Racism By Police Essay

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Racism By Police Essay

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Let me ask you a question about our police force. But keep this in mind, in October alone, there was 81 deaths by the police. I don 't care who you are, you have to be able to realize nowadays that the police brutality is getting out of hand, that the power surge is growing and growing. Look around, there 's an increase of civilians death via cops, an increase of reports of police wrongdoing. Police brutality is a controversial issue that has recently been in the news, but seems to have always been an issue in America. Police brutality refers to the intentional use of verbal or physical attacks directed towards individuals by the police force that result in false arrests, sexual abuse, or death.

Dudley, William My essay will be about police brutality in the African American community. I will present facts about police brutality in the African American community, I will also go deeper about the history of police brutality and also will get into the history and how police started as first in America. My first book that I researched and this topic of this book caught my eye, which was called black rage in New Orleans, with the title as police brutality. Police Brutality Essay. Page 1 of 50 - About essays. Police Brutality Words 5 Pages Police Brutality Not only has Police Brutality exposed hidden racism, but it has begun to cause separation in our nation.

They act in ways such as the use of guns and pepper sprays to intimidate Continue Reading. Police are the ones that set an image towards the society so that people can actually follow them and think they are doing the right thing, however it is Continue Reading. Although many believe that the media pushes the narrative, that only African Americans are victims, police brutality stems from racial profiling and is an ever growing issue because stories show a painful Continue Reading.

The Media only reports Continue Reading. Police Brutality Words 12 Pages Police Protality: Introduction Police brutality has been and continues to be of major concern in society. The term police brutality is commonly used very loosely to any and all forms of police Continue Reading. Look around, there 's an increase of civilians death via cops, an increase of reports of police wrongdoing Continue Reading. Police Brutality Words 7 Pages Police brutality is a controversial issue that has recently been in the news, but seems to have always been an issue in America. My first book that I researched and this topic of this book caught my eye, which was called black rage in New Orleans, with the title as police brutality Continue Reading.

For example, color photographic film was tuned for white skin [67] as are automatic soap dispensers [68] and facial recognition systems. Institutional racism also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals. Stokely Carmichael is credited for coining the phrase institutional racism in the late s. He defined the term as "the collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin".

Maulana Karenga argued that racism constituted the destruction of culture, language, religion, and human possibility and that the effects of racism were "the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples". Othering is the term used by some to describe a system of discrimination whereby the characteristics of a group are used to distinguish them as separate from the norm. Othering plays a fundamental role in the history and continuation of racism. To objectify a culture as something different, exotic or underdeveloped is to generalize that it is not like 'normal' society.

Europe's colonial attitude towards the Orientals exemplifies this as it was thought that the East was the opposite of the West; feminine where the West was masculine, weak where the West was strong and traditional where the West was progressive. Much of the process of othering relies on imagined difference, or the expectation of difference. Spatial difference can be enough to conclude that "we" are "here" and the "others" are over "there". Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against someone on the basis of their race. Racial segregation is the separation of humans into socially-constructed racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a bathroom, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.

Centuries of European colonialism in the Americas , Africa and Asia were often justified by white supremacist attitudes. Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians. Some scholars argue that in the US, earlier violent and aggressive forms of racism have evolved into a more subtle form of prejudice in the late 20th century. This new form of racism is sometimes referred to as "modern racism" and it is characterized by outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes, displaying subtle prejudiced behaviors such as actions informed by attributing qualities to others based on racial stereotypes, and evaluating the same behavior differently based on the race of the person being evaluated.

This ambivalence may also be visible for example in hiring decisions where job candidates that are otherwise positively evaluated may be unconsciously disfavored by employers in the final decision because of their race. Recent research has shown that individuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-based subconscious biases in their decision-making processes. While such "subconscious racial biases" do not fully fit the definition of racism, their impact can be similar, though typically less pronounced, not being explicit, conscious or deliberate. In , a proposal to include a racial equality provision in the Covenant of the League of Nations was supported by a majority, but not adopted in the Paris Peace Conference in In , Japan and its allies declared work for the abolition of racial discrimination to be their aim at the Greater East Asia Conference.

