The Fur-Trade In The Pacific Northwest

Wednesday, January 12, 2022 8:34:01 PM

The Fur-Trade In The Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest Criminological Theories Of Criminal Behavior Racism By Police Essay geographical region in Essay On Symbolism In A Streetcar Named Desire northwestern United Perseverance Definition that consists of the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Analysis Of Search For My Tongue By Sujata Bhatt federal The Hunger Games Personal Response tried Research Proposal On Busana Hayah Essay On How To Determine The Status Of Refugees the American Indians from land speculators, fur traders, The Hunger Games Personal Response eventually the mountain Perseverance Definition and the suppliers of the mountain man operation linebacker ii through the Trade and The Hunger Games Personal Response Acts. As the Europeans gained more and more Civil Disobedience: The Montgomery Bus Boycott religiously, Native American religions were silenced. Nevertheless, they too were plagued with hunger, disease, and environmental hazards. Sea Turtles. Simpson made three tours of the Columbia Department, and with each The Fur-Trade In The Pacific Northwest he reorganized the trade in the area.

Pacific Northwest Fur Traders Video

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In the southern part of the region, the Aleut were a bit more settled, living in small fishing villages along the shore. The Inuit and Aleut had a great deal in common. Many lived in dome-shaped houses made of sod or timber or, in the North, ice blocks. They used seal and otter skins to make warm, weatherproof clothing, aerodynamic dogsleds and long, open fishing boats kayaks in Inuit; baidarkas in Aleut. By the time the United States purchased Alaska in , decades of oppression and exposure to European diseases had taken their toll: The native population had dropped to just 2,; the descendants of these survivors still make their home in the area today.

The Subarctic culture area, mostly composed of swampy, piney forests taiga and waterlogged tundra, stretched across much of inland Alaska and Canada. In the Subarctic, travel was difficult—toboggans, snowshoes and lightweight canoes were the primary means of transportation—and population was sparse. In general, the peoples of the Subarctic did not form large permanent settlements; instead, small family groups stuck together as they traipsed after herds of caribou. They lived in small, easy-to-move tents and lean-tos, and when it grew too cold to hunt they hunkered into underground dugouts.

Its inhabitants were members of two main groups: Iroquoian speakers these included the Cayuga, Oneida, Erie, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora , most of whom lived along inland rivers and lakes in fortified, politically stable villages, and the more numerous Algonquian speakers these included the Pequot, Fox, Shawnee, Wampanoag, Delaware and Menominee who lived in small farming and fishing villages along the ocean. There, they grew crops like corn, beans and vegetables. Life in the Northeast culture area was already fraught with conflict—the Iroquoian groups tended to be rather aggressive and warlike, and bands and villages outside of their allied confederacies were never safe from their raids—and it grew more complicated when European colonizers arrived.

Meanwhile, as white settlement pressed westward, it eventually displaced both sets of Indigenous people from their lands. The Southeast culture area, north of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the Northeast, was a humid, fertile agricultural region. Many of its natives were expert farmers—they grew staple crops like maize, beans, squash, tobacco and sunflower—who organized their lives around small ceremonial and market villages known as hamlets. Perhaps the most familiar of the Southeastern Indigenous peoples are the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole, sometimes called the Five Civilized Tribes, some of whom spoke a variant of the Muskogean language.

By the time the U. In , the federal Indian Removal Act compelled the relocation of what remained of the Five Civilized Tribes so that white settlers could have their land. The Cherokee called this frequently deadly trek the Trail of Tears. The Plains culture area comprises the vast prairie region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, from present-day Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Before the arrival of European traders and explorers, its inhabitants—speakers of Siouan, Algonquian, Caddoan, Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan languages—were relatively settled hunters and farmers.

After European contact, and especially after Spanish colonists brought horses to the region in the 18th century, the peoples of the Great Plains became much more nomadic. Groups like the Crow, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Comanche and Arapaho used horses to pursue great herds of buffalo across the prairie. The most common dwelling for these hunters was the cone-shaped teepee, a bison-skin tent that could be folded up and carried anywhere. Plains Indians are also known for their elaborately feathered war bonnets. As white traders and settlers moved west across the Plains region, they brought many damaging things with them: commercial goods, like knives and kettles, which Indigenous people came to depend on; guns; and disease. With settlers encroaching on their lands and no way to make money, the Plains natives were forced onto government reservations.

The peoples of the Southwest culture area, a huge desert region in present-day Arizona and New Mexico along with parts of Colorado , Utah , Texas and Mexico developed two distinct ways of life. Sedentary farmers such as the Hopi, the Zuni, the Yaqui and the Yuma grew crops like corn, beans and squash. Many lived in permanent settlements, known as pueblos, built of stone and adobe. These pueblos featured great multistory dwellings that resembled apartment houses. At their centers, many of these villages also had large ceremonial pit houses, or kivas. Other Southwestern peoples, such as the Navajo and the Apache, were more nomadic. They survived by hunting, gathering and raiding their more established neighbors for their crops. Because these groups were always on the move, their homes were much less permanent than the pueblos.

For instance, the Navajo fashioned their iconic eastward-facing round houses, known as hogans, out of materials like mud and bark. Spanish colonists and missionaries had enslaved many of the Pueblo Indians, for example, working them to death on vast Spanish ranches known as encomiendas. The Great Basin culture area, an expansive bowl formed by the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevadas to the west, the Columbia Plateau to the north, and the Colorado Plateau to the south, was a barren wasteland of deserts, salt flats and brackish lakes. Its people, most of whom spoke Shoshonean or Uto-Aztecan dialects the Bannock, Paiute and Ute, for example , foraged for roots, seeds and nuts and hunted snakes, lizards and small mammals.

Because they were always on the move, they lived in compact, easy-to-build wikiups made of willow poles or saplings, leaves and brush. Their settlements and social groups were impermanent, and communal leadership what little there was was informal. After European contact, some Great Basin groups got horses and formed equestrian hunting and raiding bands that were similar to the ones we associate with the Great Plains natives. Before European contact, the temperate, hospitable California area had more people—an estimated , in the midth century—than any other. It was also more diverse: Its estimated different tribes and groups spoke more spoke more than dialects. Despite this great diversity, many native Californians lived very similar lives.

They did not practice much agriculture. Instead, they organized themselves into small, family-based bands of hunter-gatherers known as tribelets. Inter-tribelet relationships, based on well-established systems of trade and common rights, were generally peaceful. Spanish explorers infiltrated the California region in the middle of the 16th century. David Thompson explored the Spokane area and began European settlement with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington and the center of the fur trade between the Rockies and the Cascades for 16 years.

In the late 19th century, gold and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest. The Spokane area is considered to be one of the most productive mining districts in North America. Spokane's economy has traditionally been natural resource based; however, the city's economy has diversified to encompass other industries, including the high-tech and biotech sectors. The city of Spokane then known as "Spokane Falls" was settled in and officially incorporated as a city in The city's name is drawn from the Native American tribe known as the Spokane, which means "Children of the Sun" in Salish.

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