Analysis Of The Rule Of Immanence By Foucault

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Analysis Of The Rule Of Immanence By Foucault

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In fact, his entire career could be summarized in these words that carry an ethical as well as a critical message. As he grew more cognizant of the social dimension of individual life, the political and the ethical tended to coalesce. It purports to question many of the main propositions of his ethics of authenticity, yet what has appeared in print chiefly elaborates claims already stated in his earlier works. But since the tapes on which these remarks were recorded are unavailable to the public and Sartre's illness at the time they were made was serious, their authority as revisionary of his general philosophy remains doubtful.

If ever released in its entirety, this text will constitute a serious hermeneutical challenge. He emerged committed to social reform and convinced that the writer had the obligation to address the social issues of the day. He founded the influential journal of opinion, Les Temps modernes , with his partner Simone de Beauvoir, as well as Merleau-Ponty, Raymond Aron and others. After a brief unsuccessful attempt to help organize a nonCommunist leftist political organization, he began his long love-hate relationship with the French Communist Party, which he never joined but which for years he considered the legitimate voice of the working class in France.

This continued till the Soviet invasions of Hungary in Still, Sartre continued to sympathize with the movement, if not the Party, for some time afterwards. Each suspended his or her personal interests for the sake of the common goal. No doubt these practices hardened into institutions and freedom was compromised once more in bureaucratic machinery. But that brief taste of genuine positive reciprocity was revelatory of what an authentic social existence could be. Sartre came to recognize how the economic conditions the political in the sense that material scarcity, as both Ricardo and Marx insisted, determines our social relations. In Sartre's reading, scarcity emerges as the source of structural and personal violence in human history as we know it.

Never one to avoid a battle, Sartre became embroiled in the Algerian War, generating deep hostility from the Right to the point that a bomb was detonated at the entrance to his apartment building on two occasions by supporters of a French Algeria. Sartre's political critique conveyed in a series of essays, interviews and plays, especially The Condemned of Altona , once more combined a sense of structural exploitation in this case, the institution of colonialism and its attendant racism with an expression of moral outrage at the oppression of the Muslim population and the torture of captives by the French military.

Mention of the play reminds us of the role of imaginative art in Sartre's philosophical work. Sartre often turned to literary art to convey or even to work through philosophical thoughts that he had already or would later conceptualize in his essays and theoretical studies. Which brings us to the relation between imaginative literature and philosophy in his work. And this is what existentialism is chiefly about: challenging the individual to examine their life for intimations of bad faith and to heighten their sensitivity to oppression and exploitation in their world.

Sartre's early work Nausea is the very model of a philosophical novel. Its protagonist, Roquentin, works through many of the major themes of Being and Nothingness that will appear five years later. It can be read as an extended meditation on the contingency of our existence and on the psychosomatic experience that captures that phenomenon. In his famous meditation on a tree root, Roquentin experiences the brute facticity of its existence and of his own: both are simply there, without justification, in excess de trop.

But if not that, how is it to be indexed? Rather, being accompanies all phenomena as their existential dimension. But this dimension is revealed by certain experiences such as that of the utter contingency which Roquentin felt. This is scarcely rationalism, but neither is it mysticism. Anyone can experience this contingency and, once brought to reflective awareness, can ponder its implications. In a series of essays published as What is Literature? Though steeped in the polemics of the day, this continues to be a seminal text of criticism. The artwork, for Sartre, has always carried a special power: that of communicating among freedoms without alienation or objectification. In this sense, it has stood as an exception to the objectifying gaze of his vintage existentialist texts.

By the time he gathers these thoughts in What is Literature? It is offered as an example of positive reciprocity in the political realm. In other words, Sartre's political and ethical values and concerns conjoin in the concept of committed literature. Each of these studies constitutes a form of existential psychoanalysis. While connecting impersonal historical phenomena in their dialectical necessity for example, the unintended consequences ingredient in any historical account , these narratives are intent on conveying the subject's sense of the anguish of decision and the pinch of the real. In effect, biography is an essential part of an existentialist approach to history and not a mere illustrative appendage.

Foucault once dismissed Sartre testily as a man of the nineteenth century trying to think the twentieth. With his emphasis on consciousness, subjectivity, freedom, responsibility and the self, his commitment to Marxist categories and dialectical thinking, especially in the second part of his career, and his quasi Enlightenment humanism, Sartre seemed to personify everything that structuralists and poststructuralists like Foucault opposed.

