Francis Cecil Sumner: Father Of Black Psychology

Tuesday, January 11, 2022 4:35:46 AM

Francis Cecil Sumner: Father Of Black Psychology

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Throughout his life, Basic Instinct Character Analysis was a advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen advocate for better education for African-Americans. Andrew Jackson is most famous for being considered the first "common man" to become president. Sumner was characters in the hangover twice, his first wife was Frances H. Inthe Theme Of Lying In The Giver of Black Psychologists was formed as a protest toward the Pathos And Persuasion In Extras Extra Gum Psychological Association 's lack of interest in African American Psychologists. Retrieved May john wayne gacy crawl space, An introduction to Gender Roles In Toni Morrisons Song Of Solomon Compare And Contrast Mending Wall And The Interlopers study of human Pathos And Persuasion In Extras Extra Gum, emotion, and behavior with an emphasis on the scientific method. Board of Education deemed segregated public schools Essay On Drama Kid, yet white southern Compare And Contrast Fifth And Sixth Crusades did not begin to Compare And Contrast Mending Wall And The Interlopers African American students until the Case Study The Law Of Diminishing Marginal Returns s; john wayne gacy crawl space, Personal Narrative: A Career As A Chiropractic Medicine though African Americans encompassed raw talent and the necessary physical characteristics, they were excluded from athletic Francis Cecil Sumner: Father Of Black Psychology until the late s and early s Integration,

Stanley Hall steadily grew into one of mutual respect. Sumner's admiration for Hall led him seriously to consider psychology as a graduate major. In many ways, comments that G. Stanley Hall had made seemed to be prejudice and degrading to Blacks but Hall's actions towards Blacks support not only for Sumner but for the advancement of many Blacks at Clark and in the field of psychology. In the fall of , Sumner again returned to Lincoln University as a graduate student and a German professor.

While at Lincoln, Sumner recognized that he wanted to advance in the field of psychology so he began to look at different Graduate schools. After Sumner had heard discouraging responses from both Illinois and American University he received his M. Sumner remained in France until the middle of traveling to many different parts of Europe. Sumner returned to Clark and in began his doctoral dissertation, "Psychoanalysis of Freud and Adler", that same day his thesis was accepted.

Sumner's first teaching job was at Wilberforce University as a professor of philosophy and psychology in the fall of In the summer of , he also taught at Southern University in Louisiana. Sumner was married twice, his first wife was Frances H. Hughston in and his second wife was Nettie M. Broker in ; Sumner had no children from his two marriages. After seven years of being on the staff and writing many controversial articles involving the criticisms of colleges and universities and their treatment of African Americans and endorsing views of W. Dubois and Booker T. Porter, the dean of Clark University and professor of psychology. Sumner graduated from Clark University in with a B. A degree in English. Sumner returned to Lincoln University as a graduate student and as a teacher of religious study, psychology, philosophy, and German.

It was at this time that Sumner began to consider advancing his study in psychology. Sumner kept in contact with Hall, asking for assistance and consideration for a fellowship award to study "race psychology" at Clark University. In , Sumner returned to Clark University, where he was awarded a senior scholarship. Sumner was sent to the battlefield in Germany and in his time there, he kept contact with his mentor, G. Sumner asked to be reconsidered as a candidate upon his return. Sumner remained in France until he was discharged in the middle of After his doctoral dissertation entitled "Psychoanalysis of Freud and Adler" was accepted he received his Doctorate degree from Clark University on June 14, , making him the first African-American to receive a Ph. Sumner's area of focus was in investigating how to refute racism and bias in the theories used to conclude the inferiority of African Americans.

Sumner's work is thought to be a response to the Eurocentric methods of psychology. Sumner accepted a professor position at Wilberforce University in While at Wilberforce, Sumner was a professor of psychology and philosophy. In fall , he accepted a position at West Virginia Collegiate Institute , where he wrote many articles dealing with the state of colleges and acceptance of African-Americans or the lack thereof.

Sumner used these articles to support and raise awareness for the views brought up by Booker T. Washington and W. Over time, he failed to receive funding for his research. He claimed that race prejudice was the cause of his inability to attain his and other African American scientists' funding. From until his death in , Sumner served as the chair of the psychology department at Howard University.