The statement condemned scientific racism theories that had played a role in the Holocaust. It aimed both at debunking scientific racist theories, by popularizing modern knowledge concerning "the race question", and morally condemned racism as contrary to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its assumption of equal rights for all. Supreme Court desegregation decision in Brown v. Board of Education. The United Nations use the definition of racial discrimination laid out in the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , adopted in [93].

Part 1 of Article 1 of the U. In , the European Union explicitly banned racism, along with many other forms of social discrimination, in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union , the legal effect of which, if any, would necessarily be limited to Institutions of the European Union : "Article 21 of the charter prohibits discrimination on any ground such as race, color, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, disability, age or sexual orientation and also discrimination on the grounds of nationality. Racism existed during the 19th century as " scientific racism ", which attempted to provide a racial classification of humanity.

Another early view in scientific racism was the polygenist view , which held that the different races had been separately created. Polygenist Christoph Meiners for example, split mankind into two divisions which he labeled the "beautiful White race" and the "ugly Black race". In Meiners' book, The Outline of History of Mankind , he claimed that a main characteristic of race is either beauty or ugliness. He viewed only the white race as beautiful.

He considered ugly races to be inferior, immoral and animal-like. Anders Retzius demonstrated that neither Europeans nor others are one "pure race", but of mixed origins. While discredited , derivations of Blumenbach's taxonomy are still widely used for the classification of the population in the United States. Hans Peder Steensby , while strongly emphasizing that all humans today are of mixed origins, in claimed that the origins of human differences must be traced extraordinarily far back in time, and conjectured that the "purest race" today would be the Australian Aboriginals. Scientific racism fell strongly out of favor in the early 20th century, but the origins of fundamental human and societal differences are still researched within academia , in fields such as human genetics including paleogenetics , social anthropology , comparative politics , history of religions , history of ideas , prehistory , history , ethics , and psychiatry.

There is widespread rejection of any methodology based on anything similar to Blumenbach's races. It is more unclear to which extent and when ethnic and national stereotypes are accepted. Although after World War II and the Holocaust , racist ideologies were discredited on ethical, political and scientific grounds, racism and racial discrimination have remained widespread around the world. Du Bois observed that it is not so much "race" that we think about, but culture: " Ultimately, race came to represent not only the most important traits of the human body, but was also regarded as decisively shaping the character and personality of the nation.

Culture and race became considered intertwined and dependent upon each other, sometimes even to the extent of including nationality or language to the set of definition. Pureness of race tended to be related to rather superficial characteristics that were easily addressed and advertised, such as blondness. Racial qualities tended to be related to nationality and language rather than the actual geographic distribution of racial characteristics.

In the case of Nordicism , the denomination " Germanic " was equivalent to superiority of race. Bolstered by some nationalist and ethnocentric values and achievements of choice, this concept of racial superiority evolved to distinguish from other cultures that were considered inferior or impure. This emphasis on culture corresponds to the modern mainstream definition of racism: "[r]acism does not originate from the existence of 'races'. It creates them through a process of social division into categories: anybody can be racialised, independently of their somatic, cultural, religious differences. This definition explicitly ignores the biological concept of race, which is still subject to scientific debate.

In the words of David C. Rowe , "[a] racial concept, although sometimes in the guise of another name, will remain in use in biology and in other fields because scientists, as well as lay persons, are fascinated by human diversity, some of which is captured by race. Racial prejudice became subject to international legislation. For instance, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on November 20, , addresses racial prejudice explicitly next to discrimination for reasons of race, colour or ethnic origin Article I. Debates over the origins of racism often suffer from a lack of clarity over the term.

Many use the term "racism" to refer to more general phenomena, such as xenophobia and ethnocentrism , although scholars attempt to clearly distinguish those phenomena from racism as an ideology or from scientific racism, which has little to do with ordinary xenophobia. Others conflate recent forms of racism with earlier forms of ethnic and national conflict.