A classic example of philosophical parricide. And then there is his famous denial of the Freudian unconscious and his relative neglect of semiotics and the philosophy of language in general. One should note that Sartre's suspicion of Freudian psychoanalysis became quite nuanced in his later years. And while he was familiar with Saussure and structural linguistics, to which he occasionally referred, he admitted that he had never formulated an explicit philosophy of language but insisted that one could be reconstructed from elements employed throughout his work. But at least five features of Sartre's thought seem particularly relevant to current discussions among philosophers both Anglo-American and Continental.

And its location within a mundane ontology may resonate better with philosophers of a more secular bent. From a philosopher suspicious of moral recipes and focused on concrete, lived experience, this is perhaps as much as one could expect or desire. Sartre dealt implicitly with issue of race in many of his works, beginning with Being and Nothingness. Race relations, especially segregation in the South, figured centrally in his reports from the United States during two visits after the War and and were a major topic of his many writings on colonialism and neocolonialism thereafter.

This may serve as his lesson to the ontology and the ethics of race relations in the twenty-first century. His appeal for violence to counter the inherent violence of the colonial system in Algeria reached hyperbolic proportions in his prefatory essay to Franz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth Of the other topics in current philosophical discussions to which Sartre offers relevant remarks, I would conclude by mentioning feminism. This suggestion will certainly raise some eyebrows because even his fans admit that some of the images and language of his earlier work were clearly sexist in character. And yet, Sartre always favored the exploited and oppressed in any relationship and he encouraged his life-long partner, Simone de Beauvoir, to write The Second Sex, commonly recognized as the seminal work for the second-wave of the feminist movement.

In addition to the plausible extrapolations of many remarks made apropos the exploitation of blacks and Arabs, just mentioned, I shall cite two concepts in Sartre's work that I believe carry particular promise for feminist arguments. The first occurs in the short work Anti-Semite and Jew The second concept that issues from Sartre's later writing which is of immediate relevance to feminist thought is that of positive reciprocity and its attendant notion of generosity. But in his aesthetic writings and in the Notebooks for an Ethics, he describes the artist's work as a generous act, an invitation from one freedom to another.

He even suggests that this might serve as a model for interpersonal relations in general. And in his major work in social ontology, the Critique of Dialectical Reason, Sartre charts the move from objectifying and alienating relationships series to the positive reciprocity of the group members. Some feminist authors have employed these Sartrean concepts in their arguments. There remains much still to extract from Sartre's later works in this area. As Sartrean existentialism frees itself from the limitations of its post-war adolescence and shows its mature psychological, ontological and ethical face to the new century, it enters with adult standing into the ongoing conversation that we call Western philosophy.

Its relevance remains as actual today as does the human condition that it describes and analyzes. Philosophical Development 2. Ontology 3. Psychology 4. Ethics 5. Politics 6. Art and Philosophy 7. Philosophical Development Sartre was born in Paris where he spent most of his life. Ontology Like Husserl and Heidegger, Sartre distinguished ontology from metaphysics and favored the former. Psychology Sartre's gifts of psychological description and analysis are widely recognized. Still Husserl continued to appeal to mental images in his account of imaging consciousness while eventually avoiding them in analyzing the imagination.

Ethics Sartre was a moralist but scarcely a moralizer. Sartre in the Twenty-first Century Foucault once dismissed Sartre testily as a man of the nineteenth century trying to think the twentieth. Outline of a Theory , tr. Hazel E. Barnes, New York: Philosophical Library, []. George J. Becker, New York: Schocken. Reprinted with preface by Michael Walzer, []. Martha H. Fletcher and Philip R. Berk respectively, New York: George Braziller, []. Reprinted in , forward by Fredric Jameson. London: Verso. Bernard Frechtman, New York: Braziller, []. Carol Cosman 5 vols. Auster and L. Davis, New York: Pantheon.

