Whats The Difference Between English And British
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ONE language, THREE accents - UK vs. USA vs. AUS English!
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The system was still widely practiced in the s, picking up immediately after a hiatus during the American Revolution. Fernand Braudel The Perspective of the World , pp. Those who can pay for their passage—usually about or 80 [ livres tournois ]—arrive in America free to take any engagement that suits them. Those who cannot pay are carried at the expense of the shipowner, who in order to recoup his money, advertises on arrival that he has imported artisans, laborers and domestic servants and that he has agreed with them on his own account to hire their services for a period normally of three, four, or five years for men and women and 6 or 7 years for children.
In modern terms, the shipowner was acting as a contractor , hiring out his laborers. Such circumstances affected the treatment a captain gave his valuable human cargo. After indentures were forbidden, the passage had to be prepaid, giving rise to the inhumane conditions of Irish ' coffin ships ' in the second half of the 19th century.
Starting in the late 17th century, in southern New England and parts of Long Island, Native Americans were increasingly pulled into an exploitative debt-peonage system designed to control and assimilate Native American people into the dominant culture as well as channel their labor into the market-based Atlantic economy. Due to restricted access to resources, land loss , and changes to the environment caused by European settlement, many Native Americans, especially coastal groups, could no longer practice traditional subsistence activities and therefore became increasingly dependent on European trade goods—cloth, tools, guns, alcohol, and increasingly, food.
Merchants trading these items to Native Americans often inflated the cost and, based on a predatory lending scheme, advanced them credit for these purchases, knowing full well most Native Americans would not be able to repay the debts. Eventually when debts mounted, Native Americans were hauled into court by their creditors. When they could not pay either their lands, or more commonly their labor, was seized to settle the debt. Native American debtors were then indentured to their creditors for terms ranging from a few months to sometimes years. Rare cases exist when Native Americans were indentured for a decade or more and a few were enslaved for life this was quite rare however. Assessing how many Native Americans experienced indenture is difficult as exact Native American populations during the colonial period are unknown.
However, Historian John Sainsbury was able to document that by the midth century about a third of all Native Americans in Rhode Island were indentured servants living and working in white households. Also, the Massachusetts state archives contains numerous petitions, written from the s to s from Native American tribes in their jurisdiction complaining about abuses in the indenture system and predatory lending by whites. Statutes were eventually passed attempting to regulate practices. Colonial military records do provide some data on Native American indenture as well. Enlistment records from to show that almost two-thirds of Native Americans who joined the army were indentured at the time of their enlistment.
Records from to show a decline in this rate, but still show almost a third of Native American recruits being bound to white masters at the time of their enlistment. One Connecticut regiment raised in during King George's War containing men total contained Native American men. Almost half of them had signed their wages over to white creditors before being deployed. While many Native American men, women and children became servants in New England households, the labor of many adult men was funneled into the whaling industry on Long Island, Rhode Island, Cape Cod and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, as well as the coast of eastern Connecticut.
These whaling indentures were somewhat distinct from normal indenture contracts, and stipulated that Native Americans serve not as servants in white households but instead as crew members on a certain number of whaling voyages or 'seasons' of whaling typically November through April. Throughout most of the colonial period indentured or heavily indebted Native American whalers were the primary labor force in the early whaling industry. They remained an important source of labor into the Revolutionary and early national era, but as their numbers dwindled and the industry expanded exponentially, they made up a decreasingly small proportion of the labor force. Indentured servitude appeared in the Americas in the s and remained in use as late as The end of debtors' prisons may have created a limited commitment pitfall in which indentured servants could agree to contracts with ship captains and then refuse to sell themselves once they arrived in the colonies.
Increased lobbying from immigrant aid societies led to increased regulation of the indentured labor market, further increasing the difficulty of enforcing contracts. With less ability to enforce the contracts, demand for indentured servants may have fallen. However, most debtor prisons were still in service when indentured servitude disappeared and many regulations on indentured servitude were put in place well before the practice's disappearance. A rise in European per-capita income compared to passage fare during the nineteenth century may also explain the disappearance of indentured servitude. While passage from England to the colonies in would cost roughly 51 percent of English per-capita income, that ratio would decrease to between 20 and 30 percent by With no need for transit capital, fewer laborers would have become indentured, and the supply of indentured servants would have decreased.
