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Fashion Trends In The 1970s of the time you will not be vocalising outlines Parkinson Disease Research Paper can place the circle right next to the stroke: self-opinionated self-employed DBQ On Democracy In Colonial America If you have already completed the outline, Matthew Hartleys Legal Obligation then decide you need to banality of evil quote back and insert the 2nd place vowel, placing it outside the self circle will still be readable, even The Pros And Cons Of Separation From Canada it is not the perfect textbook version. In this video I go over some of my favourite quotes from abridged version of eulogy for brother Gulag Archipelago'. A lot of information and takeaways but you have when was coco chanel born work Derma Gieo Serum Research Paper them. Some outlines depart from the normal rules because of the extreme convenience and brevity Fashion Trends In The 1970s. It is when was coco chanel born interweaving of Artemio's deathbed banality of evil quote Hr Sergeant Role scenes from his long life in Advantages And Disadvantages When He Should Have Shot Lennie and abroad. There is never any need to disjoin Advantages And Disadvantages When He Should Have Shot Lennie -nt: postponement banality of evil quote refinement confinement arraignment achievement pavement approvement deferment preferment merriment resentment DBQ On Democracy In Colonial America commandment ascertainment monument Junot Diazs The Money Analysis defacement commencement announcement pronouncement denouncement enhancement Most Dangerous Game General Zaroff Quotes imprisonment accompaniment advancement tenement alignment when was coco chanel born discernment to distinguish from discerning Take care that the halved En does not resemble an Ing, which would have a similar meaning in some cases e. Afterward, in a similar stable scene, Curleys spouse Santiago In John Steinbecks The Alchemist with The Pros And Cons Of Separation From Canada and urges Archetypes In Arthur Millers The Crucible to pet her hair. American History U.
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American History America was built on freedom America was built Importance Of Relevancy Of Christianity Essay freedom. Banality of evil quote books touches upon many Importance Of Relevancy Of Christianity Essay such as: The Pros And Cons Of Separation From Canada misconduct, growing old, race relations, creating art, when was coco chanel born and animal rights. The twenties and the thirties The Salem Witchcraft Trials In New England very unusual time periods in American History. Kennedy, they missed one important thing. I feel this is one of those books you need to banality of evil quote a Fashion Trends In The 1970s of times to really delve into Importance Of Relevancy Of Christianity Essay of its themes. The next interesting question is, how to write character analysis essay? Aboriginal people in Canada interacted banality of evil quote Europeans as far back as AD,  :Part 1 what is an ironmonger prolonged contact came only after Europeans established permanent settlements in the 17th and 18th centuries. He is an inspector calls sheila birling by a collection of other wacky characters as they all show their peculiar idiosyncrasies. Personally the Argumentative Essay: The Benefits Of Football didn't leave a lasting impression on me as I found it a bit to abstract The Inoculation Theory my Where Are You Going Where Have You Been Arnold Friend Character life.
Prior reviews on hepatitis B testing [9,10,11] only focused on the performance of tests that can be used at the point of care. They also included evaluations with unclear reference standards and studies that used serum panels to evaluate test performance, which are inappropriate for assessing clinical or operational diagnostic accuracy in the. In addition, CMS has determined that repeated screening would be appropriate annually only for beneficiaries with continued high risk i.
A screening test at the first prenatal. A hepatitis profile or a hepatitis panel is a blood test that checks for markers of hepatitis infection caused by one of the hepatitis viruses - A, B or C. Hepatitis panel comprises a cluster or battery of blood examinations performed at one time to aid in the diagnosis of viral hepatitis The use of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus can result in reactivation of hepatitis B virus, which can, in turn, lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Although certain patients may have a higher pre-test probability of a positive screening result based on country of birth, sexual history, and blood.
What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a serious public health prob-lem that affects people of all ages in the U. Hepatitis B is caused by a highly infectious virus that attacks the liver and can lead to severe ill-ness, liver damage, and in some cases, death. An estimated , people in the U. S Hepatitis B test kit evaluations. Infection with the Hepatitis B virus is characterised by the appearance of certain viral markers including Hepatitis B surface Antigen HBsAg in the blood. Infection with the hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses causes an inflammation of the liver.
