Mexicana Reaction Paper

Wednesday, December 29, 2021 6:10:56 PM

Mexicana Reaction Paper

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However, the personal blogs are limited to viewers with MSU accounts. From the Mexican perspective, as much as Carranza sought the elimination of his rival Villa, but as a Mexican nationalist he could not countenance the extended U. Villa knew the inhospitable terrain intimately and operating with guerrilla tactics, he had little trouble evading his U. Army pursuers. Villa was deeply entrenched in the mountains of northern Mexico, and knew the terrain too well to be captured. General John J. Pershing could not continue with his unsuccessful mission; declaring victory the troops returned to the U. They were shortly thereafter deployed to Europe when the U. The Punitive Mission not only damaged the fragile United States-Mexico relationship, but also gave way to a rise in anti-American sentiment among the Mexicans.

With the outbreak of World War I in Europe in , foreign powers with significant economic and strategic interests in Mexico—-particularly the U. In the Zimmermann Telegram , a coded cable from the German government to Carranza's government, Germany attempted to draw Mexico into war with the United States, which was itself neutral at the time. Germany hoped to draw U. Carranza did not pursue this policy, but the leaking of the telegram pushed the U.

Carranza had consolidated enough power to go forward with the drafting of a revised constitution in late , in order to give his regime legitimacy. Carranza was only acting president at the time, and the expectation was to hold presidential elections. He called for a constituent congress to draft a new document based on liberal and revolutionary principles. Labor had supported the Constitutionalists and Red Battalions had fought against the Zapatistas, the peasant revolutionaries of Morelos.

Once the convention was in session after disputes about delegates, delegates reviewed Carranza's draft constitution. That document was a minor revision of the constitution and included none of the social, economic, and political demands for which revolutionary forces fought and died. The convention was divided between conservatives, mostly politicians who had supported Madero and then Carranza, and progressives, who were soldiers who had fought in revolutionary battles. The progressives, deemed radical Jacobins by the conservatives "sought to integrate deep political and social reforms into the political structure of the country.

The Mexican Constitution of was strongly nationalist, giving the government the power to expropriate foreign ownership of resources and enabling land reform Article It also had a strong code protecting organized labor Article and extended state power over the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico in its role in education Article 3. Villistas and zapatistas were excluded from the Constituent Congress, but their political challenge pushed the delegates to radicalize the Constitution, which in turn was far more radical than Carranza himself.

Carranza came from the old Porfirian landowning class, so that repugnant to him peasant demands for redistribution of land and their expectation that land seized would not revert to their previous owners. Radical reforms were embedded in the constitution, in particular labor rights, agrarian reform, anticlericalism, and economic nationalism. The Mexican state asserted dominion over the nation's territory and resources Article 27 , which enabled land reform and expropriation of land. Labor was rewarded with a strong article in the constitution protecting labor rights Article Following the ratification of the constitution, Carranza was formally elected to the presidency of Mexico. The progressive faction, pejoratively called Jacobins by their opponents pushed for a constitution that enshrined new rights in the constitution itself, rather than trusting that the head of state and the apparatus of government would honor the gains.

In historian Frank Tannenbaum 's assessment, "The Constitution was written by the soldiers of the Revolution, not by the lawyers, who were there [at the convention], but were generally in opposition. Zapata and his peasant followers in Morelos also never put down their guns and remained a threat to the government in Mexico City. Carranza was elected president, and once formally in office, largely ignored or actively undermined the more radical aspects of the constitution. Carranza increasingly lost support of labor, crushing strikes against his government.

Carranza did not move forward on land reform, fueling increasing opposition from peasants. Going further, Carranza ordered the assassination of Emiliano Zapata in It was a huge blow, but Zapatista General Genovevo de la O continued to lead the armed struggle there. From the late Porfiriato until his assassination by an agent of President Carranza in , Emiliano Zapata played an important role in the Mexican Revolution, the only revolutionary of first rank from southern Mexico.

Of the revolutionary factions, it was the most homogeneous, with most fighters being free peasants and only few peons on haciendas. With no industry to speak of in Morelos, there were no industrial workers in the movement and no middle class participants. A few intellectuals supported the Zapatistas. The Zapatistas' armed opposition movement just south of the capital needed to be heeded by those in power in Mexico City. Unlike northern Mexico, close to the U. The Zapatistas did not appeal for support to international interests nor play a role international politics the way the Pancho Villa, the other major populist leader, did.