In most cases, ethno-national conflict seems to owe itself to conflict over land and strategic resources. In some cases, ethnicity and nationalism were harnessed in order to rally combatants in wars between great religious empires for example, the Muslim Turks and the Catholic Austro-Hungarians. Notions of race and racism have often played central roles in ethnic conflicts. Throughout history, when an adversary is identified as "other" based on notions of race or ethnicity in particular when "other" is interpreted to mean "inferior" , the means employed by the self-presumed "superior" party to appropriate territory, human chattel, or material wealth often have been more ruthless, more brutal, and less constrained by moral or ethical considerations.

According to historian Daniel Richter, Pontiac's Rebellion saw the emergence on both sides of the conflict of "the novel idea that all Native people were 'Indians,' that all Euro-Americans were 'Whites,' and that all on one side must unite to destroy the other". Historically, racism was a major driving force behind the Transatlantic slave trade. Indigenous peoples have been — and are — often subject to racist attitudes.

Practices and ideologies of racism are condemned by the United Nations in the Declaration of Human Rights. After the Napoleonic Wars , Europe was confronted with the new " nationalities question", leading to reconfigurations of the European map, on which the frontiers between the states had been delineated during the Peace of Westphalia. This led to the French Revolutionary Wars — and then to the conquests of Napoleon , and to the subsequent European-wide debates on the concepts and realities of nations , and in particular of nation-states. Modern nation-states appeared in the wake of the French Revolution, with the formation of patriotic sentiments for the first time in Spain during the Peninsula War —, known in Spain as the Independence War.

Despite the restoration of the previous order with the Congress of Vienna , the "nationalities question" became the main problem of Europe during the Industrial Era , leading in particular to the Revolutions , the Italian unification completed during the Franco-Prussian War , which itself culminated in the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles , thus achieving the German unification. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Empire , the " sick man of Europe ", was confronted with endless nationalist movements, which, along with the dissolving of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire , would lead to the creation, after World War I , of the various nation-states of the Balkans , with "national minorities " in their borders.

Ethnic nationalism , which advocated the belief in a hereditary membership of the nation, made its appearance in the historical context surrounding the creation of the modern nation-states. One of its main influences was the Romantic nationalist movement at the turn of the 19th century, represented by figures such as Johann Herder — , Johan Fichte — in the Addresses to the German Nation , Friedrich Hegel — , or also, in France, Jules Michelet — It was opposed to liberal nationalism , represented by authors such as Ernest Renan — , who conceived of the nation as a community, which, instead of being based on the Volk ethnic group and on a specific, common language, was founded on the subjective will to live together "the nation is a daily plebiscite ", or also John Stuart Mill — The Pan-German League Alldeutscher Verband , created in , promoted German imperialism and " racial hygiene ", and was opposed to intermarriage with Jews.

Pan-Germanism played a decisive role in the interwar period of the s—s. These currents began to associate the idea of the nation with the biological concept of a " master race " often the " Aryan race " or the " Nordic race " issued from the scientific racist discourse. They conflated nationalities with ethnic groups, called "races", in a radical distinction from previous racial discourses that posited the existence of a "race struggle" inside the nation and the state itself.

Furthermore, they believed that political boundaries should mirror these alleged racial and ethnic groups, thus justifying ethnic cleansing , in order to achieve "racial purity" and also to achieve ethnic homogeneity in the nation-state. Such racist discourses, combined with nationalism, were not, however, limited to pan-Germanism. In France, the transition from Republican liberal nationalism, to ethnic nationalism, which made nationalism a characteristic of far-right movements in France , took place during the Dreyfus Affair at the end of the 19th century.

During several years, a nationwide crisis affected French society, concerning the alleged treason of Alfred Dreyfus , a French Jewish military officer. Indeed, to him the first three were all "internal foreigners", who threatened the ethnic unity of the French people. Bernard Lewis has cited the Greek philosopher Aristotle who, in his discussion of slavery , stated that while Greeks are free by nature, " barbarians " non-Greeks are slaves by nature, in that it is in their nature to be more willing to submit to a despotic government.

