Theme Of Maturation In Huckleberry Finn
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Huck Finn: Summary, Disclaimers, \u0026 Themes
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Le roman est parcouru par une tension entre la discipline et l'indulgence, la condamnation et le pardon, par exemple dans les relations qu'entretiennent Tom et Tante Polly. He knew that in her heart his aunt was on her knees to him […]. He pictured himself lying sick unto death and his aunt bending over him beseeching one little forgiving word, but he would turn his face to the wall, and die with that word unsaid. How she would throw herself upon him, and how her tears would fall like rain, and her lips pray God to give her back her boy and she would never, never abuse him any more! But he would lie, cold and white and make no sign [ 22 ]. Tante Polly se jetterait sur lui.
Ses larmes ruisselleraient comme des gouttes de pluie. But Peter signified that he did want it. Peter was agreeable [ TH 35 ]. Mark Twain aime les mots dont il fait des listes depuis son enfance, en anglais comme dans beaucoup d'autres langues. Oh, ain't it awful! Somehow I most wish it was. Dog'd if I don't, Huck [ TH 36 ]. Ma parole, Huck! Walters fell to showing off , with all sorts of official bustlings and activities, giving orders, delivering judgments, discharging directions here, there, everywhere that he could find a target.
The librarian showed off -- running hither and thither with his arms full of books and making a deal of the splutter and fuss that insect authority delights in. The young lady teachers showed off -- bending sweetly over pupils that were lately being boxed, lifting pretty warning fingers at bad little boys and patting good ones lovingly. The young gentlemen teachers showed off with small scoldings and other little displays of authority and fine attention to discipline -- and most of the teachers, of both sexes, found business up at the library, by the pulpit; and it was business that frequently had to be done over again two or three times with much seeming vexation.
The little girls showed off in various ways, and the little boys showed off with such diligence that the air was thick with paper wads and the murmur of scufflings. And above it all the great man sat and beamed a majestic judicial smile upon all the house, and warmed himself in the sun of his own grandeur -- for he was showing off , too. Twain ne se moque pas de l'institution religieuse dans ce passage, comme il l'a fait dans d'autres. Tom Sawyer est devenu un personnage populaire et familier. Wikimedia Commons. Espaces de noms Article Discussion. That book must have been The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
I wrote the first half of it in '72, the rest of it in ' My machinist type-copied a book for me in '74, so I concluded it was that one. Huck Finn is drawn from life; Tom Sawyer also, but not from an individual: he is a combination of the characteristics of three boys whom I knew, and therefore, belongs to the composite order of architecture [ 9 ] ». Every boy who ever did as he did prospered except him. His case is truly remarkable. It will probably never be accounted for [ 14 ] ». He has discovered a great law of humain action, without knowing it, namely, that in order to make a man or a boy covet a thing, it is only necessary to make the thing difficult to attain. If he had been a great and wise philosopher, like the writer of this book, he would now have comprehended that work consists of whatever a body is obliged to do and that play consists of whatever a body is not obliged to do [ DF 4 ] ».
Then there was a wild yelp of agony and the poodle went sailing up the aisle [ TH 3 ] ». I never heard of it before. Why, me and Amy Lawrence"— The big eyes told Tom his blunder and he stopped, confused. Then I ain't the first you've ever been engaged to! It's just worry and worry, sweat and sweat, and a-wishing you was dead all the time [ TH 15 ] ». But Sid was not Henry. Henry was a very much finer and better boy than ever Sid was [ 38 ]. It is a book written only for adults [ TP 6 ]. It must be read by adults only. His liberties were totally unrestricted [ TE 13 ]. No matter what the subject might be, a brain-racking effort was made to squirm it into some aspect or other that the moral and religious mind could contemplate with edification.
The glaring insincerity of these sermons was not sufficient to compass the banishment of the fashion from the schools […] There is no school in all our land where the young ladies do not feel obliged to close their compositions with a sermon; and you will find that the sermon of the most frivolous and the least religious girl in the school is always the longest and the most relentlessly pious [ TH 25 ] ». I believe it would be fatal to do it in any shape but autobiographically—like Gil Blas. It will only be read by adults. It is only written for adults. Chapitre 6 »], sur etc. Triumph and Reward. Dismal Felicity. Scott Fitzgerald — Fitzgerald's work captured the restless, pleasure-hungry, defiant mood of the s, a decade he named the Jazz Age.