The movement's goal was for land reform in Morelos and restoration of the rights of communities. The Zapatistas were divided into guerrilla fighting forces that joined together for major battles before returning to their home villages. Zapata was not a peasant himself, but led peasants in his home state o in regionally concentrated warfare regain village lands and return to subsistence agriculture.

Morelos was the only region where land reform was enacted during the years of fighting. Once elected in November , Madero did not move on land reform, promptinig Zapata to rebel against him and draft the Plan of Ayala With the overthrow of Madero and murder, Zapata disavowed his previous admiration of Pascual Orozco and directed warfare against the Huerta government, as did northern states of Mexico in the Constitutionalist movement, but Zapata did not ally or coordinate with it. Zapata continued to oppose the Constitutionalists, but lost support in his own area and attempted to entice defectors back to his movement.

That was a fatal error. He was ambushed and killed on 10 April by agents of now President Venustiano Carranza. Although Zapata was assassinated, the agrarian reforms that peasants themselves enacted in Morelos were impossible to reverse. The central government came to terms with that state of affairs. Zapata had fought for land and for those who tilled it in Morelos, and succeeded. His credentials as a steadfast revolutionary made him an enduring hero of the Revolution. His name and image were invoked in the uprising in Chiapas, with the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. Even as Carranza's political authority was waning, he attempted to impose a political nobody, Mexico's ambassador to the U.

Carranza's attempt to impose his choice was considered a betrayal of the Revolution and his remains were not placed in the Monument to the Revolution until Villa was assassinated in July Railway lines constructed during the Porfiriato facilitated movement of men, horses, and artillery and were used extensively by all factions. This was much greater in northern Mexico, lesser in the areas controlled by Zapata. When men and horses were transported by rail, the soldiers rode on the tops of boxcars. Early on northern revolutionaries also added hospital cars so that the wounded could be treated. Horses remained important in troop movement, either directly ridden to combat zones or loaded on trains.

Infantry also still played a role. Arms purchases mainly from the United States allowed northern armies almost inexhaustible access to rifles and ammunition so long as they had the means to pay for them. New military technology, particularly machine guns mechanized death on a large scale. Cities were the prizes in revolutionary clashes, and many were severely damaged. A notable exception is Mexico City, which only suffered damage during the days leading up to the ouster and murder of Madero, when rebels shelled the central core of the capital, causing death of civilians and many animals.

The goal was to convince observers in Mexico and the world that Madero had completely lost control. The capital changed hands several times during the post-Huerta period. When the Conventionists held power, Villa and his men exercised violence with impunity against major supporters of Huerta and against those who were considered revolutionary traitors. Villa's terror was not on the scale of the French Revolution or the Bolshevik Revolution, but assassinations, kidnapping of the wealthy for ransom, damaged Villa's reputation and cooled the U.

Landed estates, many owned by foreigners, were targeted for looting, with crops and animals sold or used by revolutionaries. Some owners were killed. In the wake of the Revolution, a joint American-Mexican Claims Commission commission of assessed the monetary damage and compensation due. A major result of the revolution was the dissolution in of Mexico's Federal Army , which Madero had kept intact when elected in and Huerta had used to oust Madero. But Federal soldiers were not interned in prisoner of war camps. Often soldiers of a losing faction were incorporated as troops by the ones who defeated them.

Revolutionaries were generally not highly ideological, so that there was no "revolutionary terror" targeting rivals after they triumphed, unlike the French and Russian Revolutions. An exception to this historically in Mexico is the aftermath of its nineteenth-century wars against indigenous rebels. The death toll and displacement of population due to the Revolution is difficult to calculate.

The losses amongst Mexico's population of 15 million were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1. Political assassination became a frequent way to eliminate rivals in the Revolution and afterward. Madero had expected also to go into exile, turning himself into Huerta's custody. Huerta considered that too dangerous a course, since he could have been a rallying point. Huerta did not want to execute Madero publicly. He needed it, since he had only a thin veil of legitimacy in his ascent to the presidency.

