Middle Ages Timeline
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Waldemar Januszczak Explores The Art Of The Dark Ages - Age of Light - Timeline
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He prepared the grounds for the establishment of Carolingian Empire. He was the grandfather of Charlemagne. Charlemagne or Charles the Great was a Frankish king who expanded the Frankish kingdom and covered almost all of the Western and Central Europe. He was declared as the Emperor of Romans in AD and he enjoyed the empire successfully till his death. He associated his political steps with the Church and encouraged a revival of art, religion and culture with the help of the Church. After his death, Louis the Pious was declared his successor who ruled as the Emperor of Romans. However, after his death, the Carolingian empire faced a Civil War because of the internal tussle between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious who struggled for the emperorship.
Just like his father, Otto I succeeded in protecting Germans against Magyar invaders. He chose to create a German monastery and this natural allegiance of German Church and Kingdom helped him to gain control over the rebellion dukes and establish his Ottonian Empire. William the Conqueror established the Norman Empire and to protect his empire, he rewarded all his Norman supporters who fought for him in the war with large piece of land of England. He divided all land of England in manors and established the feudal system and manoralism. This charter is considered to be the first step towards the constitutional government of England. The Charter of Magna Carta restricted the power of the Emperor and proved the importance of a Constitution.
Whole northern Europe suffered the Great Famine in which prolonged itself till During these two years of famine, a big portion of the population died of hunger and diseases. During those days of famine, crime rate increased to extreme and there were too many incidences of cannibalism, rapes, and infanticides. The Great Famine brought unrest in peasants and the members of nobility also suffered a setback and as a result, they became more bloodthirsty and gave up the oath of chivalry. While there were many periods of peace and ceasefire between England and France during the period, however, this war was continued again and again in different conflicts till The Black Death or the Black Plague proved to be the most threatening epidemic of the European Middle Ages that significantly weakened the feudal system and the Church of Europe.
Huge masses of people met untimely death because of this plague and it significantly reduced the economic and political power of the kingdoms of Europe. In order to take advantages of the situations, peasants revolted against their manors and asked for better treatment. People got angry against the Church because no volumes of prayers could save them; while they also got angry against the government because the government was unable to help them either. The Western Christendom suffered much bigger jolt during to , when there were three contestants for the Papacy. This internal tussle for ultimate power of papacy significantly reduced the influence and power of the Church over common people. I could not find a suitable website. Obviously, the wearing of clothing now meant more than comfort or practicality in this early comment ridiculing fashionable footwear.
The goal of the Crusades was to liberate the Holy Land from Muslims who had taken control of the region. Men joined for religious reasons, to seek adventure, and opportunity. They brought back new fabrics like velvet as well as new clothing styles and designs. Civilians incorporated the new foreign styles as well as military elements into the manufacture of garments. The shape and fit of garments changed. Where tunics previously hung lose and undefined, both men's tunics and women's gowns fit more closely to the body, increasing both warmth and style.
Gowns closely followed the lines of the body from shoulder to below the waist with a separate and fuller skirt sewn to the bodice. Sleeves widened toward a bell shape. The longer sleeve of the under tunic elongated with such exaggeration that the hems of the bottom part of the sleeve sometimes reached the ground. The under tunic, now called a chemise, was a long garment made of linen. A pelisson was worn over the chemise.
Over the pelisson went a bliaut or loose blouse that could be tightly laced for outings or for welcoming guests. A woman carried a small purse that hung from her belt. Women wore gloves and wove flowers in their hair. The veil became more ornate and evolved into elaborate headdresses. And while the Church still insisted that women wear veils for modesty, the veils became sheer, made of fine muslin or silk.
Veils were trimmed with decorative borders or were interwoven with metallic thread. As the types of clothing styles increased, so did the names of these designs. The following are terms and names of fashionable medieval garments. The houppelande - a robe like garment of the late s. The High and Late Middle Ages saw the increased use of buttons. Previous buttons had been for adornment only, but now they became functional. Trousers wrapped with leather or cloth strips below the knee in the Early Middle Ages gave way to the wearing of hose. While men still wore tunics and over tunics, i the way they wore them changed.
Men wore either a loose belted tunic or a tighter, more form fitting one. A form fitting tunic featured slits in the skirt to allow ease of leg movement. The 's saw a rise in what we might call fashion, or even fads. Where once clothing had been entirely functional, designs featuring gimmicky or quirky elements grew in popularity. The 13th century saw shoes grow long, pointy toes. The toes were soft, though later stuffed with moss for firmness. Toe length achieved such exaggeration, that the government set out rules describing how long the toe of the shoe could be depending on a person's station in life.
Veils and other fabrics made of fine silk imported from the Far East were interwoven with golden thread for a shimmering effect. The wimple, a style brought back from the Middle East during the Crusades caught on. A wimple is a piece of cloth worn over the head and around the face and neck. A wimple would be worn under a veil called a couverchef.