Fitzgerald's characteristic theme, expressed poignantly in his masterpiece The Great Gatsby , is the tendency of youth's golden dreams to dissolve in failure and disappointment. Fitzgerald also dwells on the collapse of long-held American Ideals, such as liberty, social unity, good governance and peace, features which were severely threatened by the pressures of modern early 20th century society. John Dos Passos wrote a famous anti-war novel, Three Soldiers , describing scenes of blind hatred, stupidity, and criminality; and the suffocating regimentation of army life. Ernest Hemingway — saw violence and death first-hand as an ambulance driver in World War I, and the carnage persuaded him that abstract language was mostly empty and misleading.
He cut out unnecessary words from his writing, simplified the sentence structure, and concentrated on concrete objects and actions. He adhered to a moral code that emphasized grace under pressure, and his protagonists were strong, silent men who often dealt awkwardly with women. William Faulkner — won the Nobel Prize in Faulkner encompassed a wide range of humanity in Yoknapatawpha County , a Mississippian region of his own invention. He recorded his characters' seemingly unedited ramblings in order to represent their inner states, a technique called " stream of consciousness ".
He also jumbled time sequences to show how the past — especially the slave-holding era of the Deep South — endures in the present. Among his great works are Absalom, Absalom! Depression era literature was blunt and direct in its social criticism. John Steinbeck — was born in Salinas, California , where he set many of his stories. His style was simple and evocative, winning him the favor of the readers but not of the critics. Steinbeck often wrote about poor, working-class people and their struggle to lead a decent and honest life. The Grapes of Wrath , considered his masterpiece, is a strong, socially-oriented novel that tells the story of the Joads, a poor family from Oklahoma and their journey to California in search of a better life.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in Steinbeck's contemporary, Nathanael West 's two most famous short novels, Miss Lonelyhearts , which plumbs the life of its eponymous antihero , a reluctant and, to comic effect, male advice columnist , and the effects the tragic letters exert on it, and The Day of the Locust , which introduces a cast of Hollywood stereotypes and explores the ironies of the movies, have come to be avowed classics of American literature. Combining factual reporting with poetic beauty, Agee presented an accurate and detailed report of what he had seen coupled with insight into his feelings about the experience and the difficulties of capturing it for a broad audience.
In doing so, he created an enduring portrait of a nearly invisible segment of the American population. Henry Miller assumed a unique place in American literature in the s when his semi-autobiographical novels, written and published in Paris, were banned from the US. Although his major works, including Tropic of Cancer and Black Spring , would not be free of the label of obscenity until , their themes and stylistic innovations had already exerted a major influence on succeeding generations of American writers, and paved the way for sexually frank s novels by John Updike , Philip Roth , Gore Vidal , John Rechy and William Styron.
The period in time from the end of World War II up until, roughly, the late s and early s saw the publication of some of the most popular works in American history. The period was dominated by the last few of the more realistic modernists along with the wildly Romantic beatniks , This included the highly popular To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee that deals with racial inequality and novels that responded to America's involvement in World War II. In works like The Adventures of Augie March and Herzog , Bellow painted vivid portraits of the American city and the distinctive characters that peopled it. Bellow went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in While the Korean war was a source of trauma for the protagonist of The Moviegoer , by Southern author Walker Percy , winner of the National Book Award; his attempt at exploring "the dislocation of man in the modern age.
Other noteworthy novels are J. In the s the poetry and fiction of the " Beat Generation " developed, initially from a New York circle of intellectuals and then established more officially later in San Francisco. The term Beat referred to the countercultural rhythm of the Jazz scene, to a sense of rebellion regarding the conservative stress of post-war society, and to an interest in new forms of spiritual experience through drugs, alcohol, philosophy, and religion specifically Zen Buddhism. Allen Ginsberg set the tone with his Whitmanesque poem Howl , a work that begins: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness". Among the achievements of the Beats, in the novel, are Jack Kerouac 's On the Road , the chronicle of a soul-searching travel through the continent, and William S.
Burroughs 's Naked Lunch , a more experimental work structured as a series of vignettes relating, among other things, the narrator's travels and experiments with hard drugs. In contrast, John Updike approached American life from a more reflective but no less subversive perspective. His novel Rabbit, Run , the first of four chronicling the rising and falling fortunes of Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom over the course of four decades against the backdrop of the major events of the second half of the 20th century, broke new ground on its release in its characterization and detail of the American middle class and frank discussion of taboo topics such as adultery.
