because she had an affinity for children but because she wanted to tyrannize them. The war had already eaten into resources and materials, as well as the supply of male teachers, most of whom were drafted. We were huddled together in her stark, whitewashed classroom learning the basics by rote plus a bit of local history, needlework for the girls, and geography.

Her father was killed in France on 5th July, My father's boss, Herr Adler, who for unknown reasons was not drafted, came by - in his S. I stood before those hundred children, my face burning, my hurt heart thumping. I clenched my fists and swallowed hard, determined not to cry or otherwise show anyone how I felt. Heil Hitler. My face was flushed, but I made sure to walk calmly back to my seat. According to one report the activities of the Hitler Youth and the Nazi government was slowly destroying the education system in Germany. They have been wilfully destroyed from above.

No thought any more of proper working methods in school, or of the freedom of teaching. In their place we have cramming and beating schools, prescribed methods of learning and Instead of freedom of learning, we have the most narrow-minded school supervision and spying on teachers and pupils. No free speech is permitted for teachers and pupils, no inner, personal empathy. The whole thing has been taken over by the military spirit. New mathematic textbooks were introduced and included "social arithmetic", which "involved calculations designed to achieve a subliminal indoctrination in key areas - for example, sums requiring the children to calculate how much it would cost the state to keep a mentally ill person alive in an asylum.

This was a typical question from a mathematics text: "An airplane flies at the rate of kilometers per hour to a place at a distance of kilometers in order to drop bombs. When may it be expected to return if the dropping of bombs takes 7. Geography textbooks were produced that "propagated concepts such as living-space and blood and soil, and purveyed the myth of Germanic racial superiority". One popular textbook used had been written by Hermann Gauch : "The animal world can be classified into Nordic men and lower animals.

We are thus able to establish the following principle: there exist no physical or psychological characteristics which would justify a differentiation of mankind from the animal world. The only differences that exist are those between Nordic men, on the one hand, and animals Art was Tomi Ungerer favourite subject. Below is a school textbook that provides a comparative study between modern paintings and deformed humans. For example, the Amedeo Modigliani plate is compared to a person with Down's Syndrome. At school Irmgard Paul was brainwashed into accepting Nazi views on the Jewish race.

The book encouraged every child to note these differences and to bring anyone who bore Jewish features on the attention of our parents or teachers. I was horrified by the crimes Jewish people were being accused of - killing babies, loan-sharking, basic dishonesty, and conspiring to destroy Germany and rule the world. The description of the Jewish people would convince any child that these were monsters, not people with sorrows and joys like ours.

Bernhard Rust introduced a Nazi National Curriculum. Considerable emphasis was placed on physical training. Boxing was made compulsory in upper schools and PT became an examination subject for grammar-school entry as well as for the school-leaving certificate. Persistently unsatisfactory performance at PT constituted grounds for expulsion from school and for debarment from further studies.

In timetable allocation of PT periods was increased from two to three. Two years later it was increased to five periods. All teachers below the age of fifty were pressed into compulsory PT courses. Selection for entry included racial origins, physical fitness and membership of the Hitler Youth. These schools, run by the Schutzstaffel SS , had the task of training the next generation of high-ranking people in the Nazi Party and the German Army. Only two out of the thirty-nine Napolas constructed over the next few years catered for girls.

After leaving school at the age of eighteen students joined the German Labour Service where they worked for the government for six months. Bernhard Rust claimed that the new education system would benefit the children of the working-class that made up 45 per cent of Germany's population. This promise was never fulfilled and after six years in office, only 3 per cent of university students came from working-class backgrounds.

This was the same percentage as it was before Adolf Hitler came to power. One of the objectives of the Nazi government was to reduce the number of women in higher education. On 12th January , Wilhelm Frick ordered that the proportion of female grammar school graduates allowed to proceed to university should be no more than 10 per cent of that of the male graduates. In the year before the Nazis came to power there were 18, women students in Germany's universities. Six years later this number had fallen to 5, The government also ordered a reduction in women teachers. By the number of women teachers at girls' secondary schools had decreased by 15 per cent.

The organization issued a statement explaining its role in Nazi Germany : "The purpose of the National Mother Service is political schooling. Political schooling for the woman is not a transmission of political knowledge, nor the learning of Party programs. Rather, political schooling is shaping to a certain attitude, an attitude that out of inner necessity affirms the measures of the State, takes them into women's life, carries them out and causes them to grow and be further transmitted. Joseph Goebbels pointed out in a speech in "Women has the task of being beautiful and bringing children into the world, and this is by no means as coarse and old-fashioned as one might think.