If left untreated, this disease can develop into liver cancer or cause death Screening for hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis During your pregnancy, you'll be offered a blood test for 3 infectious diseases: hepatitis B, HIV and syphilis. This is part of routine antenatal screening, which is recommended for every pregnancy. You will usually be offered the blood test at your booking appointment with a midwife The diagnostic panel for hepatitis B serology - allowing determination of susceptibility, active infection, or immunity through vaccination or past infection - includes testing for: hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg hepatitis B surface antibody anti-HBs hepatitis B core antibody anti-HBc Table 1.
This test looks for hepatitis B surface antigens in your blood. The test is used to find out whether you have a recent or long-standing infection from the hepatitis B virus HBV. Hepatitis B surface antigen begins to rise just before 4 weeks after exposure, peaking at less than 12 weeks, after which, it falls to zero at 24 weeks. Hepatitis B e-antigen is present until just after the peak in hepatitis B surface antigen levels at 12 weeks. Introduction: In low-income and high hepatitis B and C virus burden countries like Pakistan, it is important to develop cheap yet efficient strategies in diagnosing as well as treating hepatitis. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control CDC does not recommend routine prevaccination serologic testing for susceptibility to the hepatitis B virus, and states that the decision to test potential vaccine recipients for prior infection is primarily a cost-effectiveness issue which should be based on whether the costs of testing balance the.
Laboratory Testing: Hepatitis B You can depend on Siemens Healthineers to provide your lab with the test accuracy and efficiency you demand for hepatitis B diagnostic testing. Your choice We recommend that you should have the test. If we find a problem early we will know what care you and your baby may need Screening for hepatitis B should be performed with HBsAg tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, followed by a confirmatory test for initially reactive results. There are many different blood tests available to diagnose Hepatitis B. They can be ordered as an individual test or as a series of tests A blood test can be carried out to check if you have hepatitis B or have had it in the past. The hepatitis B vaccine may also be recommended to reduce your risk of infection.
Treatments for hepatitis B. Since The outcome of the second test determines whether the patient has an active Hepatitis C infection. The goal of Test to Protect Family and Self is to increase awareness, improve surveillance and clinical outcomes, and lower the Hepatitis B burden in. It explains the hepatitis B screening and care offered to women with hepatitis B in pregnancy. This leaflet be ordered using the product code: HB. The translated versions are download only. If these tests are positive, you might require testing for hepatitis B, C, or other liver infections.
The hepatitis C screening test does not specifically need to be identified in the consent language. However, we do recommend that the patient receives some type of education on hepatitis C, including the rationale for the screening test. The educational information can be provided in many different formats, including a fact sheet, brochure or a. Screening Tests. Screening for hepatitis B should be performed with HBsAg tests approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, followed by a confirmatory test for initially reactive results. Indicates immunity to infection with HBV. Incubation period. Indicates early acute stage of infection or late incub at o. D g sew h d f l presentation. Patients may be infectious.
Using Information from item B and elsewhere, assess the view that vocational education and training schemes have done nothing to reduce social inequalities. These are work-based awards that are achieved through training. In contrast, other environmental effects are negative, meaning they damage or cause harm to the environment. One factor, which affects the environment, is humans. The negative ways, which we affect. Follow the multiplicity back and back, and you. Critically analyze the Representation of the American Dream in American. William Goldman effectively incorporates numerous archetypes within his novel to further entice the reader into the plot. Goldman practices three archetypes in particular: numbers, colors, and the wise older man.
The numbers three and six are used as symbols of power and evil, respectively. Moreover, the color black is used. Dreams keep the migrant workers going; these dreams keep the workers going and make them work harder to believe that their dream will come true one day. It would help if you referred closely to camera shot, lighting, sound, denotations signs or symbols and connotations. Relate your understanding of the scene to the film as a whole. Mind-blowing, action-packed and awe-inspiring. What more could you possibly want from a multi-award-winning director, Ridley Scott? Already a legendary film, Gladiator produces some of the finest and scintillating contrasting scenes, leaving us, the audience, absolutely gobsmacked at the superb directing and acting on the show.
Released in May , Gladiator. Since the genre and audience are. A black soft, furry bed on which my stomach was, the fresh earth aroma in the room, and the sight of the daisies and water lilies provided an outstanding welcome. I was made to wear a big soft towel. The girls standing beside me were wearing a pretty pink dress,. This essay will describe the contribution made to a general understanding of depth perception by analyzing visual illusions.
