Aerogel Insulation Advantages And Disadvantages
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The combination of silica and carbon aerogel gives the best insulating properties of any known material, approximately twice the insulative protection of the next best insulative material, closed-cell foam. The use of highly compressed straw bales as insulation, though uncommon, is gaining popularity in experimental building projects for the high R-value and low cost of a thick wall made of straw. Using a straw bale in-fill sandwich roof greatly increases the R value. This compares very favorably with the R RSI When using straw bales for construction, the bales must be tightly-packed and allowed to dry out sufficiently.
Any air gaps or moisture can drastically reduce the insulating effectiveness. Reflective insulation and radiant barriers reduce the radiation of heat to or from the surface of a material. Radiant barriers will reflect radiant energy. A radiant barrier by itself will not affect heat conducted through the material by direct contact or heat transferred by moist air rising or convection. For this reason, trying to associate R-values with radiant barriers is difficult and inappropriate. The R-value test measures heat transfer through the material, not to or from its surface.
There is no standard test designed to measure the reflection of radiated heat energy alone. Radiated heat is a significant means of heat transfer; the sun's heat arrives by radiating through space and not by conduction or convection. At night the absence of heat i. Radiant barriers prevent radiant heat transfer equally in both directions. However, heat flow to and from surfaces also occurs via convection , which in some geometries is different in different directions.
Reflective aluminum foil is the most common material used as a radiant barrier. It has no significant mass to absorb and retain heat. It also has very low emittance values "E-values" typically 0. Materials with one shiny side such as foil-faced polystyrene must be positioned with the shiny side facing an air space to be effective. An aluminum foil radiant barrier can be placed either way — the shiny side is created by the rolling mill during the manufacturing process and does not affect the reflective of the foil material.
As radiant barriers work by reflecting infra-red energy, the aluminum foil would work just the same if both sides were dull. Certain forms of insulation used in the past are now no longer used because of recognized health risks. Urea-formaldehyde insulation releases poisonous formaldehyde gas, causing indoor air quality problems. The chemical bond between the urea and formaldehyde is weak, resulting in degradation of the foam cells and emission of toxic formaldehyde gas into the home over time.
Furthermore, some manufacturers used excess formaldehyde to ensure chemical bonding of all of the urea. Any leftover formaldehyde would escape after the mixing. Most states outlawed it in the early s after dangers to building occupants were discovered. However emissions are highest when the urea-formaldehyde is new and decrease over time, so houses that have had urea-formaldehyde within their walls for years or decades do not require remediation. UFFI provides little mechanical strength, as the material is weak and brittle.
Before its risks were recognized, it was used because it was a cheap, effective insulator with a high R-value and its open-cell structure was a good acoustic insulator. Though it absorbed moisture easily, it regained effectiveness as an insulator when dried. Asbestos is a mineral fiber that occurs in rock and soil  that has traditionally been used as an insulation material in many homes and buildings. It is fireproof, a good thermal and electrical insulator, and resistant to chemical attack and wear.
It has also been found that asbestos can cause cancer when in friable form that is, when likely to release fibers into the air — when broken, jagged, shredded, or scuffed. When found in the home, asbestos often resembles grayish-white corrugated cardboard coated with cloth or canvas, usually held in place around pipes and ducts with metal straps. Things that typically might contain asbestos: . All polyurethane foams are composed of petrochemicals. Foam insulation often uses hazardous chemicals with high human toxicity, such as isocyanates, benzene and toluene. The foaming agents no longer use ozone-depleting substances. Fiberglass is the most common residential insulating material, and is usually applied as batts of insulation, pressed between studs.
Green building practices shun Fiberglass insulation. In October , an international expert review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC re-evaluated the IARC assessment of glass fibers and removed glass wools from its list of possible carcinogens by downgrading the classification of these fibers from Group 2B possible carcinogen to Group 3 not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans. All fiber glass wools that are commonly used for thermal and acoustical insulation are included in this classification. IARC noted specifically: "Epidemiologic studies published during the 15 years since the previous IARC Monographs review of these fibers in provide no evidence of increased risks of lung cancer or mesothelioma cancer of the lining of the body cavities from occupational exposures during manufacture of these materials, and inadequate evidence overall of any cancer risk.
The IARC downgrade is consistent with the conclusion reached by the US National Academy of Sciences , which in found "no significant association between fiber exposure and lung cancer or nonmalignant respiratory disease in the MVF [man-made vitreous fiber] manufacturing environment. However, the literature should be considered carefully before determining that the risks should be disregarded. Miraflex is a new type of fiberglass batt that has curly fibers that are less itchy and create less dust. You can also look for fiberglass products factory-wrapped in plastic or fabric. Fiberglass is energy intensive in manufacture. Fiberglass fibers are bound into batts using adhesive binders, which can contain phenol formaldehyde, a hazardous chemical known to slowly off-gas from the insulation over many years.
Health issues if any appear to be minor, and most concerns around the flame retardants and mold potential seem to be misrepresentations. The program, known as the Health and Safety Partnership Program, or HSPP, promotes the safe handling and use of insulation materials and incorporates education and training for the manufacture, fabrication, installation and removal of fiber glass, rock wool and slag wool insulation products. See health effects of fiberglass. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Spray foams insulation. Main article: Insulating concrete form. Main article: Rigid panel. Main article: Cellulose insulation. See also: Cavity wall insulation. Main article: Straw-bale construction. Main article: Radiant barrier. Archived from the original on Retrieved Wayne's Building Supply.
David Darling. Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 24 February