And Other Essays , [including Black Orpheus ] tr. Bernard Frechtman et al. Steven Ungar, Cambridge, Mass. Adrian van den Hoven, intro. Ronald Aronson. Is this also not our predicament? In bourgeois societies, we are split between formal-legal equality sustained by the institutions of the democratic state, and class distinctions enforced by the economic system. We live the tension between Politically Correct respect for human rights, etc. This, however, does not mean that the relationship is simply the one between deceiving appearance and reality: apropos liberal egalitarianism, it is not enough to make the old Marxist point about the gap between the ideological appearance of the universal legal form and the particular interests that effectively sustain it — as is so common amongst politically-correct critics on the Left.

And exactly the same goes for architecture: when a building embodies democratic openness, this appearance is never a mere appearance — it has a reality of its own, it structures the way individuals interact in their real lives. In other words, we are not dealing with a longing for real equality, but with the longing for a proper appearance. Recall Wittgenstein motto: what we cannot directly talk about, it can be shown by the form of our activity. What the official ideology cannot openly talk about can be shown by the mute signs of a building. The utopia enacted in architecture can also be a conservative utopia of regained hierarchical order.

And does the same not hold for the monumental public buildings from the Roosevelt era, like the central post office in New York? He makes here a further crucial point: since the two sub-groups form one and the same tribe, living in the same village, this identity somehow has to be symbolically inscribed — how, if the entire symbolic articulation, all social institutions, of the tribe are not neutral, but are overdetermined by the fundamental and constitutive antagonistic split? It is the reference to such a zero-institution that enables all members of the tribe to experience themselves as such, as members of the same tribe. Is, then, this zero-institution not ideology at its purest, i.

Their very conflictual meanings amusement and high art, profane and sacred, exclusive and popular cancel themselves mutually, so that the outcome is the presence of meaning as such as opposed to non-meaning: their meaning is to have meaning, to be islands of meaning in the flow of our meaningless daily existence. However, one should not misunderstand this emphasis on the incommensurability between outside and inside as a critique relying on the demand for the continuity between the two. The incommensurability between outside and inside is a transcendental a priori — in our most elementary phenomenological experience, the reality we see through a window is always minimally spectral, not as fully real as the closed space where we are.

This is why, when driving a car or looking through a window of a house, one perceives the reality outside in a weirdly de-realized state, as if one is watching a performance on a screen; when one opens the window, the direct impact of the external reality always causes a minimal shock, we are overwhelmed by its proximity. This is also why, when we enter the closed space of a house, we are often surprised: it seems the inside volume is larger than the outside frame, as if the house is larger from the inside than from the outside. As if to comply with the fiction, North Korea has built in front of this theater a pure fake, a model village with beautiful houses; in the evening, the lights in all the houses are turned on at the same time, people area given good dresses and are obliged to take a stroll every evening… a barren zone is given a fantasmatic status, elevated into a spectacle, solely by being enframed.

One can put this into architectural terms: the sublime is the majesty of nature seen from the inside, through a real or imagined window frame — it is the distance provided by the frame which makes the scene sublime. There can also be a false inside. In the ZKM house in Karlsruhe, there is a TV screen in front of the entrance to the main toilet area, showing continuously on its black and white screen the inside of a small toilet cube with the empty toilet bowl. After the first moment of release thanks god the toilet is free, I cannot wait… , I become aware that it will no longer be empty when I will enter it, so that I will be seen defecating… it is only then that the obvious truth strikes me: it is, of course, a pre-recorded tape we see, not the actual inside of the restroom!

What this mutual encroaching indicates is that Inside and Outside never cover the entire space: there is always an excess of a third space which gets lost in the division into Outside and Inside. In human dwellings, there is an intermediate space which is disavowed: we all know it exists, but we do not really accept its existence — it remains ignored and mostly unsayable. The main content of this invisible space is excrement canalization , but also the complex network of electricity, digital links, etc. We of course know well how excrements leave the house, but our immediate phenomenological relation to it is a more radical one: it is as if shit disappears into some netherworld, out of our sight and out of our world.

We rely on this space, but ignore it — no wonder that, in science-fiction, horror films and techno-thrillers, this dark space between walls is the space where horrible threats lurk from spying machines to monsters or contagious animals like cockroaches and rats. What can architecture do here? One of the possible things is to re-include this excluded space in a domesticated form. With its meters above ground, the Taipei Tower of Taiwan is the tallest building on Earth; since Taiwan is often hit by typhoons, the problem was how to control the swinging when the building is exposed to strong winds.