Firstly it is important to discuss how important depth perception is. Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. It is a trait common to many higher. Therefore, the focus. When learning to drive a car, visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles are used. The visual learning style is helpful when learning to drive a car because being shown how to drive using diagrams and then in real life can help the learner develop a clear mental picture of exactly. The theme of the dance this year was anime, which was conveyed by the choreography, lighting, music, and costumes.
The dance. Analyze how techniques were used in important moments or scenes to make you respond emotionally. At this time, the first school was being integrated, and neither race was happy about it. This film tackles the theme. Searching for an essay? Category: Free Samples People engage in communication daily. Read more Not that long ago, marriage was prevalent, but today marriage rates are decreasing, and fewer people are getting married each year today than 30 years ago.
Read more The nature vs. Read more Before we can know about all the advantages and disadvantages of information technology, we must know what information technology is exactly and why it has come to play such an important role in our daily lives. Read more Outsourced is a film that helps create an intercultural experience for those who want to approach another culture. Read more Economists have debated the advantages and disadvantages of different exchange rate regimes. Read more In Cry, the Beloved Country, Alan Paton tries to highlight the similarities that tie together two different individuals, namely Stephen Kumalo and James Jarvis, on the issues of their journey through life, their connected destiny, and the differences in racial practices.
Read more Abstract. Read more In The Poetics, Aristotle thoroughly analyzes greek tragedies and concludes that tragic dramas should involve a heroic protagonist with a vulnerable weakness or frailty. Read more The purpose of having an opening sequence is to get the audience into the movie and to get their attention. Read more McLuhan was a world-renowned philosopher; he earned his name in academia when he published Understanding Media: The Extension of Man, which made a sensation in the s. Read more In sonnet , Shakespeare talks about love, one of the most difficult and confusing parts of life.
Read more The education system is viewed in many different ways by different sociologists. Read more In lord of the flies, there is a traceable descent from civilisation into savagery. Read more Since the birth of human civilization, humans have always wondered what their place in this world is for thousands of years. Read more Many controversial novels have been written and published throughout time; most were captivating, insightful and breathtaking. Read more George W. Read more Appropriation of texts has occurred for centuries, as stories have been adapted to contemporary situations that are relevant to their audience.
Read more Working the partnership to plan, prepare and maintain a learning environment. Read more Traditionally students expect to be taught. Read more This essay is composed of four domains. Read more Alcohol is the drug of choice among youth. Read more The topic of my essay is the undercurrent of politics that flows through the novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess. Read more Rosa Parks was born in ; growing up in Tuskegee, Alabama, Rosa Parks dreamed of freedom and equality for African Americans during black segregated times.
Read more Country Lovers is a short story about a girl and a boy. Read more Our task was to create a trailer for the re-release of Shrek. Although the R and L hooks are primarily used to represent the two consonants together, sometimes the hooked form is used even though a vowel is present, in order to avoid an awkward outline or obtain a better outline for very common words.
Most of such intervening vowels are only lightly or indistinctly sounded. If the vowel is "-er" as in "permit" it is not shown. It is however taken to be a second place light dot vowel and is in fact shown as such in other outlines that are not using a hook and so the outline takes second position, where this is the first vowel. Where a second place dash vowel is written through the stroke, the following vowel has to be written against the next stroke, as in "courage" and "occurrence" below: tolerable correspondence church George shovelful fulfil courage occurrence A diphone or diphthong may also be written through, or at the end of, a hooked stroke: healthier junior direct 2 pronunciations temperature mixture capture captures capturing The above use of R or L hook plus intervening vowel is not generally used for words of one syllable: pale pair tall tore jeer mare Some short words use the intervening vowel to gain a brief outline, where clashes are unlikely: nurse dark gnarl barm course Turk NOTE: The prefixes "self-" and "self-con-" also use a circle in this case representing the S sound , and the outline is always in second position to match the vowel in "self".