Notable among Updike's characteristic innovations was his use of present-tense narration, his rich, stylized language, and his attention to sensual detail. His work is also deeply imbued with Christian themes. Other notable works include the Henry Bech novels —98 , The Witches of Eastwick , Roger's Version and In the Beauty of the Lilies , which literary critic Michiko Kakutani called "arguably his finest". Frequently linked with Updike is the novelist Philip Roth. Roth vigorously explores Jewish identity in American society, especially in the postwar era and the early 21st century.
Frequently set in Newark, New Jersey , Roth's work is known to be highly autobiographical, and many of Roth's main characters, most famously the Jewish novelist Nathan Zuckerman , are thought to be alter egos of Roth. With these techniques, and armed with his articulate and fast-paced style, Roth explores the distinction between reality and fiction in literature while provocatively examining American culture. His most famous work includes the Zuckerman novels, the controversial Portnoy's Complaint , and Goodbye, Columbus Among the most decorated American writers of his generation, he has won every major American literary award, including the Pulitzer Prize for his major novel American Pastoral In the realm of African-American literature, Ralph Ellison 's novel Invisible Man was instantly recognized as among the most powerful and important works of the immediate post-war years.
The story of a black Underground Man in the urban north, the novel laid bare the often repressed racial tension that still prevailed while also succeeding as an existential character study. Richard Wright was catapulted to fame by the publication in subsequent years of his now widely studied short story, " The Man Who Was Almost a Man " , and his controversial second novel, Native Son , and his legacy was cemented by the publication of Black Boy , a work in which Wright drew on his childhood and mostly autodidactic education in the segregated South, fictionalizing and exaggerating some elements as he saw fit. Because of its polemical themes and Wright's involvement with the Communist Party , the novel's final part, "American Hunger", was not published until Perhaps the most ambitious and challenging post-war American novelist was William Gaddis , whose uncompromising, satiric, and large novels, such as The Recognitions and J R are presented largely in terms of unattributed dialog that requires almost unexampled reader participation.
Gaddis's primary themes include forgery, capitalism, religious zealotry, and the legal system, constituting a sustained polyphonic critique of modern American life. Gaddis's work, though largely ignored for years, anticipated and influenced the development of such ambitious "postmodern" fiction writers as Thomas Pynchon , David Foster Wallace , Joseph McElroy , William H. Gass , and Don DeLillo.
Another neglected and challenging postwar American novelist, albeit one who wrote much shorter works, was John Hawkes , whose surreal visionary fiction addresses themes of violence and eroticism and experiments audaciously with narrative voice and style. Among his most important works is the short nightmarish novel The Lime Twig In the postwar period, the art of the short story again flourished. Among its most respected practitioners was Flannery O'Connor , who developed a distinctive Southern gothic esthetic in which characters acted at one level as people and at another as symbols.
A devout Catholic, O'Connor often imbued her stories, among them the widely studied " A Good Man is Hard to Find " and " Everything That Rises Must Converge ", and two novels, Wise Blood ; The Violent Bear It Away , with deeply religious themes, focusing particularly on the search for truth and religious skepticism against the backdrop of the nuclear age. Though its exact parameters remain disputable, from the early s to the present day the most salient literary movement has been postmodernism. Thomas Pynchon , a seminal practitioner of the form, drew in his work on modernist fixtures such as temporal distortion, unreliable narrators, and internal monologue and coupled them with distinctly postmodern techniques such as metafiction , ideogrammatic characterization, unrealistic names Oedipa Maas, Benny Profane, etc.
In , he published Gravity's Rainbow , a leading work in this genre, which won the National Book Award and was unanimously nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction that year. His other major works include his debut, V. Toni Morrison , recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, writing in a distinctive lyrical prose style, published her controversial debut novel, The Bluest Eye , to critical acclaim in Coming on the heels of the signing of the Civil Rights Act of , the novel, widely studied in American schools, includes an elaborate description of incestuous rape and explores the conventions of beauty established by a historically racist society, painting a portrait of a self-immolating black family in search of beauty in whiteness.
Since then, Morrison has experimented with lyric fantasy, as in her two best-known later works, Song of Solomon and Beloved , for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction; along these lines, critic Harold Bloom has drawn favorable comparisons to Virginia Woolf ,  and the Nobel committee to "Faulkner and to the Latin American tradition [of magical realism ]. Writing in a lyrical, flowing style that eschews excessive use of the comma and semicolon, recalling William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway in equal measure, Cormac McCarthy seizes on the literary traditions of several regions of the United States and includes multiple genres.