Zapata's death in was at the hands of Carranza's military. There was no need for a coverup since he had remained a threat to the Carranza regime. Photos of the dead Zapata were taken and published, as proof of his demise, but Carranza was tainted by the deed. The economic damage the Revolution caused lasted for years. Population loss due military and civilian casualties, displacement of populations who migrated to safer areas, and damage to infrastructure had significant impacts. The nation would not regain the level of development reached in for another twenty years. The period —40 is generally considered to be one of revolutionary consolidation, with the leaders seeking to return Mexico to the level of development it had reached in , but under new parameters of state control.

Authoritarian tendencies rather than Liberal democratic principles characterized the period, with generals of the revolution holding the presidency and designating their successors. There is no consensus when the Revolution ended, but the majority of scholars consider the s and s as being on the continuum of revolutionary change. The coup was supported by other revolutionary generals against the civilian Carranza attempting to impose another civilian, Ignacio Bonillas as his successor. De la Huerta managed to persuade revolutionary general Pancho Villa to lay down his arms against the regime in return for a large estate in Durango, in northern Mexico.

Carranza's agents had assassinated Emiliano Zapata in , removing a consistent and effective opponent. Some counterrevolutionaries in Chiapas laid down their arms. The Constitutionists had made an alliance with labor during the revolution, mobilizing the Red Battalions against Zapata's and Villa's force. He had governors in various states push forward the reforms promised in the constitution. These were, however, quite limited. Former Zapatistas still had strong influence in the post-revolutionary government, so most of the reforms began in Morelos, the birthplace of the Zapatista movement. Enticing them to leave the political arena in exchange for material rewards was one tactic.

De la Huerta had already successfully used it with Pancho Villa. He believed that once U. Foreigners held extensive agricultural land that was now at risk to be distributed to landless Mexicans. In an attempt to buffer his regime against further coups, Calles began arming peasants and factory workers with surplus weapons. Calles also put into effect a national school system that was largely secular to combat church influence in late After two years the state crackdown, the Catholic Church protested by going on its version of a strike, refusing to baptize, marry, give last rites, or give communion to parishioners.

Many peasants also joined in opposition to the state's crackdown on religion, beginning the Cristero War , named for their clarion call Viva Cristo Rey "long live Christ the king". It was a lengthy, major uprising against the revolutionary vision of the Mexican state in central Mexico, not a short-lived, localized rebellion. By law Calles could not be re-elected, but a solution needed to be found to keep political power in the hands of the revolutionary elite and prevent the country from reverting to civil war.

With the Constitution enshrining the principle of "no re-election", revolutionaries who had fought for the principle could not ignore it. Elections were when disgruntled aspirants to the presidency made their move, because it was a period of political transition. The Sonoran triumvirate had done so in Other rebellions of revolutionary generals broke out in , by Francisco Serrano and Arnulfo R. This political crisis came when the bloody Cristero War raged across central Mexico. A managed political solution to the crisis of presidential succession had to the found. The answer was the founding of the Partido Nacional Revolucionario.

In Calles brought together the various factions, mainly regional strongmen. To alternation of the presidency by men who had previously held the office, the constitution was revised, reverted to the principle of no re-election. An achievement in this period was the peace agreement between the Catholic Church and the Mexican state, brokered by Dwight Morrow , U. Ambassador to Mexico. He returned to Michoacan after the revolution, and implemented a number of reforms that were precursors of those he enacted as president. Calles had increasingly moved to the political right, abandoning support for land reform. Peasants who had joined the revolution with the hope that land reform would be enacted, and the constitution had empowered the state to expropriate land and other resources.

Although in theory peasants and workers could come together as a single powerful sector, the PNR ruled that peasant organizations were to be separate from industrial labor, and organizing the countryside should be under the control of the party. Radical labor leader Vicente Lombardo Toledano helped create the Confederation of Mexican Workers CTM , a nationalist, autonomous, non-politically affiliated organization. His first acts of reform in , were aimed towards peasants. Former strongmen within the land owning community were losing political power, so he began to side with the peasants more and more.