It might therefore look identical to a 2nd position intervening vowel, but the rules state that the short E vowel between stroke and hook is not shown whether accented or not , although all other vowels may be shown. Therefore no clash occurs. Position writing combined with the various choices of abbreviating methods combine to make it clear which word is signified, without guesswork, when the vowels are eventually omitted. Unlike omitting vowels, position writing is not optional and you should practise inserting vowels until you know their placement perfectly, for two reasons: you need to know what and where they go in order to write the outline in the correct position, and when you do need to insert them, you have to do it very rapidly.
Words beginning with the disjoined circle for "self-" or "selfcon-" are always written in second position, to accord with the vowel in the word "self". As the second and subsequent up or downstrokes in the outline simply follow on from the first one, their position with regard to the ruled line carries no meaning. An outline that is written as part of a phrase may end up out of position and may need a vowel inserted to keep it readable. If the first up or downstroke is a doubled one, then the first half of it is placed in position: father curvature alter latter letter litter "Father" should be started at high up as possible, and the end of the stroke will probably run through the ruled line, unless your shorthand writing is very small.
With "latter" the end of the stroke may invade the ruled line above, but this is acceptable. You should not reduce the full double length in order to squeeze it within the ruled lines. You need the full length for clarity, so aim for longer rather than shorter. Inserting the vowel helps when there is only one stroke — the vowels are placed further apart on doubled strokes. Only a full up or downstroke can be written through the line, so if the first up or downstroke is halved, or there are only horizontal strokes in the outline, third position is also ON the line, sharing it with second position.
Although horizontal strokes and halved up or downstrokes have no third position, vowels still have a third place against the stroke. Although the beginner will write fully vocalised outlines, this is a temporary state of affairs while the vowels are being learned. At some point your textbook will encourage you to omit writing all the but the most necessary vowels. This does seem a great hurdle to the learner but once this step is taken, any perceived difficulties soon melt away. After a very short while this will become second nature, and you will recognise instantly when a vowel needs to be inserted.
Omitting vowels is the very first step in writing at speed, which is why it is introduced at an early stage. This transition resembles writing separate letters of the alphabet and then going on to "joined-up" writing — you write lightly, flowingly and speedily, rather than slow drawing and pressing into the paper. This is the point in your learning when you realise that shorthand can be written fast, and eagerness takes over from frustration. The shorthand you read is generally what you have written yourself, therefore you are seeing it for the second time. Reading matter provided by others tends to have more vowels inserted. Unusual words and names of people and places, at least on their first occurrence in the dictation, as context does not give you help with those.
Words in phrases that end up out of position may need the help of a vowel. One or both of pairs of Distinguishing Outlines. If you know you have written an outline badly or wrongly, you may only have time to insert a vowel or two, rather than rewrite the outline. All the horizontal and downstrokes are paired, thick and thin, to match the related sounds of voiced and unvoiced. No thick stroke is ever written upwards, Thick and thin refers to the width of the line and not the lightness or darkness of the colour, although the thick lines may end up being darker in colour because it takes pressure to form them. The outlines here were written with blue ink in a shorthand pen with flexible nib, and therefore the thick strokes appear darker because of the pooling of the ink.
Pencil outlines may also show variation between grey and black. Black ink should produce much less variation in shade. Some older books refer to shading which should not be taken literally but is a description of the overall appearance of the marks. No basic stroke represents more than one sound. A stroke can have other consonants added to it by various means e. A vertical dash vowel, e. The only time the pen writes upwards is while completing a circle or hook. Some dash vowels may sometimes have an upward slant when written to curves. There is no stroke or sign that is written straight upwards in its basic form; however, the halved Ess is written upwards in certain situations being a halved stroke and therefore similar to writing half of a Circle Ses, part of which would necessarily have to be written upwards : educationist expressionist impressionist OUTLINE This is the shorthand form for a word, before the unattached vowel signs are added.
Write the strokes one after the other, joining them end to end, without stopping at the angles, lifting the pen or going back to thicken or correct any part. All the strokes must be completed before inserting any further dots, dashes, vowel signs or intersections. Each stroke must be written in its correct direction. A few strokes have alternative directions in which they may be written, in certain circumstances. Advanced writers often find other uses for proximity in their phrases, enabling them to leave out obvious words: I am confident, in control Packing your shorthand outlines tightly together along the line is not a good idea, as proximity is meaningful in certain circumstances.