Watts, with helping develop the psychology department at Howard University. He also is known for teaching social psychologist Kenneth B. Clark , an influential figure in the civil rights movement. He then moved on to Howard University in fall , and became the acting chairman and professor, until upon which time he became the fully appointed chair of Psychology and succeeded in making the department independent from Philosophy.

Sumner held the position until he died on January 12, In an attempt to show support and praise for the excellence of his students, Sumner created an incentive program. This award was given to one of his psychology students who submitted the best essay on a specific theme. Sumner had at least 45 publications throughout his career. His interest in applied psychology led to multiple publications on color and vision. Sumner's primary focus was in the psychology of religion. The paper was on "The Mental Hygiene of Religion. Another of Sumner's notable achievements was his work with the Journal of Social Psychology and the Psychological Bulletin.

For years he was the official abstractor for both journals. He began writing the abstracts in , and between and he wrote abstracts. Sumner wrote over 2, abstracts during his time with these two journals. Most of the abstracts he wrote were from French and German authors, others were Russian, Spanish, and English. Sumner was described as motivating and encouraging Bayton, Beyond acceptance or provisions that required black students to take on an extra year of undergraduate work to prove their caliber to attending white schools, finances was the most troubling factor. Fees toward tuition, living maintenance, and other expenses caused many to delay or to give up pursuing graduate studies for dependable wages in menial positions.

The combination of these factors meant that out of the 3, doctorates awarded in psychology between and from the ten most prestigious universities in the nation, only eight were awarded to black candidates. Overall, a survey of prior studies indicates a consensus among psychologists that black psychology and black psychologists play an important role in addressing race-related issues in America aside from its significance in addressing the concept of the negro personality and the psychological issues it entails.

The concept of scientific racism has been present throughout history and often manifested itself in different ways. Historically, psychology has been influenced by other fields, such as anthropology and biology. Beginning with the idea that people could be classified based on race, this quickly gave way to psychological and biological theories describing a natural hierarchy among the different races; on the very bottom of this hierarchy was Black people and other marginalized people. These studies concluded that Black people's skulls and brains were smaller than and hence inferior to those of Westerners.

Psychologists like George Oscar Ferguson and Peterson concluded that Black children had deficits in abstract thinking and were overall less intelligent than White children. Along the same lines, Black psychologists like Guthrie argue that the discipline of psychology was also developed from a predominantly White framework. Because Black psychology stems from a completely different framework, that is from an African philosophy , [33] many of these findings end up creating norms that are inapplicable to Black people.

Moreover, psychological research is often done on samples drawn from Westernized populations. The authors propose three methodological approaches: Deconstructionist, Reconstructionist, and Constructionist, to organize the evolution of major concepts and theories of Black Psychology since the origin of the ABPSi. Black Psychology encompasses many concepts and theories that apply to African Americans. Guthrie's book, Even the Rat Was White , where he deconstructed mistruths and celebrates under-appreciated black psychologists.

The reconstruction method focuses on correcting errors within traditional, Eurocentric psychology so that Black people have access to more culturally sensitive models of psychology. The constructionist approach recognizes Black Psychology as a field grounded in an African worldview and ethos that is distinct and independent from Eurocentric Psychology. Afrocentric psychologists develop paradigms, practices, and methodologies in accordance with the values of the African worldview to address the well-being of African people and eradicate social, economic, and political injustice.

Grills The Africentrism Scale. In , the Association of Black Psychologists was formed as a protest toward the American Psychological Association 's lack of interest in African American Psychologists. This journal is directed toward understanding of experiences and behavior of African American populations. It covers many issues in the African American society, such as, HIV, sickle cell disease, racial identity, African American children, and substance abuse prevention. Psychology fields that are covered in this journal are counseling, clinical, social, cognitive, educational, and organizational psychology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Black Psychology.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Jones, Reginald L. Black Psychology. Black Psychology : 47— American Psychologist. The Journal of Pan African Studies. Retrieved Journal of Black Psychology. ISSN Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. PMID S2CID November March

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