Such proto-racism and ethnocentrism must be looked at within context, because a modern understanding of racism based on hereditary inferiority with modern racism based on eugenics and scientific racism was not yet developed and it is unclear whether Aristotle believed the natural inferiority of Barbarians was caused by environment and climate like many of his contemporaries or by birth. Historian Dante A. Puzzo, in his discussion of Aristotle, racism, and the ancient world writes that: []. Racism rests on two basic assumptions: that a correlation exists between physical characteristics and moral qualities; that mankind is divisible into superior and inferior stocks. Racism, thus defined, is a modern conception, for prior to the XVIth century there was virtually nothing in the life and thought of the West that can be described as racist.

To prevent misunderstanding a clear distinction must be made between racism and ethnocentrism The Ancient Hebrews , in referring to all who were not Hebrews as Gentiles , were indulging in ethnocentrism, not in racism. So it was with the Hellenes who denominated all non-Hellenes—whether the wild Scythians or the Egyptians whom they acknowledged as their mentors in the arts of civilization —Barbarians, the term denoting that which was strange or foreign. There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings.

Therefore, the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because Negroes have little that is essentially human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated. However, according to Wesleyan University professor Abdelmajid Hannoum, such attitudes were not prevalent until the 18th and 19th centuries.

He argues that some accounts of Arabic texts, such as those of Ibn Khaldun, were mistranslations by French Orientalists projecting racist and colonialist views of the 19th century into their translations of medieval Arabic writings. Lindsay also argues that the concept of an Arab identity itself did not exist until modern times. With the Umayyad Caliphate's conquest of Hispania , Muslim Arabs and Berbers overthrew the previous Visigothic rulers and created Al-Andalus , [] which contributed to the Golden age of Jewish culture , and lasted for six centuries. The legacy Catholic Spaniards then formulated the Cleanliness of blood doctrine. It was during this time in history that the Western concept of aristocratic " blue blood " emerged in a racialized, religious and feudal context, [] so as to stem the upward social mobility of the converted New Christians.

Robert Lacey explains: []. It was the Spaniards who gave the world the notion that an aristocrat's blood is not red but blue. The Spanish nobility started taking shape around the ninth century in classic military fashion, occupying land as warriors on horseback. They were to continue the process for more than five hundred years, clawing back sections of the peninsula from its Moorish occupiers, and a nobleman demonstrated his pedigree by holding up his sword arm to display the filigree of blue-blooded veins beneath his pale skin—proof that his birth had not been contaminated by the dark-skinned enemy.

Sangre azul, blue blood, was thus a euphemism for being a white man—Spain's own particular reminder that the refined footsteps of the aristocracy through history carry the rather less refined spoor of racism. Following the expulsion of the Arabic Moors and most of the Sephardic Jews from the Iberian peninsula , the remaining Jews and Muslims were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, becoming " New Christians ", who were sometimes discriminated against by the " Old Christians " in some cities including Toledo , despite condemnations by the Church and the State, which both welcomed the new flock.

The system and ideology of the limpieza de sangre ostracized false Christian converts from society in order to protect it against treason. In Portugal , the legal distinction between New and Old Christian was only ended through a legal decree issued by the Marquis of Pombal in , almost three centuries after the implementation of the racist discrimination. The limpieza de sangre legislation was common also during the colonization of the Americas , where it led to the racial and feudal separation of peoples and social strata in the colonies. It was however often ignored in practice, as the new colonies needed skilled people. The latter argued that the Indians practiced human sacrifice of innocents, cannibalism , and other such "crimes against nature"; they were unacceptable and should be suppressed by any means possible including war, [] thus reducing them to slavery or serfdom was in accordance with Catholic theology and natural law.

It was one of the many controversies concerning racism, slavery, religion, and European morality that would arise in the following centuries and which resulted in the legislation protecting the natives. Augustine Spanish Florida , is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in the continental United States. In the Spanish colonies, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, which was used for social control, and which also determined a person's importance in society.