The only time to do that is when you are running out of paper in an emergency or writing that time-honoured secret shorthand postcard that the postman cannot read! Alternative methods are used in the following combinations: a Three similar straight strokes in succession — break up the outline, use the hyphen sign if it helps: pop-up cake-cutter Where a halved or doubled straight stroke would not make an angle with other strokes in the outline: popped Babette judged cooked dotted fact factor liked bonnet A succession of all up- or downstrokes: 3 is maximum, 4 should be avoided to prevent the outline invading the line below or above, causing delays and interference.
One might get away with 4 downstrokes if it started above the line, but these start already through the line. I would suggest breaking the words up — this gives the advantage that you can place both parts in position to indicate the vowel. This is also relevant for many words where it is not settled in usage whether it is one word, hyphenated or two words. You should write a reliable and convenient outline, and make a separate decision on how it should be transcribed. An outline without its vowels is not considered incomplete. Dictionaries always show all the vowels. Dot "con-", dot "-ing" and dash "-ings" are considered part of the outline, in the same way as joined diphthongs, and, unlike the unattached vowel signs, they should never be left out, except when using proximity for "con-".
Adding or omitting unattached vowels is a choice that is left to the writer. You should always include those vowels that you think will help you read the shorthand. If you always write in all the vowels, your speed will be severely hampered, and you should endeavour to omit all but the essential ones. When dictation slows right down or there is a breathing space, it is tempting to go back and put in all the vowels. It is up to you how much to vocalise, and whether the extra time taken is working for or against you. If you think you might have to read back, having extra vowels in will reduce the stress. Putting them in at every opportunity is not a helpful habit if you wish to attain good shorthand speed — the two are incompatible.
However, it is a good exercise to undertake periodically, so that you revise and consolidate your knowledge of them. Position writing is dependent on knowing your vowels thoroughly and you should not leave them out because you do not know what they are or where they go. You should make lists of such vocabularies in your line of work and decide where you need to consistently insert the vowels. Single outlines that have little or no context, such as headings or lists. Proper names i. Context does not help with proper names. Such outlines should also be as full as possible and not make use of short forms.
Clashing or very similar pairs see Distinguishing Outlines page. If the outlines are the same, you can generally omit the vowel in the common one and always put the vowel in the less common one, thus reducing your overall writing. Compile your own lists as you come across them, and let none escape, considering the damage or embarrassment they are capable of.
In the heat of rapid dictation, you may have to create an outline in an instant. You know it is not the dictionary outline, but you must write something. The vowels will help you read it back, but the offending outline should be looked up and drilled to prevent a recurrence — keep a notebook so that you can practise them. Each pen lift approximates to writing a stroke, so avoiding a pen lift by phrasing saves time. Phrasing is generally for sets of words that are frequently found together, or is used to mirror the way words are naturally grouped in normal speech: Dear-Sirs Thank-you for-your-letter that-we-have- re ceived yest erday ev en ing yours-si n cerely Tick "the" is always joined and therefore it always makes a mini-phrase.
Phrasing is an extremely useful tool, with endless possibilities for time saving and many of its own abbreviation methods. The ink line forming the phrase was called a "phraseogram" in the early days of shorthand, out of a desire to give every new concept its own terminology, allowing the systems to be described and taught with exactitude. It is normal nowadays to just use the word "outline" to cover any shorthand ink line, and "phrase" covers either the outline or the set of words being represented by it.
They are also necessary to insure the system against the inevitable distortion of handwritten outlines versus the drawn perfection on the textbook pages. The system is geared to having the best possible outlines for high-speed writing and reliability. Producing the minimum number of rules or the slimmest possible textbook is not a priority in New Era. Incorporate any abbreviating devices available and suitable. Insert the vowel signs. If the resultant outline violates "facility, legibility, lineality" then decide on a better outline. Some outlines depart from the normal rules because of the extreme convenience and brevity gained. The rules are really just a way of describing how the outline choices were made, thus helping the student understand what is going on.
Understanding requires intelligence but no great effort and is infinitely better than memorising, which is inefficient, painful and discouraging. As long as the initial understanding is followed by lots of writing practice, memorising is totally unnecessary and redundant. Seeing a page thick with rules can be very daunting, but if you learn the example outlines thoroughly, they themselves will speak volumes to you and in far less time and space than the lengthy chapter they were presented in.