He writes in the Southern Gothic aesthetic in his Faulknerian debut, The Orchard Keeper , and Suttree ; in the Epic Western tradition, with grotesquely drawn characters and symbolic narrative turns reminiscent of Melville, in Blood Meridian , which Harold Bloom styled "the greatest single book since Faulkner's As I Lay Dying ", calling the character of Judge Holden "short of Moby Dick , the most monstrous apparition in all of American literature";  in a much more pastoral tone in his celebrated Border Trilogy —98 of bildungsromans , including All the Pretty Horses , winner of the National Book Award ; and in the post-apocalyptic genre in the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Road His novels are noted for achieving both commercial and critical success, several of his works having been adapted to film.
Don DeLillo , who rose to literary prominence with the publication of his novel, White Noise , a work broaching the subjects of death and consumerism and doubling as a piece of comic social criticism, began his writing career in with Americana. It was also the runner-up in a survey that asked writers to identify the most important work of fiction of the last 25 years. Seizing on the distinctly postmodern techniques of digression , narrative fragmentation and elaborate symbolism , and strongly influenced by the works of Thomas Pynchon, David Foster Wallace began his writing career with The Broom of the System , published to moderate acclaim in His second novel, Infinite Jest , a futuristic portrait of America and a playful critique of the media-saturated nature of American life, has been consistently ranked among the most important works of the 20th century,  and his final novel, unfinished at the time of his death, The Pale King , has garnered much praise and attention.
In addition to his novels, he also authored three acclaimed short story collections: Girl with Curious Hair , Brief Interviews with Hideous Men and Oblivion: Stories Jonathan Franzen , Wallace's friend and contemporary, rose to prominence after the publication of his National Book Award -winning third novel, The Corrections. He began his writing career in with the well-received The Twenty-Seventh City , a novel centering on his native St.
Louis , but did not gain national attention until the publication of his essay, "Perchance to Dream" , in Harper's Magazine , discussing the cultural role of the writer in the new millennium through the prism of his own frustrations. The Corrections , a tragicomedy about the disintegrating Lambert family, has been called "the literary phenomenon of [its] decade"  and was ranked as one of the greatest novels of the past century. Puritan poetry was highly religious, and one of the earliest books of poetry published was the Bay Psalm Book , a set of translations of the biblical Psalms ; however, the translators' intention was not to create literature, but to create hymns that could be used in worship. Nicholas Noyes was also known for his doggerel verse.
The 18th century saw an increasing emphasis on America itself as fit subject matter for its poets. This trend is most evident in the works of Philip Freneau — , who is also notable for the unusually sympathetic attitude to Native Americans , which was reflective of his skepticism toward American culture. The work of Rebecca Hammond Lard — , is still relevant today, writing about the environment as well as also human nature. The Fireside Poets also known as the Schoolroom or Household Poets were some of America's first major poets domestically and internationally.
They were known for their poems being easy to memorize due to their general adherence to poetic form standard forms , regular meter , and rhymed stanzas and were often recited in the home hence the name as well as in school such as " Paul Revere's Ride " , as well as working with distinctly American themes, including some political issues such as abolition. Longfellow achieved the highest level of acclaim and is often considered the first internationally acclaimed American poet, being the first American poet given a bust in Westminster Abbey's Poets' Corner.
Walt Whitman — and Emily Dickinson — , two of America's greatest 19th-century poets could hardly have been more different in temperament and style. Walt Whitman was a working man, a traveler, a self-appointed nurse during the American Civil War — , and a poetic innovator. His magnum opus was Leaves of Grass , in which he uses a free-flowing verse and lines of irregular length to depict the all-inclusiveness of American democracy. Taking that motif one step further, the poet equates the vast range of American experience with himself without being egotistical. For example, in Song of Myself , the long, central poem in Leaves of Grass , Whitman writes: "These are really the thoughts of all men in all ages and lands, they are not original with me".
In his words Whitman was a poet of "the body electric". Lawrence wrote that Whitman "was the first to smash the old moral conception that the soul of man is something 'superior' and 'above' the flesh. By contrast, Emily Dickinson lived the sheltered life of a genteel unmarried woman in small-town Amherst, Massachusetts. Her poetry is ingenious, witty, and penetrating. Her work was unconventional for its day, and little of it was published during her lifetime. Many of her poems dwell on the topic of death, often with a mischievous twist. One, " Because I could not stop for Death ", begins, "He kindly stopped for me". The opening of another Dickinson poem toys with her position as a woman in a male-dominated society and an unrecognized poet: "I'm nobody!
