Advantages And Disadvantages Of Cosmopolitanism

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What is Cosmopolitanism? (Cosmopolitanism in Political Science, Meaning of Cosmopolitanism)

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Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution. Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle, taking up less vertical space, and they can therefore have the normal three positions. This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning — there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end. Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal, i.

Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position i. Top of page Straight Strokes A doubled plain straight stroke looks identical to two of the same stroke in succession see below , and so doubling is only used when there are other attachments to help with the legibility of the outline. Top of page rector director recruiter tractor stricter instructor propagator instigator allocator alligator electoral ejector projector objector banqueter nectar indicator protector protractor extractor adjudicator absconder speculator incinerator moderator twitter outwitter embroider illustrator bequeather persuader dissuader curator operator respirator macerator accelerator Top of page Curved Strokes Curved strokes are doubled for all the sounds.

Unlike straight strokes, no restriction is necessary because a double curved stroke does not resemble two of the same stroke in succession. As there is never a vowel after it, it never changes direction to indicate a following vowel, as the normal length Ell can sometimes do: penholder ventilator newsletter insulator insulter moneylender ringleader scolder helter-skelter, in this letter Note: alternative alteration alternator literal littoral lateral collateral poulterer Top of page Ing Doubling Ing adds -ker -ger The doubled stroke is exactly the same sound as the normal length hooked form, but is only used where the hooked form does not join easily or if it is the only stroke in the outline.

As the latter are less common, always vocalise them. As it is a short form, it is never vocalised, and it sits on the line. Top of page In Phrases Doubling can be used in phrases for "there their other dear". Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand, despite the fact that many variations of English do not pronounce it clearly or at all. Dot Hay — a dot written next to the following vowel, used when the other methods are not convenient or possible. In compound words and derivatives, the form that joins best is generally used.

Only used to represent the sound. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand. As many examples as possible have been given, so that you can base new outlines on existing known ones. Take care that "hydraulic" and "hydro-electric" are not read for each other. Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke, because only then is it obvious it is a Hay and not some other stroke.

The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray, and the last two are avoiding 3 straight strokes in succession which would be illegible: hortative heritage heritable horticulture heritor hierarchy Top of page Tick Hay Downward Hay is reduced to a tick i. It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it.

The form offered here, using two of stroke Ray, accords with the accented vowels that follow them — take your choice. Top of page Tick versus full Downward Hay If the H sound has an initial vowel before, or triphone after, use the full stroke. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone. Vocalisation should be considered, as in a phrase it is identical to Tick The. You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase: for whom, in her compare in the air Note the exact placement of first place vowels in regard to the tick — the vowel sign is placed at the extreme end of the stroke, necessary so that the vowel sign is not mistaken for a second place vowel.

This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H — if there were a vowel before the H, you would be using a full downward Hay stroke to place it against. Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke: ham haulm hem homestead hemstitch Top of page Dot Hay Use Dot Hay when the other forms cannot conveniently be written. It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised. The sign for a vowel that is sounded immediately before the H sound also remains with its own stroke, whether first second or third place vowel, because it cannot "jump" over the H, e.

If you omit the vowel sign, then also omit the Dot Hay. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless, but a vowel sign on its own is preferable, when hard-pressed, if you feel the outline needs it for clarity. The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke. Immediately before and beside a dash vowel, which will vary according to the direction of the stroke. To the left side of a diphthong. Blackheath loophole pinhole manorhouse This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e.

This hook is only used for inh- instr- inskr- The hook does not need vocalising, as the vowel is included in the meaning of the hook. The use of such an abrupt change of direction is always kept to an absolute minimum in the rules of Pitman's Shorthand. Whichever method is used to write the Hay, the final shape is always the same, i. In the first two, the letter R is not sounded at all, the vowel is the same as that in "wool". Not used if the word begins with a vowel. Never omitted unless it is replaced by the medial semicircle in a compound word or phrase.

A vowel on that side counts as coming after the Ar: wear era arrow Final "-ward" "-wort" "-wart" are often represented by halved Way in compound words. It represents the W sound plus the following vowel sound, and replaces that vowel sign — it is written in the same place against the stroke as the vowel sign would occupy. Never used initially or finally in an outline. May be omitted in fast writing in the same way as vowel signs are, as long as the outline remains readable and not ambiguous.

If in doubt, it is safer to write it in. This is the same direction as the short forms "with" "when" which are both dot vowels. This is the same direction as the short forms "what" "would" which are both dash vowels. Mnemonic: you begin writing this one in the same direction as you write a horizontal dash vowel i. The medial semicircle is occasionally called the "W diphthong" in some older books, reflecting the fact that it is made up of only vowels, even though sometimes it does the job of a consonant when it begins a syllable. As it requires some thought to decide when it is safe to use the medial semicircle instead of stroke Way, it is best to practice as many examples as possible, so that no hesitation occurs during dictation, hence the lengthy but not exhaustive list below.

The resultant outline must be unambiguous even when the semicircle is not written in. For the compound words, I have given the root word in the "compare" line. This allows the outline to reflect the words that the compound word is made from, making the outline more legible: memoir homework i. Shorthand instruction books describe the strokes Hway and Hwel as representing "WH" and "WHL" which is referring to longhand and not to the sounds.