The solution was an original one: to reduce lateral vibrations, a gigantic steel ball weighing tonnes is suspended from the 92nd floor, reaching down to 87th floor; the ball is connected to pistons which drive oil through. That is to say, while the ball occupies the central open space between 92nd and 87th floors, the outside space close to the windows was used as the site of a magnificent restaurant: on one side of the table, one can look through the glass at the panorama of the city, while on the other side, one can see the gigantic ball gently swinging… This transparency is, of course, a pseudo-transparency, like the stalls in big food supermarkets where food is prepared in front of our eyes fruit is squeezed into juice, meat and vegetables are fried….

The link between form and function is cut, there is no causal relationship between the two, i. Which are the basic architectural versions of this gap? The result is a hybrid effect, as if the same building is a condensation of two or more asymmetrical cubes — as if the same formal principle a cube box was applied on different axes. A weird tension and imbalance, a conflict of principles, is thus directly inscribed into the form, as if the actual building lacks a single anchoring point and perspective. The next step is the aestheticization of the external container: it is no longer just a neutral box, but a round shell protecting the jewel inside. Kinder Surprise, one of the most popular chocolate products on sale all around Central Europe, are empty egg shells made of chocolate and wrapped up in lively-colored paper; after one unwraps the egg and cracks the chocolate shell open, one finds in it a small plastic toy or small parts from which a toy is to be set together — one can effectively claim that the National Grand Theatre of China is a gigantic Kinder Surprise egg.

The central semiotic mystery of performance-arts venues is the mystery of this redoubling: why a house within a house, why does a container itself have to be contained? Does not this sometimes freakish display of inconsistency and excess not cry out loudly, functioning as a symptom — a message encoded in this mess? This brings us to the social antagonism these buildings try to resolve. It is with such intangibles that events can really win against home entertainment. Thought must be given to all aspects of a visit, from the foyers and bars to the facilities and ease of access.

As a result, the performing-arts venue has had to be redefined for the twenty-first century. The new generation of buildings must be part of the public realm, with access to only the core areas being restricted by the requirement for a ticket. These venues include public activities within and around the complex, attracting a wider range of visitors. The space of these oppositions delineates the problem to which performance-arts buildings are solutions.

So how does the anti-elitist architecture of performance-arts venues fit these coordinates? Its attempt to overcome elitist exclusivity fails, since it reproduces the paradoxes of the upper- class liberal openness — its falsity, the failure to achieve its goal, is the falsity and limitation of our tolerant liberal capitalism. This logic is brought to extreme in shopping malls in some Latino-American countries, well protected by security personnel armed with machine guns. The paradigmatic but by far not the only such place are slums favelas in Latin.

It would have been really interesting to study in detail big suburban slums as an architectural phenomenon with a wild aesthetic of its own. This brings us to what is false about the anti-elitism of performance-arts venues: it is not that they are secretly elitist, it is their very anti-elitism, its implicit ideological equation of great art with elitism. If anything, Mozart belonged to the poor in the upper stalls who spent their last dollars to see the opera. Far from making the exclusive temple of high art more accessible, it is the very surrounding of expensive cafeterias etc. Bringing this logic to its absurd extreme, one can imagine a building which would consist only of a gigantic circular staircase, with elevators taking us to the top, so that what is usually just a means, a path to the true goal, would become the main purpose — one goes to such a building to take a slow walk down the stairs… Does the Guggenheim Museum in New York not come pretty close to it, with the art exhibits reduced to de facto decorations destined to make the long walk more pleasant?

Is it not better to stay down and, say, read a good book? Is there a way out of this deadlock? There is an interesting new phenomenon which emerges with this assertion of the gap between skin and structure — an unexpected interstitial space. The curvaceous shapes of these public areas are the by-products of two separate design processes — those of the acoustic- and logistic-driven performing zones, and the climactic- and structure-driven envelope. The notion I propose here is ex-aptation, introduced by Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin: it refers to features that did not arise as adaptations through natural selection but rather as side effects of adaptive processes and that have been co-opted for a biological function. By extension, a spandrel is any geometric configuration of space inevitably left over as a consequence of other architectural decisions.