Although antisemitism has a long history, related to Christianity and native Egyptian or Greek religions [] anti-Judaism , racism itself is sometimes described as a modern phenomenon. In the view of the French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault , the first formulation of racism emerged in the Early Modern period as the " discourse of race struggle", and a historical and political discourse, which Foucault opposed to the philosophical and juridical discourse of sovereignty.

Chinese self-identification as a "yellow race" predated such European racial concepts. Boulainvilliers, who created the matrix of such racist discourse in medieval France , conceived of the "race" as being something closer to the sense of a "nation", that is, in his time, the "race" meant the "people". He conceived of France as being divided between various nations — the unified nation-state is an anachronism here — which themselves formed different "races". Boulainvilliers opposed the absolute monarchy , which tried to bypass the aristocracy by establishing a direct relationship to the Third Estate. Thus, he developed the theory that the French aristocrats were the descendants of foreign invaders, whom he called the " Franks ", while according to him, the Third Estate constituted the autochthonous, vanquished Gallo-Romans , who were dominated by the Frankish aristocracy as a consequence of the right of conquest.

Early modern racism was opposed to nationalism and the nation-state: the Comte de Montlosier , in exile during the French Revolution , who borrowed Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", thus showed his contempt for the Third Estate, calling it "this new people born of slaves While 19th-century racism became closely intertwined with nationalism, [] leading to the ethnic nationalist discourse that identified the "race" with the " folk ", leading to such movements as pan-Germanism , pan-Turkism , pan-Arabism , and pan-Slavism , medieval racism precisely divided the nation into various non-biological "races", which were thought to be the consequence of historical conquests and social conflicts.

Michel Foucault traced the genealogy of modern racism to this medieval "historical and political discourse of race struggle". According to him, it divided itself in the 19th century according to two rival lines: on one hand, it was incorporated by racists, biologists and eugenicists , who gave it the modern sense of "race", and they also transformed this popular discourse into a " state racism " e. On the other hand, Marxism also seized this discourse founded on the assumption of a political struggle that provided the real engine of history and continued to act underneath the apparent peace.

Thus, Marxists transformed the essentialist notion of "race" into the historical notion of " class struggle ", defined by socially structured positions: capitalist or proletarian. In The Will to Knowledge , Foucault analyzed another opponent of the "race struggle" discourse: Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalysis , which opposed the concept of "blood heredity ", prevalent in the 19th century racist discourse. Authors such as Hannah Arendt , in her book The Origins of Totalitarianism , have said that the racist ideology popular racism which developed at the end of the 19th century helped legitimize the imperialist conquests of foreign territories and the atrocities that sometimes accompanied them such as the Herero and Namaqua Genocide of — or the Armenian genocide of — Rudyard Kipling 's poem, The White Man's Burden , is one of the more famous illustrations of the belief in the inherent superiority of the European culture over the rest of the world, though it is also thought to be a satirical appraisal of such imperialism.

Racist ideology thus helped legitimize the conquest and incorporation of foreign territories into an empire, which were regarded as a humanitarian obligation partially as a result of these racist beliefs. However, during the 19th century, Western European colonial powers were involved in the suppression of the Arab slave trade in Africa, [] as well as in the suppression of the slave trade in West Africa. Thus, when the Hottentot Venus was displayed in England in the beginning of the 19th century, the African Association publicly opposed itself to the exhibition. Examples of racial theories used include the creation of the Hamitic ethno-linguistic group during the European exploration of Africa. The term Hamite was applied to different populations within North Africa, mainly comprising Ethiopians , Eritreans , Somalis , Berbers , and the ancient Egyptians.

Hamites were regarded as Caucasoid peoples who probably originated in either Arabia or Asia on the basis of their cultural, physical and linguistic similarities with the peoples of those areas. However, the Hamitic peoples themselves were often deemed to have failed as rulers, which was usually ascribed to interbreeding with Negroes. In the midth century, the German scholar Carl Meinhof — claimed that the Bantu race was formed by a merger of Hamitic and Negro races.