He also tried to further centralize the government's power by removing regional caciques , allowing him to push reforms easier. Other reforms included nationalization of key industries such as petroleum and the railroads. That same year another Cristero revolt occurred. The Catholic Church told rebels to surrender themselves to the government. This proved to be useful later in his presidency as the militias came to his aid in a military coup in revolutionary Mexico in These appeased some agriculturalists, but many peasants would have preferred receiving individual plots of land to which they had title. The aim of ejidos was to replace the large-scale landed estates, many of which were foreign owned.

Ejidos were not very good at feeding large populations, causing an urban food crisis. This put the final nail in the coffin of the feudal hacienda system , making Mexico a mixed economy , combining agrarian socialism and industrial capitalism by There were four sectors: industrial workers, peasants, middle class workers, largely employed by the government, and the army. Bringing the military into the party structure was calculated to manage it politically and to remove it from independently intervening in politics, a tradition dating back to independence in the s.

This new party organization was a resurrection of corporatism , essentially organization by estates or interest groups. His departure marked the end of the social revolution and ushering in half a century of relative stability. However, in the assessment of historian Alan Knight, the election was "a requiem for Cardenismo: it revealed that hopes of a democratic succession were illusory; that electoral endorsement of the regime had to be manufactured; and that the Cardenista reforms, while creating certain loyal clienteles some loyal from conviction, some by virtue of co-optation had also raised up formidable opponents who now looked to take the offensive.

There was considerable cultural production during the Revolution itself, including printmaking, music and photography, while in the post revolutionary era, revolutionary themes in painting and literature shaped historical memory and understanding of the Revolution. As President Madero believed in freedom of the press, which helped galvanize opposition to his own regime. The Constitutionalists had an active propaganda program, paying writers to draft appeals to opinion in the U. Once the armed opposition was less of a threat, Carranza dissolved Vanguardia as a publication. During the late Porfiriato, political cartooning and print making developed as popular forms of art.

Madero is in a dapper suit. The caption reads "offerings to the people to rise to the presidency. After , Mexican muralism and printmaking were two major forms of revolutionary art. Prints were easily reproducible and circulated widely, while murals commissioned by the Mexican government necessitated a journey to view them. Printmaking "emerged as a favored medium, alongside government sponsored mural painting among artists ready to do battle for a new aesthetic as well as a new political order.

The Mexican Revolution was extensively photographed as well as filmed, so that there is a large, contemporaneous visual record. The photographic record is by no means complete since much of the violence took place in relatively remote places, but it was a media event covered by photographers, photojournalists , and professional cinematographers. Those behind the lens were hampered by the large, heavy cameras that impeded capturing action images, but no longer was written text enough, with photographs illustrating and verifying the written word.

The Revolution "depended heavily, from its inception, on visual representations and, in particular, on photographs. Among the foreign photographers were Jimmy Hare , Otis A. Aultman , Homer Scott, and Walter Horne. Images appeared in newspapers and magazines, as well as postcards. Venustiano Carranza attracted artists and intellectuals to the Constitutionalist cause. Painter, sculptor and essayist Gerardo Murillo, known as Dr. Atl , was ardently involved in art production in the cause of the revolution. Many of these focused on aspects of the Revolution. The "Big Three" of Mexican muralism , Diego Rivera , Orozco, and Siqueiros produced narratives of the Revolution, shaping historical memory and interpretation. A number of traditional Mexican songs or corridos were written at the time, serving as a kind of news report and functioned as propaganda, memorializing aspects of the Mexican Revolution.

The song " La Cucaracha ", with numerous verses, was popular at the time of the Revolution, and subsequently, and is too in the present day. Published corridos often had images of particular revolutionary heroes along with the verses. Few novels of the Mexican Revolution were written at the time: Mariano Azuela 's Los de Abajo translated as The Underdogs is a notable one, originally published in serial form in newspapers. Literature is a lens through which to see the Revolution. The centennial of the Mexican Revolution was another occasion to construct of historical of the events and leaders. In , the Centennial of the Revolution and the Bicentennial of Independence was an occasion to take account of Mexico's history.

The centennial of independence in had been the swan song of the Porfiriato. As early as , the Mexican government began appropriating the memory and legacy of Zapata for its own purposes. The government recognized his continued potency and had his remains reburied in the Monument of the Revolution after considerable controversy. With the exception of Zapata who rebelled against him in , Francisco Madero was revered as "the apostle of democracy. Venustiano Carranza gained considerable legitimacy as a civilian leader of the Constitutionalists, having supported Madero in life and led the successful coalition that ousted Huerta.