It is better to associate the strokes with the sounds they represent, and treat the longhand spelling as a separate matter entirely. Even though many people do not pronounce the H, you should still learn the different forms because of their usefulness in providing distinguishing outlines and because the longhand still needs to be spelled correctly regardless of popular pronunciation. Outlines should be consistent and not change to reflect people's differing pronunciation. This is not an additional hook to give an additional sound. It is therefore best to learn the stroke as a whole without mentally taking it apart into its constituent sounds.

These two strokes are therefore not compound consonants. Never written downwards. These two hooks add their sound to the Ell in the same way that Circle S adds its consonant before a stroke i. The aim is to keep related words looking similar, and have distinctive outlines for words that may have the same consonant structure but a different spread of vowels or different derivation. Top of page Phrases and compound words Whichever form of W is used in the basic outline, this may change to one of the other methods when the word becomes part of a phrase or compound word. The main consideration is the ease of the join, producing a speedy and reliable outline, but the resultant outline must be easy to read back, even when vowels and unattached signs are omitted.

It is seldom necessary to insert any of the unattached semicircles when writing phrases, but they are shown in some of the examples, so that you know where the signs belong. Stroke Way replaced by medial semicircle. They also need to have a semicircle at all times, whether attached or unattached, because in phrases or compound words they could be read as "man" "men". The phrase "men and women" is common enough to remain unvocalised, but in other phrases vowels may be necessary to show whether these words are singular or plural. The verb "will" in phrases is represented by a plain upward Ell and the semicircle is not necessary — it is always very clear what is meant and to insert it would defeat the purpose of the phrase, which is to gain speed.

When "will" is used as a noun, it can take the semicircle, if felt necessary: will, I will, he will, that you will be, if he will have but goodwill freewill "Were" in phrases takes whatever form is easiest to write. Again, the meaning is always clear because the word groupings involved are so common, and medial semicircle or vowel signs need not be written: were, you were, they were "Well" in phrases does take a medial semicircle, but is easily omitted without losing clarity: well, very well, so well Rather than hesitate over semicircles during a dictation, you should use full strokes or write the two halves of the outline separately and then find out the correct outline later.

Even in longhand there is often a question over whether to write something as two words, a hyphenated word or one word. Writing a longer outline or two outlines is far preferable to hesitating and losing the next few words. Making an awkward join, when separate outlines would be more readable and reliable, is also a hindrance. However, joining or not joining can indicate different uses of the same two words, shown up by where the emphasis falls in the sentence underlined. In the second of each of the sentences below, joining the outlines would be inappropriate and make the shorthand awkward to read back: I saw the cat-walk. I saw the cat walk. This person is trustworthy. We can trust Worthy to do the job. We arrived last week.

His last weak excuse was not accepted. Short Form Why This sign is unlike any other. Prior to the Centenary version of Pitman's Shorthand in , this was the sign for the W or HW plus the "eye" sound, as in "wife" "Wight" "white", and also the short form "why" that we still use. It behaved like the W semicircle — sometimes joined initially to certain strokes, sometimes unattached medially. Longhand often uses the letter W to indicate a long vowel. To continue the direction of curve of the preceding or next stroke, or its hook or circle, i. Make a legible join with the next stroke in the outline. This may necessitate ignoring the rule of similar motion. With certain strokes, to differentiate between words that have an initial or final vowel and those that do not.

Vowel indication only occurs in cases where both directions of Ell are equally convenient. Some of the words naturally fall into pairs e. An initial downwards Ell cannot take an initial circle or loop. Note the placing of the vowel signs against the Ell: first place vowels are written at the beginning of the stroke, which with downwards Ell is at the top. In such cases it is behaving similarly to stroke Chay. This does not produce an ideal join to the Ell shallow angle, and both strokes going backwards but does allow similar motion between the En and Ell. Presumably the thickness of Jay helps readability despite the poor join compare with "unlatch" below. Ell used in phrases for "will" is normally upwards.

Special outlines London Londoner Londonderry but generally thus: Landon Linton After small Shun Hook, follow the motion — most of them have downward Ell: sensational positional conversational transitional compensational Top of page e These not only continue the motion, but also produce compact outlines with clear sharp joins film fulminate volume voluminous vellum Velma realm column columnar calumny Coleman calamity coulomb calamine columbine Colombo Columbus skulk skullcap but skulker onlooker to join the Ker helterskelter compare skelter scolder scalder — one might expect upwards Ell in the second part of "helterskelter" in order to retain the direction of the circle, but compactness is more important here.