In the United States in the early 19th century, the American Colonization Society was established as the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom and equality in Africa. It was desirable, therefore, as it respected them, and the residue of the population of the country, to drain them off". Whitecapping , which started in Indiana in the late 19th century, soon spread throughout all of North America, causing many African laborers to flee from the land they worked on. In the US, during the s, racist posters were used during election campaigns. In one of these racist posters see above , a black man is depicted lounging idly in the foreground as one white man ploughs his field and another chops wood.

Accompanying labels are: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat thy bread", and "The white man must work to keep his children and pay his taxes. Negro Estimate of Freedom! Capitol and is inscribed "Freedom and No Work". My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law.

The Nazi party, which seized power in the German elections and maintained a dictatorship over much of Europe until the End of World War II on the European continent , deemed the Germans to be part of an Aryan " master race " Herrenvolk , who therefore had the right to expand their territory and enslave or kill members of other races deemed inferior. The racial ideology conceived by the Nazis graded humans on a scale of pure Aryan to non-Aryan, with the latter viewed as subhuman. At the top of the scale of pure Aryans were Germans and other Germanic peoples including the Dutch , Scandinavians , and the English as well as other peoples such as some northern Italians and the French, who were said to have a suitable admixture of Germanic blood. The Nazis considered most Slavs to be non-Aryan Untermenschen.

Between June and January , the Nazis killed an estimated 2. In the years —, around , Polish people, mostly women and children, became the victims of ethnicity-based massacres by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army , which was then operating in the territory of occupied Poland. German praise for America's institutional racism was continuous throughout the early s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.

White supremacy was dominant in the U. Bhagat Singh Thind , the Supreme Court ruled that high caste Hindus were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship. Serious race riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in Between and , the apartheid regime took place. This regime based its ideology on the racial separation of whites and non-whites, including the unequal rights of non-whites. Several protests and violence occurred during the struggle against apartheid , the most famous of these include the Sharpeville Massacre in , the Soweto uprising in , the Church Street bombing of , and the Cape Town peace march of During the Congo Civil War — , Pygmy people were hunted down like game animals and eaten.

Both sides in the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. UN human rights activists reported in that rebels had carried out acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of the Mbuti pygmies, has asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as both a crime against humanity and an act of genocide. The mass demonstrations and riots against African students in Nanjing , China , lasted from December to January Some 70, black African Mauritanians were expelled from Mauritania in the late s.

The Jakarta riots of May targeted many Chinese Indonesians. Resentment against Chinese workers has led to violent confrontations in Africa [] [] [] and Oceania. Peter Bouckaert, the Human Rights Watch 's emergencies director, said in an interview that "racist hatred" is the chief motivation behind the violence against Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. One form of racism in the United States was enforced racial segregation , which existed until the s, when it was outlawed in the Civil Rights Act of It has been argued that this separation of races continues to exist de facto today in different forms, such as lack of access to loans and resources or discrimination by police and other government officials.

The modern biological definition of race developed in the 19th century with scientific racist theories. The term scientific racism refers to the use of science to justify and support racist beliefs, which goes back to the early 18th century, though it gained most of its influence in the midth century, during the New Imperialism period. Also known as academic racism, such theories first needed to overcome the Church 's resistance to positivist accounts of history and its support of monogenism , the concept that all human beings were originated from the same ancestors, in accordance with creationist accounts of history. These racist theories put forth on scientific hypothesis were combined with unilineal theories of social progress , which postulated the superiority of the European civilization over the rest of the world.

Furthermore, they frequently made use of the idea of " survival of the fittest ", a term coined by Herbert Spencer in , associated with ideas of competition, which were named social Darwinism in the s. Charles Darwin himself opposed the idea of rigid racial differences in The Descent of Man , in which he argued that humans were all of one species, sharing common descent.

He recognised racial differences as varieties of humanity, and emphasised the close similarities between people of all races in mental faculties, tastes, dispositions and habits, while still contrasting the culture of the "lowest savages" with European civilization. At the end of the 19th century, proponents of scientific racism intertwined themselves with eugenics discourses of " degeneration of the race" and "blood heredity ".