Say, the spaces between the pillars of a bridge can subsequently be used by homeless persons for sleeping, even though such spaces were not designed for providing such shelter. And as the church spandrels may then incidentally become the locus for decorations such as portraits of the four evangelists, so anatomical spandrels may be co-opted for uses that they were not selected for in the first place. The struggle is open here — the struggle for who will appropriate them. Not such a long time ago, in a galaxy that now appears far, far away, the public space was clearly distinguished from the obscenities of private exchanges. Today, however, not only we can read in the mass media about the intimate details of public personalities, populist politicians themselves often regress to shameless obscenity.

One should not lose sight of what is so surprising about this rise of shameless obscenity. Traditionally or in our retroactive view of tradition, at least , shameless obscenity worked as subversive, as an undermining of traditional domination, as depriving the Master of his false dignity. In the s protesting students liked to use obscene words or make obscene gestures to embarrass figures of power and, so they claimed, denounce their hypocrisy. However, what we are getting today, with the exploding public obscenity, is not the disappearance of authority, of Master figures, but its forceful reappearance — we are getting something unimaginable decades ago, obscene Masters.

Beginning in , Theodor W. Adorno and other members of the reconstituted Frankfurt Institute for Social Research undertook a massive empirical study of German opinion about the legacies of the Nazi past, applying and modifying techniques they had learned during their U. They published their results in as a research monograph, Group Experiment , edited by Friedrich Pollock.

The spread of the coronavirus epidemics has also triggered a vast epidemic of ideological viruses which were lying dormant in our societies: fake news, paranoiac conspiracy theories, explosions of racism, etc. Underlying these viruses is the rise of obscenity in public discourse which is linked to new Right populism. However, the ongoing epidemics at the same time clearly demonstrated the limit of populism. Critical theoretical thought, at the most advanced level, includes a sense of the political urgency of the times, an urgency that has so dramatically increased in these past years with the advent of Brexit and Trump, the massive global inequality to which they both attest and exacerbate, the increasingly licensed ethno-nationalism, racism and misogyny which they sanction, the forms of historical forgetting which they appear to demand.

Theory is engaged theory, it pursues, elucidates and complicates its own genealogy and intellectual elaboration at the same time as attempting to show how theory, and the necessity of sustained reflection which it demands and enacts, can contribute to progressive, dissident thought and being in the modern world. From this premise, he goes on to consider issues of liberty and justice, arriving at a view of society that has seemed to some a blueprint for totalitarianism, to others a declaration of democratic principles. A brilliant intellectual history of the philosophical positions and movements that in a way fermented to produce National Socialism. But we believe it is not superfluous to add that to underestimate the philosophical driving forces would be at least as dangerous and as little in accordance with reality.

Here he inverts current pedagogical strategies to explain the difficult philosophical underpinnings of the French theoretician and practician who revolutionized our view of psychoanalysis. There is something to these accusations. Is, then, psychoanalysis today outdated? The course followed the fundamental rule of excluding all clinical stuff. Lacan was first and foremost a clinician, and clinic permeates everything he wrote and did: even when Lacan reads Plato, Aquinas, Hegel, or Kierkegaard, it is always in order to deal with a precise clinical problem Plato for transference, Aquinas for symptom, Hegel for the dialectic of the progress of treatment, Kierkegaard for repetition.

Our wager is that this very all-pervasiveness of clinic allows us to exclude it: precisely because clinic is everywhere, one can erase it and limit oneself to its effects, to the way it colors everything that appears non-clinical — this is the true test of its central place. The overall aim is to demonstrate the strength of the Lacanian approach, through polemical confrontations with other predominant trends, from cognitivism to deconstructionism. The titles of these talks are thus my own work and copyright.

The crisis triggered the deepest global recession in 70 years and prompted the US government to spend more than 1 trillion dollars in order to rescue its banking system from collapse. The full implications of the crisis in Europe and around the world still remain unclear. Nevertheless, should we accept the crisis as an unfortunate side-effect of the free market? Or is there another explanation as to why it happened and its likely effects on our society, our economy and our whole way of life?

Jason Barker born is a theorist, director, screenwriter, producer and author of Marx Returns published by Zero Books in The course focused on the singular question: Is psychoanalysis outdated? The course followed the fundamental rule of excluding the clinic. Lacan was first and foremost a clinician, and clinical details permeate everything he wrote and did: even when Lacan reads Plato, Aquinas, Hegel, or Kierkegaard, it is always in order to deal with a precise clinical problem Plato for transference, Aquinas for symptom, Hegel for the dialectic of the progress of treatment, Kierkegaard for repetition.