The female bird preens herself for her mate and hatches her eggs for him. In exchange, the mate takes care of gathering the food and stands guard and wards off the enemy. Hope for as many children as possible! Your duty is to produce at least four offspring in order to ensure the future of the national stock. As Richard Evans , the author of The Third Reich in Power has pointed out: "The reorganization of German secondary schools ordered in abolished grammar-school education for girls altogether.

Girls were banned from learning Latin, a requirement for university entrance, and the Education Ministry did its best instead to steer them into domestic education, for which a whole type of girls school existed The number of female students in higher education fell from just over 17, in to well under 6, in One of the major problems for schools in Nazi Germany was attendance.

School authorities were instructed to grant pupils leave of absence to enable them to attend Hitler Youth courses. In one study of a school in Westphalia with pupils showed that 23, school days were lost because of extra-mural activities during one academic year. This eventually had an impact on educational achievement. On 16th January, , Colonel Hilpert of the German Army complained in Frankfurter Zeitung , that: "Our youth starts off with perfectly correct principles in the physical sphere of education, but frequently refuses to extend this to the mental sphere Many of the candidates applying for commissions display a simply inconceivable lack of elementary knowledge.

By it was reported that there was a problem recruiting teachers. It was claimed that one teaching post in twelve was unfilled and Germany had 17, less teachers than it had before Adolf Hitler came to power. The main reason for this was the fall in teacher's pay. Entrants to the profession were offered a starting salary of 2, marks per annum. After deductions, this worked out at approximately marks per month, or twenty marks more than was earned by the average lower-paid worker. The government tried to overcome this problem by introducing low-paid unqualified auxiliaries into schools.

Tomi Ungerer has pointed out that after the outbreak of the Second World War the first hour of school was dedicated to history, especially to the rise of the Nazi movement and the latest news of military victories. Indoctrination was daily and systematic. Jazz, modern art, and comic strips were considered degenerate and forbidden. I could easily imagine Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse, or Superman and their likes dutifully arrested by the Gestapo to serve in some hard labour squad We had special classes building model airplanes to make us future pilots in the Luftwaffe , of course. He was born the 20th of April in Braunau. He delivered German from misery. Now everyone has work, bread, and joy.

In my great educative work," said Hitler, " I am beginning with the young. We older ones are used up. Yes, we are old already. We are rotten to the marrow. We have no unrestrained instincts left. We are cowardly and sentimental. We are bearing the burden of a humiliating past, and have in our blood the dull recollection of serfdom and servility. But my magnificent youngsters! Are there finer ones anywhere in the world?

Look at these young men and boys! What material! With them I can make a new world. Weakness has to be knocked out of them. In my Ordensburgen a youth will grow up before which the world will shrink back. A violently active dominating, intrepid, brutal youth - that is what I am after". Youth must be all those things. It must be indifferent to pain. There must be no weakness or tenderness in it. I want to see once more in its eyes the gleam of pride and independence of the beast of prey. Strong and handsome must my young men be. I will have them fully trained in all physical exercises.

I intend to have an athletic youth - that is the first and the chief thing. In this way I shall eradicate the thousands of years of human domestication. Then I shall have in front of me the pure and noble natural material. With that I can create the new order. Knowledge is ruin to my young men. I would have them learn only what takes their fancy. But one thing they must learn - self-command! They shall learn to overcome the fear of death, under the severest tests. That is the intrepid and heroic stage of youth. Out of it comes the stage of the free man, the man who is the substance and essence of the world, the creative man, the god-man.

In my Ordensburgen there will stand as a statue for worship the figure of the magnificent, self-ordaining god-man; it will prepare the young men for their coming period of ripe manhood. The whole organization of education, and training which the People's State is to build up must take as its crowning task the work of instilling into the hearts and brains of the youth entrusted to it the racial instinct and understanding of the racial idea.

No boy or girl must leave school without having attained a clear insight into the meaning of racial purity and the importance of maintaining the racial blood unadulterated. Thus the first indispensable condition for the preservation of our race will have been established and thus the future cultural progress of our people will be assured. A reform of particular importance is that which ought to take place in the present methods of teaching history. Scarcely any other people are made to study as much of history as the Germans, and scarcely any other people make such a bad. If politics means history in the making, then our way of teaching history stands condemned by the way we have conducted our politics.

But there would be no point in bewailing the lamentable results of our political conduct unless one is now determined to give our people a better political education. In 99 out of cases the results of our present teaching of history are deplorable. Usually only a few dates, years of birth and names, remain in the memory, while a knowledge of the main and clearly defined lines of historical development is completely lacking.