For compactness: unwarlike mirrorlike lawyerlike Compare warlike warily rarely relic Top of page 2. Clear join with preceding or next stroke Downwards Ell does not always make a good join with the following stroke, or may produce an outline with too much backward movement, so in some cases the rule of similar motion cannot be used. With some of the words beginning "-un" this has the incidental advantage of retaining the outlines they are derived from: inlaid unlaid unled unload unladen unladylike unlatch unlearn unlovable unleavened unleash unlettered unlighted unlikelihood unlaboured unlabelled unsullied insulted unsling enslave unsaleable facile but facility fuselage fossilology footslog Note distinguishing outlines: unsold unsoiled unsold has the shorter outline as it is the most frequent word; outlines with diphthongs very often keep the strokes in full Hook L is used in a few instances even though vowels may intervene where it produces a brief and distinctive outline that cannot clash with anything else more such outlines on Theory 7 Hooks R L page : analytic enliven molecule Top of page 3.

Vowel indication For initial and final Ell, and only with certain strokes, different in each case. Vowel indication never occurs medially — medial Ell is chosen only for convenience and to a lesser degree to show derivatives. Downward Ell standing alone never takes a hook, as this would look like stroke Wel. Normal upwards Ell is used, which also achieves similar motion: scrawl scrawly scroll scrolly secretly The rule for final vowel indication is stretched to include these: actual actually structural structurally artistical artistically fantastical fantastically statistical statistically logistical logistically egotistical egotistically These follow similar motion, but do not vary for final vowel indication: intellectual intellectually conjectural conjecturally electoral Note: electorial When a suffix is adding another L sound to a word that already ends in L, the outline repeats the Ell, to reflect the lengthened pronunciation.

Only an extra final dot is needed: weasel weaselly tinsel tinselly It is always helpful to insert the final vowel sign if the outline itself does not show whether there is a final vowel or not. A small number of words with halved strokes take a downward Ell to achieve similar motion with the preceding curve, hook or circle. Such words generally do not come in pairs like "full fully" and so similar motion is the only issue: completely boldly bloodless softly swiftly exactly adequately worldly Compare proudly broadly sprightly strictly contritely where the normal upward Ell achieves similar motion as a matter of course. Note also short form coldly. Top of page Derivatives Some derivative outlines may change the direction of the stroke Ell.

In those cases the Ell is repeated. This section on negatives points up the necessity for shorthand writers to have a good grasp of how English words are formed and their meanings. These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page. This is the same liberty that is being taken when the first place "I" diphthong is joined to the end of the stroke e. The short form includes the L sound, so no stroke Ell is required: almost always all-wise all-round all-rounder almighty already although altogether all-important all-in Top of page Downstroke Ler Downward Ell is thickened to add the unaccented sound of "-er".

It is it is only used where a downward Ell would normally be used, i. No vowel sign is required for the unaccented vowel within it. The stroke Ld is always written downwards. No vowel comes between the L and D sounds, and no vowel comes after it. Ray joins better in most combinations. It is faster to write than Ar and, because there are more downstrokes than upstrokes in Pitman's Shorthand, using Ray keeps a large number of outlines from descending too far. If the vowel calls for Ar, it is used where it joins well, mainly before horizontal or upstrokes: barely bearskin Brierley terseness tiresome tireless sparsely scarcely securely doorman determine similarly requirement diurnal angular binocular Ar is sometimes used before a right clockwise curve to gain a more flowing outline, despite a vowel following it: quarrel squirrel flourish aneurism neural neuralgia but neurotic neurosis Top of page 3.

A non-standard suggested contraction could be to disjoin or intersect stroke En with "surmountable" and write in 3rd position. Before Kay Gay vowel indication is often possible: fork ferric forego farrago cork Carrick cargo Garrick clerk cleric lark lyric Sark cirque sarcasm circus circuit stark Syriac Syracuse sirocco stearic resurrect insurrection Top of page 5. Keeping them in your vocabulary notebook whenever they are encountered is helpful, so they can be practised further.

After 2 downstrokes use Ray to keep the outline from descending too far: prepare despair disappear aspire stapler taxpayer ratepayer horse-power proposer trespasser Shakespeare occasionally Shakespere babbler troubler butler splutterer totterer chatterer hairdresser discoverer ditherer tax-gatherer treasurer bookstore downstairs upstairs endorser brigadier bugbear blusterer pesterer plasterer Note: fosterer to avoid awkward join After Eff and Vee, Ar gives a more facile outline, which outweighs having 3 downstrokes: pacifier testifier defier decipherer justifier exemplifier baffler trifler muffler shuffler shoveller Top of page 2.

The resulting join between Ray and Ar is not ideal, so care is needed to write accurately: rarer roarer hurrier hairier abhorrer adherer but horror horary Note the following where the hook or circle shows the junction: harasser rehearse rehearser resorter referrer reverter heronry hero-worship The above outlines need not invade the line above, because they are written at a shallow angle. Invading the line above is not critical, because that line is already written; descending too far is more to be avoided because you will have to jump over the lower part of that outline when writing on the next line. Top of page 7. This is in contrast to single syllable derivatives, which generally change their form as necessary e.

Pairs of such outlines need to be distinctive as most of the time they will be unvocalised. This is achieved by changing the R stroke if possible, or adding an additional R stroke. This method is only concerned with producing pairs of different outlines and avoiding bad joins, not with showing the meaning of the prefix or any attempt to reflect the two R's in the longhand: 1. Change Ray to Ar, this accords with normal vowel indication: relevant irrelevant replaceable irreplaceable retrievable irretrievable religious irreligious 2.