Our wager is that this very all-pervasiveness of clinic allows us to exclude it: precisely because clinic is everywhere, one can erase it and limit oneself to its effects, to the way it colours everything that appears non-clinical—this is the true test of its central place. The overall aim of the course was to demonstrate the strength of the Lacanian approach, through polemical confrontations with other predominant trends, from cognitivism to deconstructionism.

What does it mean to return to this stance today? How is a Marxist to counter this massive onslaught of obscurantism? The revolutionary core of the Christian legacy is too precious to be left to the fundamentalists. Inspired by their mentors Louis Althusser and Jacques Lacan, the editors of the Cahiers sought to sever philosophy from the interpretation of given meanings or experiences, focusing instead on the mechanisms that structure specific configurations of discourse, from the psychological and ideological to the literary, scientific, and political. Adequate analysis of the operations at work in these configurations, they argue, helps prepare the way for their revolutionary transformation.

The second volume collects newly commissioned essays on the journal, together with recent interviews with people who were either members of its editorial board or associated with its broader theoretical project. It aims to help reconstruct the intellectual context of the Cahiers , and to assess its contemporary theoretical legacy. Badiou is nothing if not polemical and the most suitable way to approach his philosophy is precisely through the controversies it creates.

Alain Badiou has devised perhaps the only truly inventive philosophy of the subject since Sartre. Peter Hallward teaches Philosophy at Kingston University and has written books on Alain Badiou, Gilles Deleuze, postcolonial literature, and contemporary Haitian politics. Alain Badiou is a French Marxist philosopher, novelist and playwright. Throughout his career, Badiou has been actively involved in politics. Long before a devastating earthquake hit in January , Haiti was one of the most impoverished and oppressed countries in the world. Damming the Flood analyzes how and why the Lavalas governments led by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide were overthrown, in and again in , by the enemies of democracy in Haiti and abroad. The elaborate campaign to suppress Lavalas was perhaps the most successful act of imperial sabotage since the end of the Cold War.

It has left the people of Haiti at the mercy of some of the most rapacious political and economic forces on the planet. Updated with a substantial new afterword that addresses the international response to the earthquake, Damming the Flood is both an invaluable account of recent Haitian history and an illuminating analysis of twenty-first-century imperialism. Die Versprechen des Kommunismus von den Katastrophen des Jahrhunderts zu trennen, ist keine leichte Aufgabe.

Denn wir brauchen eine andere Vorstellung von Gesellschaft, damit die Menschheit aus den Katastrophen herauskommt, in die sie mit dem Kapitalismus bereits hineingesteuert ist. Dazu will das Buch einen Beitrag leisten. Die Konferenz verstand sich dabei nicht als akademische Lehrveranstaltung, sondern vielmehr als praktisch-theoretische Anleitung zu politischem Handeln. Aus dem Englischen von Harald Etzbach. Violence takes three forms: subjective crime, terror , objective racism, hate-speech, discrimination , and systemic the catastrophic effects of economic and political systems —and often one form of violence blunts our ability to see the others, raising complicated questions.

Does the advent of capitalism and, indeed, civilization cause more violence than it prevents? And could the appropriate form of action against violence today simply be to contemplate, to think? In the Index at the very end, the term structural violence does appear in the English variation, albeit just once, yet it points towards a footnote labelled 36—while the Slovene edition of the book does not even contain an Index. So although the Index does contain a footnote 36 pointing towards the term systemic violence , in reality there is no footnote 36 in the chapter titled SOS Violence , since the last footnote in that chapter ends with footnote 26 while the next chapter titled Allegro moderato-Adagio begins from footnote 1 all over again.

The present ecological mutation has organized the whole political landscape for the last thirty years. This could explain the deadly cocktail of exploding inequalities, massive deregulation, and conversion of the dream of globalization into a nightmare for most people. What holds these three phenomena together is the conviction, shared by some powerful people, that the ecological threat is real and that the only way for them to survive is to abandon any pretense at sharing a common future with the rest of the world.