The style can still bee seen today on some Muslim women and on a few Catholic nuns, though not as ornate as the stylish wimples of the Late Middle Ages. Although a wimple was a garment used for modesty, women in the upper classes decorated their wimples and added padded rolls of fabric to create interest. Women began to take a great interest in head gear, and the fashions of the High and Late Middle Ages became ornate and wildly ostentatious. The wimple and padded roll could be topped with elaborate structures supported by wire frames.
A horn like style created with hair and supports became wildly popular. The early 's saw the appearance of the hennin- a classic look of the Middle Ages. A tall, conical hat worn tilted at the back of the head, the hennin was often worn with a veil. Pictured at the top of the article. The more ornate head gear was worn by the aristocracy of the Middle Ages who sometimes shaved their hairlines to create the illusion of a high forehead. Eyebrows were plucked or partially shaved as well. Men wore many types of hates and head gear. The sugar loaf hat was a tallish, conical hat that resembled an inverted flower pot. The flat,mortar board type hat we associate with graduation emerged in the 14th century, a style that evolved from the biretta, a similar type of hat worn by the clergy.
In the mid 's, Jews were forced to wear a pointed hat to distinguish them from the Christian populace. Previously, the style had been traditional garb but had fallen out of fashion in the community. The High Middle Ages began with a population explosion in Europe that took people back into the cities that had emptied out during the Dark Ages. But the Great Famine brought on by cool temperatures and too much rain of - decimated the population. The loss of feed, seeds, grains, and livestock led to mass starvation and it was not until that Europe began to recover.
Various rounds of bubonic plague or the Black Death between - further reduced the population of Europe. The recovery was slow, but out of this difficult time came new changes in the economy, society, and in clothing. Waistlines rose and fell. Sleeve fullness shrank and grew. Patterns and designs appeared on textiles both woven in, embroidered, or printed on the fabric. Elaborately printed gowns in brocade or damask, silk or velvet featuring flowers, Oriental designs, artichokes, and pomegranates greatly enhanced women's gowns creating the beautiful costumes associated with medieval times. Head coverings changed frequently for both men and women and the tony set could be subject to ridicule if they appeared in something out of date.
As society healed after the ordeals of the 14th Century, Europe became more prosperous. The fabulous clothing once restricted to royalty now became available and affordable for the merchant class and a new upwardly mobile urban middle class. Women's gowns became high waisted with a low cut V neck that showed a piece of contrasting fabric underneath. The V neck would be folded back to reveal an attractive lining. Long fitted sleeves developed cuffs in what was called Burgundian fashion. The over tunic men wore evolved into a doublet or a short skirted tunic. Slashings in the sleeves showed the under tunic which could be pulled through to create puffs of contrasting fabric and color. Fashions of the Late Middle Ages were influenced by the Gothic style, a look that accentuated slenderness and an elongated form for both men and women.
The display of a coat of arms became popular as did parti-colored garments. In an unusual design, garments were made of two colors. Today, we mix colors horizontally, as in different colors in a shirt and pants or skirt. Parti-colored garments created a vertical color difference with a split vertical dividing line in the center of the body. The hennin and houppelande were Gothic styles emphasising the elongated form. In the 's, edges of outer garments were often decorated with dagging, edged with loose pieces of fabric that resembled leaves. As technology and trade advanced and the cities repopulated, nations grew. Gone were the warlords of feudal society. Kings grew more powerful and governments covered large areas. The time known as the Middle ages, the period after the Fall of Rome, ended as Western Europe moved into the period of artistic and cultural awakening that we call the Renaissance.
Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion ; edited by Valerie Steele; Scribner Library a compilation of fashion topics including history. The Medieval Tailor's Assistant by Sara Thursfield this one is great if you want to learn how to make medieval costumes. Question: What was the clothing of peasants made of during the high middle ages? Answer: Peasants and working people wore a rough woven linen and wool. Linen is easily laundered and was worn next to the skin with wool as the outer garment, especially in colder weather. People owned few garments in those days but both fabrics were long lasting.
Leather was used for boots, shoes, belts, and aprons for protection by certain artisans. Answer: Peasant clothing was similar to the clothing of the elite but made of cheaper materials with less dye or ornamentation. Clothing needed to ensure the peasant's ability to work. People owned few garments in those days, and a tunic could last a lifetime. Men and women wore tunics. Men wore them over stockings or tight breeches, women over long dresses. Tunics were made of hemp or coarse wool or linen. A tunic could be worn over a light linen shift. Linen could be coarse woven, purchased used, or handed down from an employer. Light linen shifts would be worn for field work in warm months.
Belts worn by men and women could be used to hoist up the hems of their garments, or to hold purses and utility bags. They did not have pockets. Colors were dull as dye was expensive. Women wore simple veils held in place by a band worn across the forehead. A coif was alinen or hemp close-fitting cap. A Capuchin was a hood attached to a cape.