If the Ray cannot be changed because a bad join would result, then add Ar to the beginning. No vowel sign comes between the two R strokes: radiate irradiate reclaimable irreclaimable redeemable irredeemable reducible irreducible rational irrational 3. If unsure about an "irr-" word during dictation, add the extra initial Ar anyway, whether it is correct or not — it will be perfectly legible. Avoiding hesitation during dictation is the highest priority, but the outline should be looked up and drilled at the first opportunity, so that you are always using the shortest outline available.

R not shown Suffixes -ward -wort -wart -yard. These are unvocalised when used as suffixes. See Theory 10 Halving page for description and examples. Only the hooked form can be halved. When no vowel follows, the P is hardly sounded. It is therefore omitted and a halved Em is used to represent the M P T sound. This reflects the pronunciation and produces a shorter outline. Do not be misled by the final "-ed" in the longhand spelling, the pronunciation is always the T sound. The compound sound MBD i. With such words you could use stroke Imp if you wanted, but your outline would not match the theory book or the dictionary. You cannot however use a thickened halved Em, because that is not available, being already used to represent plain MD.

What people say when they are speaking carefully may be entirely different from their pronunciation in actual fast usage. Top of page 2. A lone stroke, thickened, halved and with shun hook is too indistinct to be reliable. The two strokes shown above represent identical sounds, and which to use depends on the convenience of the join. If the word is derived from one that uses a hook i. Top of page Finally 1. The reason for this is not explained, but I am assuming it is to provide an extra differentiation between the two strokes. A non-theory suggestion would be to write "fiendish" with the Ish through the line. Compare with "misshape" above.

If all the curves went the same way, the outline would be difficult to read and become illegible when written at speed. Top of page Words of non-English origin Words of French origin often pronounce their longhand "ch" with the Ish sound, although the rest of the word generally accords with English pronunciation. If you used Ish you would then have to change the past tenses to much longer outlines with full stroke Dee. SK: schema scholar schizophrenia schizanthus scherzo schism ischiatic eschatology scholium schooner Pasch paschal CH: escheat eschew kitsch klatsch 1. The dot represents the whole of the syllable — do not write an extra stroke M or N just because the longhand has two of that letter. The con dot is not omitted in the way that vowel dots are omitted at will.

With some stroke combinations chiefly after Pee Bee Tee Dee it may be possible to also indicate the vowel of the second part by writing that in position as well, but not at the expense of keeping the two close together. Disjoining: writing the parts of an outline near to each other because a they cannot be joined satisfactorily, or b detaching a portion of the outline to signify another suffix, e. Its name reflects the fact that the parts would be joined if they could, or were joined to start with. When using proximity, the outlines take their position from the first vowel of the word, as normal.

In the following, the initial prefix is the first up or downstroke, so that is the one that takes its rightful position in regard to the line. The second half of the outline can also be in position according to its vowel, but only if a convenient outline results: decompose decompression decontaminate discontinue discomfort disconnect disconcerting ill-concealed ill-conceived ill-considered malcontent overconfident overcompensate preconceive preconception precondition recompense recommend recommendation reconcile reconnoitre recondite recombine recondition reconsider reconstruct recommit reconnect recommence subconscious subcommittee subcontract subcontinent well-conducted well-constructed well-connected well-concealed Top of page In the following, the initial prefix is a horizontal stroke.

The first up or downstroke comes somewhere after the con-, so that is the stroke that is written in position in regard to the line. Unlike the "medial con" words listed above, the con- word in such phrases must retain its correct position in regard to the ruled line. Sometimes the con- word cannot be placed clearly in the combination and is better written with the con dot: Clear combination: should commend, and command, on the committee, beyond the control Needs dot: should command, and commend, on the connection, beyond control, would complete When a vowel-sign short forms is part of a phrase, then proximity can be used because the con- word is being written near a stroke rather than just a floating dot or dash: for the conditions, in the committee, for all consumers, if you would consider Compare: The conditions The committee All consumers would consider If you decide to leave a larger-than-usual space between outlines in order to signify your future punctuation in the transcript, then clearly proximity is not possible.

It would not be appropriate anyway because it should only be used for words that run on easily as per normal phrasing rules and not where there is a natural gap or pause. As shorthand speed is helped by having reasonably compact notes rather than sprawling ones, it is important that only the clearest proximity phrases are used. When in doubt, retain the dot for the con- word rather than risk a hesitation or unclear notes. Alternatives are given here because the shorthand dictionary does not reflect current pronunciation. The prefix is joined only for "accommodation" and "accomplish" as those outlines are distinctive enough not to be mistaken for other words.

As they are both nouns, adding Circle S to the short form would be ambiguous. Top of page "Magnetism" etc in compound words: the contraction should not be joined, as that would not be clear. If the Em can be joined to the stroke before it, then use it for the "magne-" prefix. Writing in full as shown is preferable to using the contraction, in order to avoid ambiguities about the endings, see asterisked note on "magnetics" above.