Labor substitutions may have led employers away from indentured servants and towards slaves or paid employees. In many places, African slaves became cheaper for unskilled and then eventually skilled labor, and most farmhand positions previously filled by indentured servants were ultimately filled by slaves. In comparison, firing an indentured servant would mean a loss on the original capital investment spent purchasing the servant's contract.
An additional problem for employers was that, compared to African slaves, European indentured servants who ran away could not always be easily distinguished from the general white population, so they were more difficult to re-capture. Indentured servitude's decline for white servants was also largely a result of changing attitudes that accrued over the 18th century and culminated in the early 19th century. Over the 18th century, the penal sanctions that were used against all workers were slowly going away from colonial codes, leaving indentured servants the only adult white labor subject to penal sanctions with the notable exception of seaman, whose contracts could be criminally enforced up to the 20th century.
These penal sanctions for indentured laborers continued in the United States until the s, and by this point treatment of European laborers under contract became the same as the treatment of wage laborers however, this change in treatment didn't apply to workers of color. This change in treatment can be attributed to a number of factors, such as the growing identification of white indented labor with slavery at a time when slavery was coming under attack in the Northern states, the growing radicalism of workers influenced with the rhetoric of the American Revolution, and the expansion of suffrage in many states which empowered workers politically.
Penal sanctions, previously considered perfectly in line with free labor, became in the 19th century a way to transform ordinary labor into "contracts of slavery. Given the rapid expansion of colonial export industries in the 17th and 18th century, natural population growth and immigration were unable to meet the increasing demand for workers. As a result, the cost of indentured servants rose substantially. As a result, the companies that generated indentures disrupted the price signaling effect , [ further explanation needed ] and thus the supply of immigrants did not expand sufficiently to meet demand. Some actors in the market attempted to generate incentives for workers by shortening the length of indenture contracts, based on the productivity of the prospective emigrant.
The rising cost of indentured labor and its inelastic supply pushed American producers towards a cheaper alternative: enslaved workers. Not only were they substantially cheaper, the supply was more abundant; in contrast with indentured workers, they had to emigrate whether they wanted to or not. No incentives were necessary, although higher prices motivated slave traders to expand "production" in the form of raiding expeditions. Supply was relatively elastic. Slavery thus was better able to satisfy labor demands in colonies requiring large quantities of unskilled agricultural workers for example, plantation colonies in the Caribbean.
Indentures, however, prevailed in colonies that required skilled workers, since the cost of an indenture was less than the cost of training an enslaved worker. Alison Smith and Abbott E. Smith's analysis of London port records shows how the destinations of indentured emigrants shifted from the West Indies towards New England as early as the s,  supporting the theory that indentured servitude might have declined in some regions because of labor market dynamics. The railroad made non-port cities a much cheaper destination for immigrants.
The steamboat was not necessarily cheaper than older sailing technologies, but it made transatlantic travel much easier and comfortable, an attractive factor for high-income classes that could easily afford immigration without indentures. Safer seas implied smaller crews for there was no need to man weapons on board and also reduced insurance costs ships were at lower risk of being captured. The composition of immigrants also shifted from single males towards entire families.
Single males usually left their homes with little if any savings. Instead, families generally liquidated assets in Europe to finance their venture. The American Revolution severely limited immigration to the United States. Economic historians differ however on the long-term impact of the Revolution. Sharon Salinger argues that the economic crisis that followed the war made long-term labor contracts unattractive. But these were temporary rather than lasting". Existing slaves became indentured servants. That status was finally ended in and all the indentured obtained full freedom. A number of acts passed by both the American and the British governments fostered the decline of indentures.