Hence their flight offshore and their massive investment in climate change denial. The Left has been slow to turn its attention to this new situation. It is still organized along an axis that goes from investment in local values to the hope of globalization and just at the time when, everywhere, people dissatisfied with the ideal of modernity are turning back to the protection of national or even ethnic borders.

This is why it is urgent to shift sideways and to define politics as what leads toward the Earth and not toward the global or the national. Belonging to a territory is the phenomenon most in need of rethinking and careful redescription; learning new ways to inhabit the Earth is our biggest challenge. Bringing us down to earth is the task of politics today. Brown argues that efforts to outlaw hate speech and pornography powerfully legitimize the state: such apparently well-intentioned attempts harm victims further by portraying them as so helpless as to be in continuing need of governmental protection.

Refusing any facile identification with one political position or another, Brown applies her argument to a panoply of topics, from the basis of litigiousness in political life to the appearance on the academic Left of themes of revenge and a thwarted will to power. What happens to left and liberal political orientations when faith in progress is broken, when both the sovereign individual and sovereign states seem tenuous, when desire seems as likely to seek punishment as freedom, when all political conviction is revealed as contingent and subjective?

Politics Out of History is animated by the question of how we navigate the contemporary political landscape when the traditional compass points of modernity have all but disappeared. Brown also argues for a revitalized relationship between intellectual and political life, one that cultivates the autonomy of each while promoting their interlocutory potential. This volume studies the evidence that, at particular moments in their history and in certain aspects of their doctrines, the traditions of Buddhism, like other religious traditions, have actively or passively promoted — and may continue to promote — violent modes of behavior or structural violence.

The articles in this volume cover a broad spectrum of the Buddhist world in term of regions and periods. They deal with aspects of violence starting in India before the Common Era and ranging to the support of Japanese militarism by Buddhist leaders far into the 20th century. There is as yet no definitive work on the general topic of Buddhism and violence. There are, however, a growing number of studies of specific cases of violence in Buddhism, drawn from particular periods and places.

It is hoped that the contributions to this volume, largely following the textual approaches that have dominated Buddhist studies since its origins, will be supplemented by research based on other methodologies and materials to provide rich resources for more comprehensive, multi-layered approaches to the relationship between Buddhism and violence. The content of this volume reflects only indirectly the panel from which it grew. Not all of the panelists present in Bankok were in apposition to submit their paper. Some of the articles retain traces of their oral presentation; others have been completely rewritten.

Carmen Meinert and Martin Delhey, though originally part of the panel, were unable to attend and submitted their work at a later date. The piece by Jens Schlieter, not originally a panelist in Bangkok, was included because of its excellent fit with the other case studies presented here and, in particular, the further light it sheds on the studies presented here and, in particular, the further light it sheds on the murder of the Tibetan king Langdaram dealt with by Carmen Meinert. One of the aims of this volume is to provide material, based on critical, unbiased research, illustrating the fact that, at particular moments in their history and in certain aspects of their doctrines, the traditions of Buddhism, like other religious, have actively or passively promoted — and may continue to promote violent modes of behavior or structural violence.

The more comprehensive and systematic inquiry hoped for above can only proceed once this fact is fully acknowledge and has challenged the dominated and obstinate perception of Buddhism as a religion that in its conception and history is categorically divorced from violence. Only then will we begin to see the specific character of the relation of the Buddhist traditions to forms of violence, and only then will we be in a position to draw more general conclusions on the shape this relation took over the centuries.

Though traditionally regarded as a peaceful religion, Buddhism has a dark side. On multiple occasions over the past fifteen centuries, Buddhist leaders have sanctioned violence, and even war. The eight essays in this book focus on a variety of Buddhist traditions, from antiquity to the present, and show that Buddhist organizations have used religious images and rhetoric to support military conquest throughout history. Buddhist soldiers in sixth century China were given the illustrious status of Bodhisattva after killing their adversaries. And in modern-day Thailand, Buddhist soldiers carry out their duties undercover, as fully ordained monks armed with guns. Buddhist Warfare demonstrates that the discourse on religion and violence, usually applied to Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, can no longer exclude Buddhist traditions.