If the magn- ends with any vowel other than the short ones shown above, it is written using full strokes, and these are not prefixes anyway: magnum magnate magnolia magnesium magnesian magnesia magnesic An exception to the above rule is "magneto". The "magnet" words are derived from Magnesia, a region in Greece where magnetic rocks were first discovered in ancient history. Top of page 4. As the outlines need to remain unvocalised for speed purposes and their position may not always be clearly written, repeating or changing the stroke is the most reliable way to ensure the difference is always obvious.

Top of page c irr- Change Ray to Ar, as you would normally do when a vowel precedes the R sound: relevant irrelevant If that is not possible or convenient, add an Ar before the Ray. Note that the first vowel is written before the Ar, and the following vowel is written after the Ray: radiate irradiate If the outline already uses Ar, then add another Ar to the beginning. Top of page 6. INTER- INTRO a Inter always uses doubled Em and can be vocalised, as per normal doubling rules: interpret interplay interfere interferometer interpolate interview intervene interval interchangeable interweave intertwine compare intwine entwine intercept intersect intercede intercessor interlace interlock interlink interlingual interlining interlunar interlinear Note: lunar linear international interzonal interbreed intersperse intercity interact interdependence interrelationship These do not repeat the R in the next syllable: interregnum interrogate interrupt Disjoin a following M lack of angle between strokes of different lengths or upward L to avoid an awkward join : intermittent intermarry intermix intermediate intermediary intermingle intermural intermezzo interleave interloper interlude intercommunicate intercom Note: interim has separate strokes, as the central vowel is somewhat slurred, and the alternative would be disjoining.

It therefore counts as a special unvocalised prefix, like magna-. As vowels are normally omitted, more distinction is needed. The latter may be faster as there are no pen lifts to slow down. Using doubling for both inter and intro relies on the fact that, apart from the two pairs above, they are mutually exclusive, thus avoiding clashes. With normal words, the outline is written in 2nd position, to accord with the vowel in "self", but short forms and contractions retain their original position. The self circle is never omitted. Not used medially or finally for the word "self".

Most of the time you will not be vocalising outlines and can place the circle right next to the stroke: self-opinionated self-employed self-sown If you have already completed the outline, and then decide you need to go back and insert the 2nd place vowel, placing it outside the self circle will still be readable, even though it is not the perfect textbook version. Top of page b Self-con Write circle at the head of the stroke, to replace the con dot. Correction of the speaker's word-formation may not be appropriate in some circumstances. The Circle S at the end of some of the short forms above is only expressing the S sound, and is not being used as a joined "self circle".

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This module begins by setting out two approaches to human behavior: the individualist, economic view,and the sociological, relational view. These two approaches provide two different understandings of how institutions structure social behavior. The remainder of the module considers different institutions in democracy within these different motivational perspectives. Human rights are inherently political. This module turns away from philosophical and legal approaches to focus on political and other social science perspectives on human rights. It focuses on the messy institutional politics of the international human rights regime, on the wide range of actors that engage with human rights at the international and national level and examines the gap between human rights law on the books and rights in practice.

How is foreign policy made, and who makes it? This course examines the theory, history, and practice of foreign policy through a comparative lens. We will investigate the process by which foreign policy goals are established and policy tools are designed to help meet these goals. Much of our attention will focus on identifying the factors that influence the foreign policy making process across various institutional structures, and the models used in the academic literature to capture this process both theoretically and empirically. The module provides an overview of key topics, both theoretical and policy-related, in politics and gender. In weeks one and two, the history of feminism and main feminist, gender and queer theories including those on intersectionality, masculinity, sexuality, and the body are explored.

International organisations have become an increasingly common feature of the global political landscape. Institutions shape interstate politics in a wide variety of areas, ranging from trade and investment to the environment and human rights. The purpose of this module is to introduce students the various roles institutions play in contemporary politics. This module will examine a variety of alternative theoretical explanations for how civil conflicts begin. The module begins with an overview of the disciplines knowledge about the determinants of civil conflict. This course examines three key aspects of contemporary international ethics, and their interconnections. The first part is devoted to an analysis and discussion of the main theories of global distributive justice: cosmopolitanism, statism and nationalism.

The second focuses on the pressure that these theories put on the notion of citizenship. This course focuses on why and how conflicts do not end, and the political, economic, social and psychological challenges facing post-war societies. The course begins by discussing the obstacles inherent in the war-to-peace transition and the relationship between post-conflict development, social reconciliation, state-building, and peace. This course provides an introduction to statistical methods used for causal inference in the social sciences. We will be concerned with understanding how and when it is possible to make causal claims in empirical research.

In particular, we will focus on understanding which assumptions are necessary for giving research a causal interpretation, and on learning a range of approaches that can be used to establish causality empirically. This module explores issues of war, peace, and human rights from the perspective of international law. In particular, we will examine the law on the use of force the jus ad bellum , international humanitarian law the jus in bello , international human rights law, and international criminal law. The capstone project is an opportunity to bring together academic analysis with applied policy work.