The essential features which are of real significance are not taught. It is left to the more or less bright intelligence of the individual to discover the inner motivating urge amid the mass of dates and chronological succession of events. The subject matter of our historical teaching must be curtailed. The chief value of that teaching is to make the principal lines of historical development understood. The more our historical teaching is limited to this task, the more we may hope that it will turn out subsequently to be of advantage to the individual and, through the individual, to the community as a whole.

For history must not be studied merely with a view to knowing what happened in the past but as a guide for the future, and to teach us what policy would be the best to follow for the preservation of our own people. The systematic reform of Germany's education system was started immediately after the coming into power of National Socialism. If these far-reaching changes were to materialize, teachers had first to be made capable of introducing them. Numerous courses, camps and working communities have been arranged to provide the necessary instruction, which includes the teaching of the philosophy of National Socialism in addition to the strictly educational subjects.

The influence of Germany's educational system on her national fortunes invites comparison with that of the playing-fields of Eton on the Battle of Waterloo. It could be said of the teachers that they had travaille pour le roi de Prusse both in the metaphorical and the purely literal sense of the phrase: they earned meagre salaries and inculcated an ethos of Prusso-German patriotism. This they largely contrived to do even when the Empire had followed the Kingdom of Prussia into the limbo of history. Though after some mainly elementary teachers supported the Social Democrats or middle-of-the-road political parties, the schools in general acted as incubators of nationalism under the Weimar Republic.

The choice of Hans Grimm's Volk ohne Raum People without Space as a standard matriculation text reflected a virtually nation-wide consensus among teachers of German language and literature, while schoolboys would inject new topicality and frisson into the game of Cowboys and Indians by calling it "Aryans and Jews"; by Jewish communal newspapers were publishing lists of schools where children suffered less exposure to anti-Semitism so that parents could arrange transfers Denunciation also constituted an ever-present occupational hazard for teachers, since low marks or adverse comments on essays lifted verbatim from articles in the Nazi Press could be construed as evidence of political opposition.

In actual fact, however, the teaching profession represented one of the most politically reliable sections of the population. Fourteen per cent of teachers compared to 6 per cent of civil servants belonged to the Party's political leadership corps. This remarkable commitment to the regime was exemplified in the highest ranks of the Party hierarchy by seventy-eight District Leaders and seven Gauleiter and deputy Gauleiter who had graduated from the teaching profession. It also found expression in the schoolmasterly, moralizing tone which - as we have noted elsewhere - informed so many Nazi utterances. The Party image also benefited from the presence of many teachers at the grass-roots level of its organization, where they acted as "notabilities" Respektspersonen , masking the more disreputable elements entrenched in the local apparatus.

The Aryans Nordic people were tall, light-skinned, light-eyed, blond people. It was Nordic energy and boldness that were responsible for the power and prestige enjoyed by small nations such as the Netherlands and Sweden. Everywhere Nordic creative power has built up mighty empires with high-minded ideas, and to this very day Aryan languages and cultural values are spread over a large part of the world. When Klauss got back from school at five o'clock he bullied me into helping him with his homework. Glancing through his school books, I noticed again how different they are from those I had had only a few years ago.

The change has been particularly marked since Streicher became head of his Institute of Political Instruction at Berlin University. Here is a maths problem, picked out at random: "A Sturmkampfflieger on take-off carries twelve dozen bombs, each weighing ten kilos. The aircraft makes for Warsaw, the centre of international Jewry. It bombs the town. On takeoff with all bombs on board and a fuel tank containing 1, kiios of fuel, the aircraft weighed about eight tons. When it returns from the crusade, there are still kilos of fuel left. What is the weight of the aircraft when empty? Here is another one I had to solve for Klauss: "The iniquitous Treaty of Versailles, imposed by the French and the English, enabled international plutocracy to steal Germany's colonies.

France herself acquired part of Togoland. If German Togoland, temporarily under the administration of the French imperialists, covers fifty-six million square kilometres, and contains a population of eight hundred thousand people, estimate the average living space per inhabitant. There is, indeed, twofold evidence to show that something was wrong with education. In the first place, the high level of popular enlightenment had failed to protect the German people against the poisonous effects of Marxist teaching and other false doctrines.

Large masses of people had fallen victims to them, whilst other sections - more especially those of higher education - had been unable to take up an effective stand against the spread of the poison. If they had, the events of and the succeeding period of national disintegration and deterioration would have been prevented.

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