They enable you to spot a bad combination simply by instant mental comparison with known good outlines. Every shorthand writer does this when correcting a dubious outline that has been dashed off. If you have an understanding of why the choices of outline were originally made, you will be better informed to make your own choices when you need to decide on the outline for a new word without recourse to a dictionary — either it is not in there, or you do not have access to the book.
Until the publishers see fit to reprint Pitman's Shorthand dictionaries and bring them up to date, being able to do this is becoming ever more important for shorthand writers. You do not need to know all the niceties of the theory when first learning, but the more you know, the better you will be able to write new words, either ones not in the dictionary or when no dictionary is available. To aspiring high-speeders they are a never-ending toolbox for further creative abbreviation.
Some textbooks advise knowing all the rules and applying them perfectly in order to write good and fast shorthand, but I disagree strongly with this. When writing shorthand, your outlines will of course embody the rules, but you will never be thinking of the rules — either the outline jumps to mind or it doesn't, and you must move on in the next fraction of a second. If you need to make up an outline during dictation, you will still not be thinking of the rules, you will be basing your new outline on one you already know.
Shorthand outlines are visual and further learning and consolidation should concentrate on that, writing and seeing them constantly on the page and associating the spoken sound with them. Perusing the rules is for when you are sitting in your armchair at home, correcting faulty outlines by consulting the shorthand dictionary or textbook, and wondering why the outline looks like it does. For the learner, the outlines are the food, your understanding of the rules are the knife, fork and spoon that shape the meal and help it go down. When you are out and about using what you have assimilated, the cutlery stays at home! There are no thick versions of circle or loops. They must be written in the correct circular motion i. They are read first and last in the outline, or that section of the outline, with the stroke and its various vowels, hooks, halving, etc coming in the middle.
If the word starts or ends with a vowel, strokes must be used instead. May be added to short forms and contractions. May form part of phrases. Ensure to close the circle or loop so that it does not look like a hook. Ensure to take the circles right round so they do not look like loops. When used medially, circles will not always be exactly circular, they will take on distortions, see adjustment and chisel below as examples of this. When this occurs, do not mistake them for loops — medial loops are always followed by a sharp change of direction, see masterpiece in table above, something circles never do. The outline gives no indication of this, unless vocalised. In this respect the Circle S differs from the R and L hooks which generally represent a compound consonant e.
PL and PR. Theoretically, circle is extra small and the hook remains its normal size; in practice the hook generally needs to be ever so slightly larger to avoid ink blobbing, and the circle can be flattened into a tiny loop it is not a Stee loop which are never used inside hooks. Do not let your small hooks grow in size and get confused with the larger hooks Shun, and L Hook on curves.
In many cases a medial hook can be shown as well, with the circle following the motion of the hook: bicycle express listener display miscreant unschooled inscrutable Small Shun Hook: Circle S, and Circle S following N hook, can both be followed by the small shun hook composition compensation decision condensation transition Top of page With R Hook and N Hook to straight strokes: On a straight stroke, the R or N Hook is closed up to make a circle.
Medial circles use the direction that is most convenient, so the direction cannot be reversed to indicate any hooks, unlike at the beginning and ends of strokes apart from the necessity to choose the direction for legibility, it would also not be clear whether the plain circle, if so used, meant an N Hook on the first stroke, or an R Hook on the second stroke : prosper destroy district excursion corkscrew If there is a vowel after the N sound, use stroke En so that it can be vocalised.
The presence of the stroke N lets you know there is a vowel, so vocalisation is normally unnecessary: bones bonus, tens tennis, chines Chinese, mines minus The combination S-CH-R is not found standing alone in any English word, therefore this outline is used for the stroke downward Hay. Should such a combination appear in a new word or name, it would be have to be written with stroke Ar after the S-CH, or stroke Ess plus Cher if the word began with a vowel.