The English Passenger Vessels Act of , which regulated travel conditions aboard ships, attempted to make transportation more expensive in order to stop emigration. The American abolition of imprisonment of debtors by federal law passed in made prosecution of runaway servants more difficult, increasing the risk of indenture contract purchases. In the 19th century, most indentures of this nature occurred in the old Northwest Territory. The permissibility of such indentures centered on the interpretation of "involuntary servitude" per the Northwest Ordinance , which declared:.
There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the territory otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the Party shall have been duly convicted. The permissibility or not of penal sanctions in labor became an issue of "fundamental law", in which it was questioned whether those sanctions or specific performance enforcements turned indentured servitude into "involuntary servitude". At the time when the Northwest Ordinance was constructed, white adult servants were still being imported into the United States, and thus, historically, it seems likely that the Ordinance's framers considered indenture to be a form of "voluntary" servitude. In essence, this means the indentured servant chose to work for someone who bought them something.
The Territory of Hawaii was the last place in the United States to widely use indentures, as by the practice had been abolished in the rest of the country and replaced by alternatives such as the credit-ticket system used to transport Chinese laborers. In the Hawaiian Organic Act of the U. A half million Europeans went as indentured servants to the Caribbean primarily the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean before However, forceful indenture also provided part of the servants: contemporaries report that youngsters were sometimes tricked into servitude in order to be exploited in the colonies.
The landowners on the islands would pay for a servant's passage and then provide the servant with food, clothes, shelter and instruction during the agreed term. The servant would then be required to work in the landowner's field for a term of bondage usually four to seven years. During this term of bondage the servant had a status similar to a son of the master. For example, the servant was not allowed to marry without the master's permission. Servants could own personal property. They could also complain to a local magistrate about mistreatment that exceeded community norms.
However, a servant's contract could be sold or given away by his master. After the servant's term was complete he became independent and was paid "freedom dues". These payments could take the form of land which would give the servant the opportunity to become an independent farmer or a free laborer. As free men with little money they became a political force that stood in opposition to the rich planters. Indentured servitude was a common part of the social landscape in England and Ireland during the 17th century. During the 17th century, British and Irish went to Barbados as both masters and as indentured servants. Some went as prisoners. After , fewer indentured servants came from Europe to the Caribbean.
Newly freed servant farmers, given 25—50 acres of land, were unable to make a living because profitable sugar plantations needed to cover hundreds of acres. However, profit could still be made through the tobacco trade, which was what these small acre farms did to live comfortably. In the 17th century, the islands became known as death traps, as between 33 and 50 percent of indentured servants died before they were freed, many from yellow fever , malaria and other diseases. When slavery ended in the British Empire in , plantation owners turned to indentured servitude for inexpensive labor. These servants arrived from across the globe; the majority came from India where many indentured laborers came from to work in colonies requiring manual labor.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. By country or region. Opposition and resistance. See also: Irish indentured servants. Further information: Indian indenture system. Labor History. S2CID The Journal of Southern History. JSTOR Balkin, Richard ed. Revolutionary America to New York: Facts on File. ISBN The Journal of Economic History. Both groups believe in the same GOD, his direction given in The Bible, and they both refuse to keep-up the Mennonites practices a little more acceptance of the progression of Mankind and his abilities. Rather, both the Mennonites and the Amish prefer to stay in the past rather than receive and accept what the goodness of GOD has given us.
The Mennonites were a sect of Anabaptists, a larger group who split from the Catholic church as a result of the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther, in the s. The Amish started out as a sect of Mennonites, but split from them in the late s. It was made by Ernest Bontrager in June , with a duration of This often is not true anymore. Some Mennonites are very similar to the Amish who of course, have variations as well ; many Mennonites today however, have given up any idea of being separated from the world in any sense and would have little to distinguish them from any mainstram, liberal church. I am a African American female doing a research paper on the culture of Amish and Mennonites what I have found is that the have simple and peaceful life.