The book examines Buddhist military action in Tibet, China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and shows that even the most unlikely and allegedly pacifist religious traditions are susceptible to the violent tendencies of man. A history of the contradictory, often militaristic, role of Zen Buddhism, this book documents the close and previously unknown support of a supposedly peaceful religion for Japanese militarism throughout World War II. Drawing on the writings and speeches of leading Zen masters and scholars, Brian Victoria shows that Zen served as a powerful foundation for the fanatical and suicidal spirit displayed by the imperial Japanese military.

The second edition includes a substantive new chapter on the roots of Zen militarism and an epilogue that explores the potentially volatile mix of religion and war. With the increasing interest in Buddhism in the West, this book is as timely as it is certain to be controversial. A spectre is haunting Western academia, the spectre of the Cartesian subject—Deconstructionists and Habermasians, cognitive scientists and Heideggerians, feminists and New Age obscurantists—all are united in their hostility to it.

The Ticklish Subject seeks to undermine the common presupposition of all these critiques by posing a provocative question: what if there is a subversive core of the Cartesian subject to be unearthed, a core which provides the indispensable philosophical point of reference of any genuinely emancipatory politics? While philosophical in tenor, The Ticklish Subject is first and foremost an engaged political intervention, addressing the burning question of how to reformulate a Leftist project in an era of global capitalism and its ideological supplement, liberal-democratic multiculturalism.

The Panopticon project for a model prison obsessed the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham for almost 20 years. In the end, the project came to nothing; the Panopticon was never built. The Panopticon is a machine which on assembly is already inhabited by a ghost. It is through the Panopticon and the closely related theory of fictions that Bentham has made his greatest impact on modern thought; above all, on the theory of power. The Panopticon writings are frequently cited, rarely read. Closely related to the so-called Ljubljana School of Psychoanalysis , his research focuses primarily on 17 th- and 18 th cent.

He has published numerous books, book chapters, and articles. Of fundamental importance to literary critics and philosophers, Difference and Repetition develops two central concepts—pure difference and complex repetition—and shows how the two concepts are related. While difference implies divergence and decentering, repetition is associated with displacement and disguising. Central in initiating the shift in French thought away from Hegel and Marx toward Nietzsche and Freud, Difference and Repetition moves deftly to establish a fundamental critique of Western metaphysics. His other works include What is Philosophy? A controversial critique of Deleuze as a spiritual and extra-worldly philosopher.

Gilles Deleuze was one of the most influential French philosophers of the last century. This book aims to make sense of his fundamental project in the clearest possible terms, by engaging with the central idea that informs virtually all of his work: the equation of being and creativity. It explores the various ways in which, in order to affirm an unlimited creative power, Deleuze proceeds to dissolve whatever might restrict or mediate its expression, including the organisms, objects, representations, identities, and relations that this power generates along the way.

Rather than a theorist of material complexity or relational difference, Out of this World argues that Deleuze is better read as a spiritual and extra-worldly philosopher. His philosophy leaves little room for processes of social or historical transformation, and still less for political relations of conflict or solidarity. Suddenly we find ourselves in a world that few would have imagined possible just a few years ago, a world that seems to many to be a move backwards.

How can we make sense of these dramatic developments and how should we respond to them? Are we witnessing a worldwide rejection of liberal democracy and its replacement by some kind of populist authoritarianism? We are living through a period of dramatic political change — Brexit, the election of Trump, the rise of extreme right movements in Europe and elsewhere, the resurgence of nationalism and xenophobia and a concerted assault on the liberal values and ideals associated with cosmopolitanism and globalization. The Great Regression is a key intervention that will be of great value to all those concerned about recent developments and wondering how best to respond to this unprecedented challenge to the very core of liberal democracy and internationalism across the world today.

Such an approach not only enables him to diagnose our present condition, but also to engage in a critical dialogue with the key strands of contemporary thought—Heidegger, Badiou, speculative realism, quantum physics and cognitive sciences. Modernity will begin and end with Hegel. Lacanian Ink is a cultural magazine which focuses on the teachings of French psychoanalyst published biannually in New York and edited by Josefina Ayerza. West frequently makes headlines for his political action, including his participation in protests against police violence following the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson at which West was twice arrested.

Back in , the world-known hip-hop artist M. Ostensibly about art and activism, the conversation ranged broadly. They also discussed the remarkable calm of Jeremy Corbyn during the recent election, before moving on to a discussion of Wikileaks founder and fellow panellist Julian Assange.

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