There is no fixed format for a capstone. Projects range from working in a consultant capacity for a client organization to independent work orientated to a practical purpose, for example writing a business plan establishing a non-profit organization. Your dissertation is a piece of original and supervised research on a topic relating to some aspect of your field of study. How much should a company pay its employees? How has the airline industry developed over time? Do big international companies pay their fair share in taxes?

How are successful start-ups formed? What is the real impact of a strike on a business? The ethical problems surrounding a business outsourcing their work. Are the government incentivising start-ups enough? Has the music industry been hurt by the rise of the internet? How and why do business adapt their marketing strategies? How can companies tackle the issue of climate change? Evaluating the case for a single global currency How apple became the tech giant it is today The value of apprenticeships for employers and employees How does a business change when transitioning from private to public?

Why is amazon protected from current monopoly laws? How can oligopolies result in market collusion? How to make an effective logo for your business. Self-driving cars raise a variety of ethical issues, and this is a really interesting issue that is currently relevant, and would therefore be very interesting to discuss in an EPQ. This is because situations arise where drivers are required to make choices about who to protect in terms of traffic accidents. For example, should self-driving cars prioritise their passengers or pedestrians? These issues require great consideration, and from an ethical standpoint, they can be discussed in a broad way. This is great for an EPQ, and you may choose to make your discussion more specific i.

This is an enormous area of debate, which has many different viewpoints, which are influenced by a number of different factors. This idea can give you the chance to voice your own view, and reflect on how different elements have shaped your opinion on the topic. You can consider a variety of different viewpoints, as well as the things that influence them, perhaps making use of recent news articles. The things that you may think about which have an impact on views on this issue could include:.

It is an ambiguous concept which can be defined in various ways, and has lots of potential influences. But what what is it? And what makes a persons moral compass good or bad? You may want to consider how the idea of a moral compass has changed over time, and what this means for peoples behaviour. A good place to start could be here — this book should give you an overview of the history of morals. The death penalty has been a seemingly common punishment for crime in the past, but should its use have been removed?

This idea is a great way to bring together a love for history as well as an interest in History. You could start your research by finding out more about the death penalty — this book may be useful for that. You could discuss:. Euthanasia is something which has been a controversial issue in the UK for a very long time. Should people have the choice to die? This is something that is a great ethical dilemma for a variety of reasons. You may want to consider discussing:. Animal rights and whether animal farming is ethical is a hugely controversial, and easily debatable subject at the moment.

There are many resources out there from animal rights organisations about the brutality and potential lack of morality surrounding animal farming. This book may also be a good starting point for a discussion-based project on the topic of the ethics of animal farming. This could make for a great EPQ, and your interpretation of evidence and conclusion would be really valuable. Religion and its role in society is a really interesting topic to consider. There are already publications around this subject, such as this book which I would recommend to start your consideration of this subject. However, it is important that you approach this subject in a very analytical and evaluative way, as much of the literature in this area is likely to have a bias — identifying these limitations in your EPQ is also certainly a skill which you want to showcase!

Religion and upbringing is also another really interesting relationship to explore. Religious beliefs tend to run in families — but should this be the case? There are a variety of different ways that you could approach this question, though you may want to consider the following ideas in order to come to a judgement:. The population has been growing and growing over the years, and is continuing to do so. The world population is expected to reach 9. But what does this mean for us now? Are there actions which we should take to prevent a huge spike in the number of people in the global population? For your EPQ, you may want to consider:.

However, the increasing use of machines in workplaces and other areas raises the question of where the money which has been essentially generated by machines should end up? Surely it is not ethical to simply give all of the money earned to big tech companies, and the companies who use their machines? Is there a way to distribute the wealth produced in a fair way which would be beneficial to society? How can the government stop criminals benefiting from natural disasters? Should all animal testing be banned? Does the government need to stop the production of plastic? Are psychological research methods ethical? Should prenatal scans be allowed?

Is the way we farm animals moral? Is the population on its way to becoming vegan? How is fast fashion affecting the climate? Why does overfishing still occur? Should we only be allowed to buy fruit and vegetables that are in season? Is the tax system in the UK ethical? Should the promise of patient confidentiality be trusted? What are the different ways to consent? Should women who incorrectly accuse men of rape be severely prosecuted? Is it morally right to kill an embryo?

Charities and how they are not always ethical. Why has lying become so common? Why does torture still occur in the world? The ethics surrounding war. Why is slavery still going on? Forced marriages and their impact on young women. Is the idea of capitalism unethical? Why does fraud occur so often? Are people born racist or do they become racist? How can we accept the LGBT community? Is privacy online important?

Should we give AI the right to kill? Should we create synthetic lifeforms? Is it right to colonise other planets? At what point do we start population control? Is science destroying the planet? The issues involved with organ transplants. Should everyone receive free healthcare? Should social media be banned? Why are care homes run so poorly? The impact of mental disorders on younger generations. Are IVF treatments ethical? What are the ethical implications involved with neuroscience? The ethical issues surrounding hormone therapy.

