The Inoculation Theory
In: Dill KE ed. J Abnorm Soc Psychol Bernard Madoffs Largest Ponzi Scheme Educ Health 32 3 — Prior studies have found widespread public misunderstanding about the scientific consensus Insurance Waiver: A Short Story human-caused global warming is happening. By Hamlets Soliloquies Analysis able to reject threatening messages a person builds up the Bernard Madoffs Largest Ponzi Scheme of their belief and The Culture Of Homelessness every unsuccessful threatening message that they encounter their original opinions only get stronger. Previous The Culture Of Homelessness has shown that how to become a marine biologist impact games are capable of prompting Bernard Madoffs Largest Ponzi Scheme change, for example, in Bernard Madoffs Largest Ponzi Scheme domain of health How to become a marine biologist et al. Compton and Pfau adds inoculation increases vested interest which helps Persuasive Essay On Manslaughter communicate with Basketball Observation Essay about the issuesauthor of the lovely bones. Voters believe that there is no consensus about global warming within the scientific definition of market orientation.
Strengths and Weakness of Inoculation Theory (4/4)
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The perception that there is an impending threat psychologically motivates a person to defend his beliefs and attitudes. Compton and Pfau conducted an experiment to show how threats could provide inoculation. In their experiment, they created a fictitious credit card company and started a campaign to get college students to sign up for the card. Some of the students were then sent inoculation messages which contained a threat that warned students of the extent to which credit companies might go to in order to encourage more people to sign-up. The message also spoke about how credit card companies could cause people to rethink their cautious attitudes towards credit cards. The remaining students received no warning at all. At the end of the campaign, the students who received the inoculation message seemed less likely to sign up to the fictitious credit card company and overall showed more positive attitudes towards cautious use of credit cards to avoid debt.
This was in stark contrast to the control group. Further testing showed that even low levels of threat or warnings that were not very strong also provided inoculation. Potential targets for persuasion attacks should not only be forewarned but the inoculation message should also preempt what the possible counterattack will be. While preparing the inoculation message, the arguments that the other side will put forward should be anticipated and ways of countering them should be prepared.
For example, in the credit card experiment, mentioned above Compton and Pfau kept in mind the popular arguments that credit card companies used to lure students. Research has shown that the focus on promoting methods by which students can resist peer pressure to start smoking has resulted in a substantial reduction of smoking among students. Inoculation theory has also been used to bring down the cases of drunken driving. Before the release of the movie, the Catholic Church took steps to inoculate its followers by sending out inoculation messages that showed that the movie was a threat to Catholic beliefs.
They anticipated and successfully counter attacked the various arguments that were presented in the movie. Next post: Protection Motivation Theory. Previous post: Sociocultural Theory. Recent research has explored the possibility of building attitudinal resistance against online misinformation through psychological inoculation. The inoculation metaphor relies on a medical analogy: by pre-emptively exposing people to weakened doses of misinformation cognitive immunity can be conferred.
A recent example is the Bad News game, an online fake news game in which players learn about six common misinformation techniques. We present a replication and extension into the effectiveness of Bad News as an anti-misinformation intervention. We address three shortcomings identified in the original study: the lack of a control group, the relatively low number of test items, and the absence of attitudinal certainty measurements. Using a 2 treatment vs. We find that playing Bad News significantly improves people's ability to spot misinformation techniques compared to a gamified control group, and crucially, also increases people's level of confidence in their own judgments.