Who are you? American poetry arguably reached its peak in the early-to-midth century, with such noted writers as Wallace Stevens and his Harmonium and The Auroras of Autumn , T. Cummings , Edna St. Vincent Millay and Langston Hughes. Pound's poetry is complex and sometimes obscure, with references to other art forms and to a vast range of Western and Eastern literature. Eliot — , another expatriate. Eliot wrote spare, cerebral poetry, carried by a dense structure of symbols. Like Pound's, Eliot's poetry could be highly allusive, and some editions of The Waste Land come with footnotes supplied by the poet.
In , Eliot won the Nobel Prize in Literature. In addition, in this same period the confessional , whose origin is often traced to the publication in of Robert Lowell 's Life Studies ,  and beat schools of poetry enjoyed popular and academic success, producing such widely anthologized voices as Allen Ginsberg , Charles Bukowski , Gary Snyder , Anne Sexton , and Sylvia Plath , among many others. Although the American theatrical tradition can be traced back to the arrival of Lewis Hallam 's troupe in the midth century and was very active in the 19th century, as seen by the popularity of minstrel shows and of adaptations of Uncle Tom's Cabin , American drama attained international status only in the s and s, with the works of Eugene O'Neill , who won four Pulitzer Prizes and the Nobel Prize.
American dramatic literature, by contrast, remained dependent on European models, although many playwrights did attempt to apply these forms to American topics and themes, such as immigrants, westward expansion, temperance, etc. At the same time, American playwrights created several long-lasting American character types, especially the "Yankee", the "Negro" and the "Indian", exemplified by the characters of Jonathan , Sambo and Metamora. In addition, new dramatic forms were created in the Tom Shows , the showboat theater and the minstrel show. Realism began to influence American drama, partly through Howells, but also through Europeans such as Ibsen and Zola.
Although realism was most influential in set design and staging—audiences loved the special effects offered up by the popular melodramas—and in the growth of local color plays, it also showed up in the more subdued, less romantic tone that reflected the effects of the Civil War and continued social turmoil on the American psyche. The most ambitious attempt at bringing modern realism into the drama was James Herne 's Margaret Fleming , which addressed issues of social determinism through realistic dialogue, psychological insight, and symbolism.
The play was not successful, and both critics and audiences thought it dwelt too much on unseemly topics and included improper scenes, such as the main character nursing her husband's illegitimate child onstage. In the middle of the 20th century, American drama was dominated by the work of playwrights Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller , as well as by the maturation of the American musical , which had found a way to integrate script, music and dance in such works as Oklahoma!
One of the developments in lateth-century American literature was the increase of literature written by and about ethnic minorities beyond African Americans and Jewish Americans. This development came alongside the growth of the Civil Rights Movement and its corollary, the ethnic pride movement, which led to the creation of Ethnic Studies programs in most major universities. These programs helped establish the new ethnic literature as worthy objects of academic study, alongside such other new areas of literary study as women's literature , gay and lesbian literature, working-class literature , postcolonial literature , and the rise of literary theory as a key component of academic literary study.
After being relegated to cookbooks and autobiographies for most of the 20th century, Asian American literature achieved widespread notice through Maxine Hong Kingston 's fictional memoir, The Woman Warrior , and her novels China Men and Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book. Indian-American author Jhumpa Lahiri won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her debut collection of short stories, Interpreter of Maladies , and went on to write a well-received novel, The Namesake , which was shortly adapted to film in In her second collection of stories, Unaccustomed Earth , released to widespread commercial and critical success, Lahiri shifts focus and treats the experiences of the second and third generation.
Spurred by the success of N. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see American literature disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Literature written or related to the United States. Main article: Native American literature.
Further information: List of writers of the Lost Generation. Main article: American poetry. Main article: Theater of the United States. Further information: Nobel Prize in Literature. See also: Category:American literary awards. See also: Category:American literary critics and Literary criticism. Literature portal United States portal. Retrieved August 21, Native American Mythology. Greenhaven Publishing LLC, The article on "American literature" links to this article. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
ISBN The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W. American Literature , Barron's Educational, Allison, p. A History of American Literature. Blackwell, New York: T. Morrell, Cadwallader Colden: As Scientist and Philosopher. Burlington, Vt, Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography , number 4 October , p. The English Journal. Early American Literature. New England Quarterly. Literary Movements. American Authors. The Yearbook of English Studies. John Neal. Twayne Publishers. ISSN JSTOR S2CID University of Wisconsin Press.
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