Should we screen for genetic diseases in all cases? Is it ethical to invest money in space exploration considering the state of our planet? Do care homes provide adequate care to dementia patients? Are homeless people to blame for their situation? Should everyone receive a universal income for absolute necessities? Is the use of corporate jargon ethical? How many immigrants should wealthy countries accept? Should immigrants have a right to claim benefits within the UK?

What is the ethical minimum wage? The ethics surrounding employees stealing company time. Is it unethical for countries to possess nuclear weapons? How can we be sure to eradicate AI bias? Is it right for humans to ever control AI? Do we have the right to terraform other planets? Should we introduce non-human DNA into our genome? Should people be forced to die if ageing is ever cured? At what point does an embryo or foetus become a human life? Do embryos have rights?

Can only humans have rights? If you have an interest in languages, you may have found that when you listen to other people speaking in a language which is not your native language seem to be speaking very fast! Perhaps you have wondered if this is something which is universal for everyone learning second languages, or whether it is just that certain languages are spoken more quickly than others. You can look at some research to answer this question, and this piece of research may be a good place to get you started. This is a great idea for an EPQ, as it will be research based but also gives the opportunity for discussion. The perception of the hardest language to learn is something which is very subjective and dependent on a number of different factors.

You could consider this in terms of these factors. For example, you may want to narrow down your project by looking at:. This is a really interesting area to research. The idea that children learn languages quicker is widely accepted, but is this true for every language? Which languages are easier for children to learn overall? These are all important factors to consider, and could lead to a more knowledgeable approach to teaching children second languages.

There is a generally widely-accepted view that children can learn languages more easily than adults. But to what extent is this true? There is a wide range of research done in this area, and it can lead to some interesting discussions about:. This is an area where if you were interested , you could put forward evidence-based views around the applications of the idea that languages are more easily learned by children. This is another issue related to language and children. If so:. The use and teaching of language in schools is another real debate topic, and gives you the chance to show off your debating skills and ability to interpret evidence to form an opinion.

These are great skills to showcase for your EPQ. Latin is a classic language, which is not seen in modern society. However, it is still relevant. You may want to discuss a range of topics in an EPQ on this subject area. For example, you could consider:. French is widely recognised or considered as an incredibly romantic language. But was has led to this belief? Is it the way that the language sounds?

Is it the culture found in France? Is it the landscape or the buildings i. If you are interested in language, doing a project about the preconceptions about a language such as French is a great way to go with your EPQ. The interaction between languages, and the influences that they have on each other is something that will give you the chance to look at a variety of different elements which would be very interesting to discuss in your project. You could research the relationship between any 2 languages, and the things that you may want to consider include:. The domination of English as a language across the world is something that is incredibly interesting, especially as the number of English speakers is actually a lot lower than you would perhaps expect.

You may want to consider:. Google Translate is notorious for not working properly, and this is something that every language teacher warns their students to be wary of. But why does Google Translate not work? There are so many different elements which go into speaking a language effectively, and these are things that you would be able to discuss in your essay. One of the great things about this subject is that you can apply it to any language, and therefore it can be relevant to both your A-Levels and perhaps even the degree which you would like to do. What is the best way to learn a second language?

Should all parents aim to teach their children another language? How useful is mandarin within the business world? What are the psychological barriers to learning a new language? Does listening to foreign music and films help with pronunciation? How does language learning differ in other countries? What are the benefits of being bilingual? What language was Jesus believed to speak and is at all similar to modern-day language? How helpful are language learning apps in becoming fluent in another language? Should language teachers take on a more practical approach?

How have different dialects of the same language evolved? What are the most similar languages to one another? Is there a certain pattern for learning a language? Does the way you learn a language effect your pronunciation? Why does the German language seem aggressive and was it always that way? Do teachers only teach ways to pass the exam and not learn languages in detail? Are language examinations fair? To what extent does it take intelligence or a good memory to learn a foreign language? How has language learning changed throughout history? Is it important to understand the culture of a language? How accents can affect understanding dramatically. How is motivation built to learn a second language? How can you forget a language you were once fluent in?

Why is it so common to get anxiety when learning a new language? What is the most common language found in music? How difficult is it to learn sign language for a deaf person? What are the origins of the English language? The complications surrounding the Arabic language. How do dyslexic people manage language learning? Why do people still learn and use Latin, what is its value in modern society?

Are programming languages considered just as hard to learn as verbal languages? What is the best age to learn a new language? Is it easier to learn a third language once you have already learnt two? How difficult is language reading compared to speaking and listening? How does grammar change with different languages? The importance of cross-language communication. Does language learning help bridge the intellectual inequality gap? How do people pick up accents? Why does the English language not have clear masculine and feminine classifications? How do certain words evolve into insulting words over time? How different are alphabets between languages? What is the official process followed when adding words to a language? What is the field of Mathematics dominated by the Greek language?

What was the first verbal language humans spoke? Why has Latin become somewhat obsolete? The origins of the Arabic language. How strict are punctuation rules across different languages? Which foreign language has the most dialects and why? How has human language evolved over time? Which world language conveys more information per word? Which type of language conveys more information: verbal or body? Why can some words not be translated between languages?