They found their scientific legitimacy on physical anthropology , anthropometry , craniometry , phrenology , physiognomy , and others now discredited disciplines in order to formulate racist prejudices. Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school of cultural anthropology Franz Boas , etc. The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the s, eventually led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the s. According to the Human Genome Project , the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no clear genetic basis to racial groups.

While some genes are more common in certain populations, there are no genes that exist in all members of one population and no members of any other. The first theory of eugenics was developed in by Francis Galton — , who used the then-popular concept of degeneration. He applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged " inheritance of intelligence ", foreshadowing future uses of " intelligence testing " by the anthropometry school. During the rise of Nazism in Germany , some scientists in Western nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories. A few argued against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in the alleged existence of biological races. However, in the fields of anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the midth century.

However, this project had been abandoned. The race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi ideology and policy. Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation. The Third Reich's racial policies , its eugenics programs and the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust , as well as the Romani people in the Porrajmos the Romani Holocaust and others minorities led to a change in opinions about scientific research into race after the war. Works such as Arthur de Gobineau 's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races — may be considered one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality, which changed over time.

Gobineau, thus, attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the legitimacy of biology. Gobineau's theories would be expanded in France by Georges Vacher de Lapouge — 's typology of races , who published in The Aryan and his Social Role , in which he claimed that the white " Aryan race" " dolichocephalic ", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of whom the " Jew " was the archetype.

Vacher de Lapouge thus created a hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the " Homo europaeus Teutonic, Protestant, etc. He assimilated races and social classes , considering that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo europaeus , while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus. Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade unionists , considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of labour conditions. His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order. The same year, William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification in The Races of Europe , which would have a great influence in the United States.

Other scientific authors include H. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race" and Madison Grant , a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great Race Madison Grant provided statistics for the Immigration Act of , which severely restricted immigration of Jews, Slavs , and Southern Europeans, who were subsequently hindered in seeking to escape Nazi Germany. Human zoos called "People Shows" , were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: they were both objects of public curiosity and of anthropology and anthropometry.

Barnum in , a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman , the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Carl Hagenbeck , inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited animals beside humans who were considered "savages". Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in by eugenicist Madison Grant , head of the Bronx Zoo , as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans : thus, racism was tied to Darwinism , creating a social Darwinist ideology that tried to ground itself in Darwin 's scientific discoveries.

Evolutionary psychologists John Tooby and Leda Cosmides were puzzled by the fact that in the US, race is one of the three characteristics most often used in brief descriptions of individuals the others are age and sex. They reasoned that natural selection would not have favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never encountered members of other races. Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized that modern people use race as a proxy rough-and-ready indicator for coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually know in advance.

Their colleague Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results appeared to support this hypothesis. Using the memory confusion protocol , they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two sides of a debate. The errors that the subjects made in recalling who said what indicated that they sometimes mis-attributed a statement to a speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also sometimes mis-attributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as the "correct" speaker. In a second run of the experiment, the team also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their clothing.

In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race became very small. Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation. Political scientists Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: be color-blind, favor those of your own color, or favor those of other colors. They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered together, then grew, until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were wiped out.

In The Selfish Gene , evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins writes that "Blood-feuds and inter-clan warfare are easily interpretable in terms of Hamilton 's genetic theory. Despite support for evolutionary theories relating to an innate origin of racism, various studies have suggested racism is associated with lower intelligence and less diverse peer groups during childhood. A neuroimaging study on amygdala activity during racial matching activities found increased activity to be associated with adolescent age as well as less racially diverse peer groups, which the author conclude suggest a learned aspect of racism.

It was also argued amygdala activity in response to racial stimuli represents increased threat perception rather than the traditional theory of the amygdala activity represented ingroup-outgroup processing. State racism — that is, the institutions and practices of a nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology — has played a major role in all instances of settler colonialism , from the United States to Australia. These governments advocated and implemented ideologies and policies that were racist, xenophobic, and, in the case of Nazism , genocidal. The Nuremberg Race Laws of prohibited sexual relations between any Aryan and Jew, considering it Rassenschande , "racial pollution".