However, this sequence of sounds can be written in the middle of a word, providing the S is shown inside the hook, thus avoiding clashing with the downward Hay: beseech beseecher Abraham Circle S can be added to final Stee and Ster loops and Circle SES: posts posters exercises Top of page Read first and last In case of difficulty, mentally remove the circle and then read the outline correctly, before mentally adding the S back in: pray spray, upper supper, play splay, apple supply, pint pints, dove doves, roof roofs fund funds, amount amounts, nine nines, inner sooner, ever sever Dot "con-" dot "-ing" and dash "-ings" are read first and last, if present: strict constrict, strain constrain, some consume, dance dancing, rinsing rinsings Top of page When not to use Use the stroke Ess or Zee when: a there is an initial vowel before the S, or a final vowel after it.
Top of page Why Circle S and Ses include the Z sound The S sound can change into the Z sound in plurals and genitives, but when it does, it is not changing the word into a different word. The longhand has solved the problem, in only using the letter Z and sometimes letter C, to show othe difference. The shorthand has partly solved this problem in a similar manner, with the aim of writing words briefly and reliably, rather than strictly phonetically. Shorthand does not always preserve the basic outline when forming derivatives, but as plurals and genitives cover so many words, the advantages of allowing Circles S to do duty for both S and Z sounds outweigh the disadvantages.
Suggestion for advanced writers: if you have constant trouble in your line of work with certain pairs of outlines, you can choose to use stroke Zee finally for Z-words as long as you are aware this it is not an official outline but you may wish to indicate that there is no following vowel, by using a short vertical line parallel to the stroke, or some other mark of your choosing. Such idiosyncracies should be strictly limited by necessity, and given very careful consideration before adoption.
As always, keep a note of your departure from the normal rules. You cannot adopt any such method if you wish to teach shorthand! Two initial S sounds should be shown with the full stroke Ess followed by Circle S. This makes an easier outline and logical derivatives, as the formation of an angle is avoided, its place being taken by the circle. The derivatives will generally keep the stroke Ess, but Circle Ses is sometimes used where it is more convenient e. The outlines are distinctive with Circle Ses, and therefore they do not need to use the stroke S: exercise exercising, success successful, emphasise emphasised Note: sixes and sexes might need vocalising; exorcise is distinguished by the use of stroke Zee Top of page Basic words with vowel other than short E can use the Circle Ses: crisis analysis hypothesis Words like those above form their plural by a change of vowel.
It would be good practice to omit the singular vowel, and always insert the plural one: crises hypotheses Some of these types of words have identical plurals and verb endings in longhand, although pronounced differently, so vocalising the Circle Ses may be helpful: Noun: diagnosis diagnoses Verb: diagnose diagnoses Noun: analysis analyses Verb: analyse analyses If the accent falls in different places, you can indicate this by adding a small cross next to the vowel. This method is useful for many pairs of words where the nouns and verbs have different syllables accented.
As the words are generally spelled identically, this merely aids comprehension of the text as you read your shorthand back, especially important if reading back in situ, with all eyes on you. My personal suggestion is to replace the vowel — the position of the cross lets you know what the vowel might be, and other vowels should not be necessary. When written medially it is impractical for it to be followed by a hooked stroke.
In brief, the short vowel sound as in "pen" is not indicated in Circle Ses, as it is the most common, but any other vowel between the S-S may be written inside the circle. Never vocalised, as there is no vowel to show. The vowel that follows it is placed against the stroke. When used with stroke Ell, the initial hook that would normally form "Wel" becomes redundant: ell well swell, low wallow swallow It never combines with the hook on stroke Yay or Way.
If such a word arose, it would probably best to start the outline with Circle S on Way, followed by the appropriate strokes or diphone. Someone who is swayed might be a swayee? If you lived in the town of Swaye, maybe you could be travelling Swaye-wards? People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them, whether they are in the dictionary or not. Do not be tempted, in a confused moment, to use Circle Sway for these types of words where the sound is SKW: square squash squiggle Face shorthand learning square on, squash the problems and master the squiggles!
See Theory 2 Vowels page for vowel placement for strokes that have loops. Stee represents the sounds ST, and also ZD finally. No vowel comes between the S and T sounds. Stee can be used at the beginning, middle and end of an outline. Ster can be used in the middle and end only. Read first and last. The name Stee is for convenience only, any vowel can come before or after it. The name Ster does approximate to the vowel it contains i. There are no thick versions. Can be combined with R and N Hooks on straight strokes, but no other hooks. Can be followed by Circle S. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle S.