But then Carranza downplayed Madero's role in the revolution in order to substitute himself as the origin of the true revolution. Carranza owned "the bullets taken from the body of Francisco I. Madero after his murder. Carranza had kept them in his home, perhaps because they were a symbol of a fate and a passive denouement he had always hoped to avoid. Huerta remains the enduring villain of the Mexican Revolution for his coup against Madero.

Orozco much more than Madero was considered a manly man of action. The most permanent manifestations of historical are in the built landscape, especially the Monument to the Revolution in Mexico City and statues and monuments to particular leaders. The construction was abandoned with the outbreak of the Revolution in Buried in the four pillars are the remains of Francisco I. The monument is on the site of the restaurant La Bombilla, where he was assassinated in The arm was cremated in , but the monument remains. Names of towns and neighborhoods of major cities.

Madero , brother of murdered president. The Mexico City Metro has stations commemorating aspects of the Revolution and the revolutionary era. When it opened in , with line 1 the "Pink Line" , two stations alluded to the Revolution. Madero 's vice president, who was murdered with him in February There is no Metro stop named for Madero. The other was Metro Balderas , whose icon is a cannon, alluding to the Ciudadela armory where the coup against Madero was launched.

As the Metro expanded, further stations with names from the revolutionary era opened. In , two popular heroes of the Revolution were honored, with Metro Zapata explicitly commemorating the peasant revolutionary from Morelos. The grandson had been a participant in the Mexican Revolution. In , Mexican peso notes of low denomination were printed with the image of peasant revolutionary Emiliano Zapata.

The banknotes were withdrawn in The role of women in the Mexican Revolution has not been an important aspect of official historical memory, although the situation is changing. Carranza pushed for the rights of women, and gained women's support. During his presidency he relied on his personal secretary and close aide, Hermila Galindo de Topete , to rally and secure support for him. Through her efforts he was able to gain the support of women, workers and peasants. Carranza rewarded her efforts by lobbying for women's equality. He helped change and reform the legal status of women in Mexico. The typical image of a soldadera is of a woman with braids, wearing female attire, with ammunition belts across her chest.

There were a few revolutionary women, known as coronelas , who commanded troops, some of whom dressed and identified as male; they do not fit the stereotypical image of soldadera and are not celebrated in historical memory at present. There is a vast historiography on the Mexican Revolution, with many different interpretations of the history. Over time it has become more fragmented. There is consensus as to when the revolution began, that is in , but there is no consensus when it ended. The Constitutionalists defeated their major rivals and called the constitutional convention that drafted the Constitution, but did not effectively control all regions. The year was the last successful military rebellion, bringing the northern revolutionary generals to power.

A anthology by scholars of the revolution was entitled Is the Mexican Revolution Dead? Major leaders of the Revolution have been the subject of biographies, including the martyred Francisco I. Sonorans in the Mexican Revolution have not yet collectively been the subject of a major study. Often studied as an event solely of Mexican history, or one also involving Mexico's northern neighbor, scholars now recognize that "From the beginning to the end, foreign activities figured crucially in the Revolution's course, not simple antagonism from the U. Although the ignominious end of Venustiano Carranza's presidency in cast a shadow over his legacy in the Revolution, sometimes viewed as a conservative revolutionary, he and his northern allies laid "the foundation of a more ambitious, centralizing state dedicated to national integration and national self-assertion.

The revolutionary struggle created a new regime that comprised the regional faction of northwest Mexico, willing to make deals with other regions and factions. In the assessment of historian John Womack , "The new state itself would therefore serve as the nation's bourgeois party. Its function forecast its programme, a long series of reforms from above It is also in contrast to the pattern of military power in many Latin American countries. An important element the Revolution's legacy is the Constitution. It was pushed forward by populist generals within Carranza's government to undermine the popular support that Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata held. The document brought numerous reforms demanded by populist factions of the revolution, with article 27 empowering the state to expropriate resources deemed vital to the nation.