But I try to live a life of goodness. I believe it is called the Mennonite Brethren of Boone. You may find it useful to contact them. I have not visited with this church, so unfortunately I can provide you little info on it other than it exists. Why do you have a problem with someone stating their cultural background? Sounds like you have a problem with African Americans. Charlene, I know what your intent was with the comment about practicing what you preach. Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. Not to live as we wish, but from the entanglement of man-made religious rules.
Dressing plain or avoiding use of motor cars makes no one bound for heaven. Jesus spoke most harshly to the religious zealots of his time, and religion today is no more appealing in His sight than it was then. We need each to seek a daily relationship and walk with our Savior, and to allow His Holy Spirit free reign to do what He will in our lives. Be blessed as you seek Him! One practical difference would be all solid colors in clothing. Also most Amish of any kind will use the Lobsang as second hymn at preaching services. I have had close acquaintence with a wide spectrum of Amish over a span of about 45 years am in process of converting to Beachy A. That would be legalism. All the stuff around the varying views of the evils of technology developed much later, over time.
Thank you for all this good information about various Anabaptists. At this time I wish to submit some additional information. When I can I visit a local Mennonite church. Not the Conservative Mennonites written about above, or that can be found online. These warm and friendly folks may speak Pennsylvania Dutch, but all speak beautiful English. Many of their churches are located in Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and thereabouts, and now in California. This is a Plain dressing church with many plain practices. But clothes lines for drying laundry are still common. Our decor is very simple. There are comfortable pews, nice restrooms, and a nice little kitchen.
Almost nothing on the walls. Previously CDs were not allowed. But I asked about the language tapes for missionary language study, so why not CDs that comply with our rules? So CDs are now allowed. Then I pointed out the long travel that some of our people do, visiting family in the Midwest for example. So they are going to review the rules that would affect playing CDs on the road. It is recognized this could be good in a car full of family on long trips. This says to me they are very reasonable. He advises that if one must wear a watch, that it have a simple design and a black wristband. Cell phones are for talking only, not photography, and several things like that. So this keeps me comfortable and easily cleaned up. Our people do numerous jobs, so farming, while common, is not required.
I for one prune trees. Neither in worship messages nor in print. And we do publish a lot of books! I was already a veteran of the Navy. So when the subject comes up they only show a polite interest because of the many Western Pacific ports I once visited. And they are not wimpy about guns. They have their usual place as on any farm, but they are not for violence or war. It is also the membership ritual when you join the church. I have only seen it done by pouring, though some churches either use another form, or even give the baptismal candidate a choice. My late father in law, who worked for the Lord in Rhodesia, used to talk about cooperating with Mennonite missionaries, and found it very rewarding and satisfactory.
Among the solid churches I have been with in my life, I love it here the most. It is warm, loving, peaceful, and I get fed as a Christian. I am closer to the Lord when I have more time to be active in this church. I do work on many meeting days, and they would rather that one attend at every opportunity. But I see that as only good. We are not to be like the world, but are called out to be separate, reserved unto God. Michael, I enjoyed reading this. It was well-written and interesting. Thank you for sharing this! Not all Mennonites are opposed to education past 8th grade. Are their Amish in Australia that live Identtcal lives?
Are their Amish in New Zealand that live Identtcal lives? Can anybody from a different cultural backgroud be accepted into the Amish community. I am planning a trip to St. Jacobs to introduce my ESL adult newcomers, a bit of history of our country and familiarization with different cultural backgrounds. This, is a very good question, that I have no answer for.
Clara if by cultural background you are meaning a different racial or ethnic background, yes it is possible though uncommon. In general, outsiders joining the Amish is not common and a significant number of those who join subsequently leave after some time. I have also met a man of German background German as his first language who had joined the Amish. Both believe that fried spam and eggs make a good breakfast. The Amish like nachos as a snack. Both believe that flossing is a good part of dental hygiene.
When I hear of older converts to Amish or Mennonites, I have to wonder the real motives. Are they just societal washouts who want a safe haven? Are they worldly older doods who crave a young wife? Are they trying to be rebel rousers? And in this context, neither of them makes sense. Check to be notified of comments on this post. Get the Amish in your inbox. Question on the Amish? Reply to Comment.