The origins of the Japanese language How English is used in the Japanese media Is it fair to say that china only has only a single language? How have foreign immigrants integrated into Japanese society since WW2? Is Japanese an isolated language or part of a broader language family? Is how people use body language universal across the world? What effect does breathing rate have on the brain? To what extent will future development of genome sequencing and synthetic life impact the field of biology?

The radical impact DNA alterations can have on an organism. What is the relationship between cell theory and the theory of evolution? How has evolutionary biology contributed to the different fields of science? Are hypotheses the most effective way to design an experiment upon? What are the potential benefits and problems with using algae as biofuel? How does chemotherapy affect cellular reactions? To what extent can gene technology aid the treatment of leukaemia? Advancements in biomedical and genetic engineering.

How does deforestation affect ecosystems? How do ecosystems maintain their sustainability independently? What is the role of an ecosystem in regulating climate? How does the human body produce energy? How do animals play a part in spreading diseases? To what extent does evidence suggest that genetically modified foods have a negative impact on humans? Are we at risk of losing mass amounts of biodiversity across the globe? How important are insects within particular food chains? The effects of fracking on wildlife. What causes a drought to occur, and what damage do they inflict?

What might happen when a higher proportion of wildlife become extinct? How does brain activity change before, during and after a stroke? How do humans and animals detect and avoid bacteria? Is it possible for the process of evolution to be sped up? What is considered the main building blocks of life, and can they be replicated? How, when and why did we domesticate particular animals? How have we developed antibiotic resistance, and will the trend continue? How can some lethal toxins go unnoticed? What effect do acidic foods and drinks have on the body?

Is it possible to regulate hormones effectively within humans? The preservation of ancient mammals. Why do sea turtles live for so long? The ways in which pathogens spread. How and why do genetic mutations occur? The development of different virus strains over time. In what ways do plants waste energy, and how can they reduce it? When can one virus be considered a treatment for another virus?

How to increase crop yield rate through biological research. How did natural camouflage evolve in certain animals? Why do humans not have fur? Is homosexuality a uniquely human characteristic? Why and how the global otter population declined. To what extent have alternative treatments been created for antibiotics? The problems surrounding the treatment of Eczema. What characteristics of Anthrax appeal to particular terrorist organisations? Where do humans belong within the food chain? The importance of preserving biodiversity within certain geographic areas.

How do vaccinations work? How does hair grow on humans and animals? The ethical issues surrounding therapeutic cloning Why are there so many missing pieces of evidence for evolution? What is the evidence for evolution and what evidence is missing? The complications surrounding how DNA evolved How did humans become the dominant species on the planet? Is it only humans that have consciousness? How does the Ebola virus attack the body? At what point in a pregnancy should abortion be considered a murder?

Does homosexuality between non-human animals exist? What is the effect of pollution on humans and animals? How does meningitis overcome the immune system? How did antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria come into existence? The biological issues relating to incest How do plants become infected by diseases? Could humanity ever achieve biological immortality? How accurate is human memory? Why are humans smarter than other animals? Is homosexuality a choice or is it genetic?

Did the Black Death change England forever? What has been learned from the events of the holocaust? The importance of education in each era and why it changes. What were the changing influences of propaganda during both world wars? When was the turning point of the English empire? How did Hitler gain such a massive following? How have wars have changed throughout the centuries and will the next war be the last? What was learnt during the race to the moon?

How do we ensure that disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima never happen again? Pandemics throughout history and their effects. Why did it take so long to fix the smog in London? How and when was the London underground constructed? Do we do enough to remember the world wars? The vandalism of our historic monuments. How do we document historic information? How has art been used to preserve history? The development of Scotland throughout history. When did we first realise the impact of our activities on the planet? The long-lasting impact the great fire had on London.

Why did it take so long for doctors to understand the importance of handwashing? The impact Auschwitz had on its 1. Are serial killers born or made? The vital role codebreakers played in the war. The horrors of slavery and how they are remembered in Britain. How do we know what happened before official historical records began? The fall of the roman empire. How did the industrial revolution change Britain? How has history proved that a democracy is better than a dictatorship?

Is the history curriculum that is taught in schools detailed enough? The history of music and the part it plays in society. How executions changed throughout history. The influence of the treaty of Versailles on modern times. How have monarchies changed since they were introduced? How has theatre become Netflix? How can we know that the stories of the bible have not been lost in translation? What caused the population boom after ? How has the way humans travel changed over time? The history behind the hostility towards Israel in the Middle East. What were the events that led to the South China Sea ownership dispute?

How far back can we accurately recall history? The events leading up to the abolishment of slavery. How the economies of Europe were affected by World War 1. Did Winston Churchill always make the right decisions? How has commercialisation changed the sporting industry throughout history? Was the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki justified? What led to the fall of the British empire? Were the crusades justified? Why did Britain delay the declaration of war with Germany WW2? What were the events that led up to world war 1? How did the invention of guns change warfare? Were conscientious objectors treated fairly during WW1? How did the British empire become so large? How did India change when under rule by the British empire?

Why was India so valuable to the British empire? Is history really only written by the victors? Is it wrong for a country to focus more on teaching their own history than other history?

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