These included expropriation of hacienda lands and redistribution to peasants. Article 27 also empowered the government to expropriate holdings of foreign companies, most prominently seen in the expropriation of oil. In Article the constitution codified major labor reforms, including an 8-hour work day, a right to strike, equal pay laws for women, and an end to exploitative practices such as child labor and company stores. The constitution strengthened restrictions on the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico. However, in the early s, the government introduced reforms to the constitution that rolled back the government's power to expropriate property and its restrictions on religious institutions.

The creation of the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI emerged as a way to manage political power and succession without resorting to violence. The reorganized party was named Party of the Mexican Revolution. In , the party again changed its name to the Institutional Revolutionary Party. The PRI was built as a big-tent corporatist party, to bring many political factions and interest groups peasantry, labor, urban professionals together, while excluding conservatives and Catholics, who eventually formed the opposition National Action Party in To funnel the populace into the party, Calles and his supporters built various delegations composed of popular, agrarian, labor, and military groupings the military was dropped from the party when it reorganized as the PRI in , which channeled both political patronage and limited political options of those sectors.

This structure strengthened the power of the PRI and the government. Union and peasant leaders themselves gained power of patronage, and the discontent of the membership was channeled through them. If organizational leaders could not resolve a situation or gain benefits for their members, it was they who were blamed for being ineffective brokers. There was the appearance of union and peasant leagues' power, but the effective power was in the hands of the PRI. Under PRI leadership before the elections which saw the conservative National Action Party elected most power came from a Central Executive Committee, which budgeted all government projects. This in effect turned the legislature into a rubber stamp for the PRI's leadership. The Party's name expresses the Mexican state's incorporation of the idea of revolution, and especially a continuous, nationalist, anti-imperialist, Mexican revolution, into political discourse, and its legitimization as a popular, revolutionary party.

Latterly, some historians have written of the "myth" of the revolution, namely the memory of the revolution was exploited by the party to legitimatize its rule with one historian Macario Schettino writing: "the twentieth century is for Mexico, the century of the Mexican revolution. But this is a concept, not a fact. The Revolution which marks the twentieth century The Mexican Revolution, on which was founded the political regime which ruled from and for nearly seventy years is a cultural construction". The Party has been very authoritarian and hierarchical, leaving little room for opposition. However, it was not interested in oppression for its own sake. Its main goal was to keep order, preferring pragmatism over ideology. Throughout its rule in post-revolutionary Mexico, it avoided empowering one faction too much, preferring to build its own ruling caste rather than side with another.

It tended to play off both sides of the political spectrum, both the populists and the emerging middle class. The tradition of strong-man rule was not completely thrown away, presidentialism presidencialismo , the political arrangement of a powerful executive branch centered in the presidency, became the favored style of post-revolutionary politics. It is not by chance that the party used the word "Revolution" in its name, challenging the Institutional Revolutionary Party's appropriation of the Mexican Revolution. Earlier, there was a leftist party the Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution , which never functioned as a full political party fielding presidential candidates, but asserted its legitimacy as the party of Revolution in Mexico until its demise.

In this the Mexican Revolution was not revolutionary, only making the mechanisms of power less autocratic and more efficient in the attainment of its interests. Octavio Paz wrote that the revolution strengthened the Mexican state more than ever, making Mexico a very state-centered and patrimonialist society. Most revolutionary gains were reversed in the early s by President Salinas, who began moving away from the agrarian socialist policies of the late post revolution period in favor of modern capitalism. This culminated in the removal of the ejido system in Chiapas. The destruction of what little the poor starving peasants had caused them to revolt.

Calling to Mexico's revolutionary heritage, the EZLN draws heavily from early revolutionary rhetoric. It is inspired by many of Zapata's policies, including a call for decentralized local rule. The Mexican Revolution brought about various social changes. First, the leaders of the Porfiriato lost their political power but kept their economic power , and the middle class started to enter the public administration.

The old federal army had been destroyed during the revolution, and the new collection of revolutionary fighters were brought under state control. Although the proportion between rural and urban population, and the number of workers and the middle class remained practically the same,the Mexican Revolution brought substantial qualitative changes to the cities. Big rural landlords moved to the city escaping from chaos in the rural areas. Some poor farmers also migrated to the cities and they settled on neighborhoods where the Porfiriato elite used to live. Uspekhi 22 7 , - Nauk 3 , - H Ezawa, Einstein's contribution to statistical mechanics, classical and quantum, Japan.

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