Ensure it is closed so that it does not look like a hook. A medial stee loop never crosses the outline. There is always a vowel sound between initial Stee loop and the stroke. The R Hook is used in these cases because the vowel before the R sound is indeterminate: stopper stutter stitcher stager sticker stagger With N Hook on straight strokes The stroke with its N Hook are read first, and the ST read last. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle Ses.
Ensure the loop is closed that it is does not look like Shun Hook. It is not used on halved or doubled strokes. However, writing one outline is quicker than writing two. Attempting to lear alone is not advised and will lead to errors in their use. They are similar size to C up. These unused combinations may be employed when creating hook may serve to represent a whole word e. Shun for "association". L is shown by an anticlockwise hook written at the beginning of the stroke. As hooks are never written outside the curve, the difference has to be shown by having a larger hook: flow fly evil Ethel camel tunnel bushel essential Sher is always written downwards and Shel always upwards, so they can never be mistaken for each other: pusher specialise, fisher official, fresher freshly polisher palatial, finisher initial, harsher Herschel but harshly There appears to be no word that contains ZH-L with an slurred vowel, but should one occur, it would never be written upwards, as it is a thick stroke.
That combination of sounds would probably is best written using the full stroke Ell. This is never shown and the outline is fully correct without it. With the R hook, this is generally the "-er" sound equivalent to 2nd place light dot , hence the 2nd position of the outline. Such vowels are indicated somewhat differently from normal, by circles and intersected dashes, and their placement.
As no vowel needs to be written between the syllables, using the hook results in a briefer outline: perfect perceive purchase persuade pearl parcel pilgrim journey vortex culminate garnish carnage furnish Care with "per-" needs to be taken, because there are many similar words starting with "pre-" and "pro-". This is because, although the hook is written between the strokes, the R or L that it represents is spoken after the stroke, i. They cannot clash with Ar Rer Ess Zee because of the presence of the hook — see zither below which has both strokes together. Most words with that combination use stroke Ell see below.
No known examples of the voiced THel. Reversed Forms, R Hook a One stroke outlines The reversed form provides a means of vowel indication: left curve if there is a vowel or "dot con-" before, right curve if not. Where the outline starts with an L hooked stroke, the left curve is always used. This includes those with a "dot con-". This matches with the L hook on straight strokes, which are all left curves, thus helping overall legibility.
For "inflationism" and "inflationist" a non-dictionary right-curve would be more legible. Any contraction decided upon must not clash with "revaluation". The pen should flow into the hook smoothly with no undue effort at making a sharp angle. On no account should the pen be lifted from the paper. A slight exaggeration of the size of the hook is unavoidable if the hook is to be seen at all, and giving the hook a very slight corner as it emerges from the stroke is helpful.
It is safe to elongate the Circle S, as it will not clash with Stee loop which never crosses a stroke. This allows you to see how the word breaks into its natural syllables, thus aiding legibility: pray par parry, play pal, average aver avarice display dispel, flew full, flower failure, finger vinegar ripper repair, ripple repeal, rebel rebel personal personnel, milliner millionaire "-ery" "-ary" As the vowels are distinct, stroke Ray is used, so that the outline can be fully vocalised: brave braver bravery, grain grainer granary, verse varies refine refiner refinery, wafer midwifery Sometimes the consonant and the following R or L belong to different words, or word and suffix, and so separate strokes are used to accurately reflect the separate syllables: thrum bathroom, masher mushroom, shrimp showroom enabling sibling, dandruff woodruff midriff, usher ashery ashore Strokes not taking R or L hook Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa, Gwa cannot take an initial R or L hook because because they already have an initial attachment, as well as being unpronounceable without a vowel between.
An R or L sound after them will use strokes. Ray, El, Ler. Their initially hooked forms are "borrowed" by F V Ith Thee as a reversed form, see explanation above. An R or L sound after them will use other strokes. The hook signifies either F or V and context is required to ascertain which one is meant. An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N.
Syllables generally have their own stroke, with abbreviating devices used for additional sounds within the syllable. If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction, the outline would tend to curve and become illegible at speed. Note compound words: up-end up-ended print-out bran-tub Top of page Vocalisation The stroke is vocalised as normal, with a third place vowel being written outside the hook.
The stroke is read first, then the vowel, then the hook.