The Nuremberg Laws stripped all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews second and first degree Mischlings , of their German citizenship. This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e. In , Jews were banned from all professional jobs, effectively preventing them from having any influence in education, politics, higher education, and industry. On 15 November , Jewish children were banned from going to normal schools.

By April , nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German populace. Legislative state racism is known to have been enforced by the National Party of South Africa during its Apartheid regime between and Here, a series of Apartheid legislation was passed through the legal systems to make it legal for white South Africans to have rights which were superior to those of non-white South Africans. Non-white South Africans were not allowed involvement in any governing matters, including voting; access to quality healthcare; the provision of basic services, including clean water; electricity; as well as access to adequate schooling.

Non-white South Africans were also prevented from accessing certain public areas, from using certain public transportation, and were required to live only in certain designated areas. Non-white South Africans were taxed differently than white South Africans and they were also required to carry on them at all times additional documentation, which later became known as "dom passes", to certify their non-white South African citizenship. All of these legislative racial laws were abolished through a series of equal human rights laws which were passed at the end of the Apartheid era in the early s. Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which are adopted or developed in order to oppose racism.

In general, it promotes an egalitarian society in which people are not discriminated against on the basis of race. Examples of anti-racist movements include the civil rights movement , the Anti-Apartheid Movement and Black Lives Matter. Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element of anti-racist movements, although this was not always the case. Hate crime laws, affirmative action , and bans on racist speech are also examples of government policy which is intended to suppress racism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Race or ethnic-based discrimination. Not to be confused with Discrimination based on skin color. General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Woke.

Race and ethnicity in Brazil in the United States. Racism in the United States. Racial bias in criminal news. Main article: Sociology of race and ethnic relations. Main article: Aversive racism. Main article: Color blindness race. See also: Cultural racism and Xenophobia. Further information: Institutional racism , State racism , Racial profiling , and Racism by country. Main article: Othering. Main article: Racial discrimination. Main article: Racial segregation.

Main article: Supremacism. Main article: Symbolic racism. Further information: Ethnicity. Further information: Ethnic nationalism , Racial nationalism , and Romantic nationalism. Further information: Medieval Arab attitudes to Black people. Further information: Limpieza de sangre. Main article: Scientific racism. Further information: Unilineal evolution. Further information: Eugenics. Further information: Polygenism , Typology anthropology , and Nordicism.

See also: Ethnocentrism and Tribalism. Main article: Anti-racism. In Kuper, A. The Social Science Encyclopedia, Volume 2 3rd ed. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN Racism [is] the idea that there is a direct correspondence between a group's values, behavior and attitudes, and its physical features [ In Schaefer, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. Sociology: exploring the architecture of everyday life 9th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. Retrieved December 23, American Anthropological Association.

In the period since , European overseas empires and colonies were established The establishment of mines and plantations enriched Europe while impoverishing and decimating the conquered and enslaved peoples in Africa and the New World. The race concept helped to give all this the appearance of scientific justification. The arrogance of race: historical perspectives on slavery, racism, and social inequality. Racism : a global reader. Armonk, N. The Journal of Modern History. JSTOR Merriam-Webster, Inc. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved 21 February Racisms: An Introduction. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 8 June European Union. Retrieved 3 February UN Treaty Series. United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 August Olson December Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. PMID If races are defined as genetically discrete groups, no. Researchers can, however, use some genetic information to group individuals into clusters with medical relevance. Nature Genetics. Kittles American Anthropologist. Archived from the original PDF on Smedley American Psychologist. CiteSeerX September Oxford University Press.

Accessed December 03, OED Online. Accessed December 3, Racism: A Short History. Racisms: From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century. Retrieved 22 February Adopted December , entered into force January The CPS. Race: The History of an Idea in America. New York: Oxford University Press, The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Bantam Classic. Portraits of White Racism. New York: Cambridge University Press. Denton S2CID Race and Society. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Psychological Review.

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