Queen Margaret Of Anjou

Tuesday, February 8, 2022 10:13:13 PM

Queen Margaret Of Anjou

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Queen Margaret strikes the Duchess of Gloucester - The Hollow Crown: Episode 1 - BBC Two

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Her uncle, Charles VII of France , who may have suggested the marriage as part of the peace effort, was present. Loans were taken out by the government in order to pay for the considerable expense of transporting Margaret to England. Solicitation for loans emphasised the role that the marriage, and Margaret herself, would play in seeking peace with France. This was a theme continued throughout the preparations for her wedding. She arrived in England on 9 April , and travelled to London accompanied by various lords and courtiers. The predicted turnout for her arrival and procession was so large that on 8 May an inspection of roofs and balconies was ordered due to the expectation that spectators would use them as vantage points for her progress.

Her ceremonial progress through the city lasted two days, the intervening night spent, by custom, in the Tower of London. It was accompanied by eight theatrical pageants. Five of these pageants concerned the peace with France, casting Margaret as a symbol of, or the agent of, peace. Three spoke of her spiritual role as a redeemer and intercessor. She was fifteen, and he was twenty-three. Shortly after her coronation, Rene of Anjou entered negotiations with the English crown, attempting to barter a lifetime's alliance and a twenty-year truce in exchange for the cession of the English-held territory of Maine to Anjou, and Henry's agreement to abandon his claim to Anjou.

Margaret, alongside Henry, corresponded closely with Charles VIII regarding the agreement, attempting to act as a mediator. The loss of Maine, regarded as a betrayal, was deeply unpopular with the English public, [6] who were already inclined to mistrust Margaret due to her French origins. The reputation of Margaret's marriage suffered as a result, although she herself was not openly blamed for the loss. In the early years of their marriage, prior to Henry's illness, Margaret and Henry spent significant proportions of their time together by choice.

They shared an interest in education and culture. On 30 March , she was granted license to found Queens' College, Cambridge. These were expected and important parts of the role of a noblewoman or queen. Some were successful, and others regarded as high-handed or ill-thought-out; in one occasion, she recommended a man named Alexander Manning to the role of gaoler at Newgate; shortly after, he turned the prisoners loose in an act of protest at his rumoured dismissal for negligence and was then jailed himself. Henry, who was more interested in religion and learning than in military matters, was not a successful king.

When he married Margaret, his mental condition was already unstable and by the time of the birth of their only son, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales born 13 October , he had suffered a complete breakdown. Margaret shared her husband's love of learning by dint of her cultured upbringing and gave her patronage to the founding of Queens' College, Cambridge. However, the evidence is too scanty to permit historians to establish this with absolute certainty: several women at Margaret's court bore the name Elizabeth or Isabella Grey. After retiring from London to live in lavish state at Greenwich , Margaret was occupied with the care of her young son and did not display any signs of political will until she believed her husband was threatened with deposition by the ambitious Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York , [18] who, to her consternation, had been appointed Lord Protector while Henry was mentally incapacitated from to The duke was a credible claimant to the English throne and by the end of his protectorship there were many powerful nobles and relatives prepared to back his claim.

The Duke of York was powerful; Henry's advisers corrupt; Henry himself trusting, pliable, and increasingly unstable; Margaret defiantly unpopular, grimly and gallantly determined to maintain the English crown for her progeny. Yet at least one scholar identifies the source of the eventual Lancastrian downfall not as York's ambitions nearly so much as Margaret's ill-judged enmity toward York and her over-indulgence in unpopular allies. King Henry was putty in her hands when she wanted something done.

Margaret's biographer Helen Maurer, however, disagrees with earlier historians having dated the much-vaunted enmity between the Queen and York to the time he obtained the office of the protectorship. She suggests the mutual antagonism came about two years later in in the wake of the First Battle of St Albans , when Margaret perceived him as a challenge to the king's authority.

Maurer bases this conclusion on a judicious study of Margaret's pattern of presenting gifts; this revealed that Margaret took a great deal of care to demonstrate that she favoured both York and Edmund Beaufort Somerset equally in the early s. Maurer also claims that Margaret appeared to accept York's protectorship and asserts there is no substantial evidence to back up the long-standing belief that she was responsible for the Yorkists' exclusion from the Great Council following Henry's recovery see below. The late historian Paul Murray Kendall , on the other hand, maintained that Margaret's allies Edmund Beaufort Somerset and William de la Pole , then Earl of Suffolk, had no difficulty in persuading her that York, until then one of Henry VI's most trusted advisers, was responsible for her unpopularity and already too powerful to be trusted.

Margaret not only persuaded Henry to recall York from his post as governor in France and banish him instead to Ireland, she repeatedly attempted to have him assassinated during his travels to and from Ireland, once in and again in It also might have made an ultimate battle to the death between Margaret and the House of York inevitable by making manifest Richard's dangerous popularity with the Commons. Richard of York, safely returned from Ireland in , confronted Henry and was readmitted as a trusted advisor. Soon thereafter, Henry agreed to convene Parliament to address the calls for reform. When Parliament met, the demands could not have been less acceptable to Margaret: not only were both Edmund Beaufort Somerset and Suffolk impeached for criminal mismanagement of French affairs and subverting justice, but it was charged as a crime against Suffolk now a duke that he had antagonised the king against the Duke of York.

Further, the demands for reform put forward included that the Duke of York be acknowledged as the first councillor to the king, and the Speaker of Commons, perhaps with more fervour than wisdom, even proposed Richard, Duke of York, be recognised as heir to the throne. As leader of a French force of 4, men from Honfleur , he aimed at taking advantage of the chaos in England. The mayor, John Drury, was killed in this raid. It thereafter became an established tradition, which survives to this day, that the Mayor of Sandwich wears a black robe mourning this ignoble deed.

Public indignation was so high that Margaret, with great reluctance, was forced to give the Duke of York's kinsman Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick , a commission to keep the sea for three years. He already held the post of Captain of Calais. Hostilities between the rival Yorkist and Lancastrian factions soon flared into armed conflict. In May , just over five months after Henry VI recovered from a bout of mental illness and Richard of York's protectorship had ended, Margaret called for a Great Council from which the Yorkists were excluded. The Council called for an assemblage of the peers at Leicester to protect the king "against his enemies".

York apparently was prepared for conflict and soon was marching south to meet the Lancastrian army marching north. In March along with her husband and leading nobles of the warring factions, she took part in The Love Day procession in London. While Margaret was attempting to raise further support for the Lancastrian cause in Scotland, [26] her principal commander, Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset , [27] gained a major victory for her at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December by defeating the combined armies of the Duke of York and the Earl of Salisbury. Both men were beheaded and their heads displayed on the gates of the city of York.

As Margaret was in Scotland at the time of the battle, it was impossible that she issued the orders for their execution, despite popular belief to the contrary. Both men had kept watch over King Henry, a prisoner to Warwick, to keep him out of harm's way during the battle. The king had promised the two knights immunity, but Margaret gainsaid him and ordered their execution by decapitation. It is alleged that she put the men on trial with her son presiding. Margaret was determined to win back her son's inheritance and fled with him into Wales and later Scotland.

Finding her way to France, she made an ally of her cousin, King Louis XI of France , and at his instigation she allowed an approach from Edward's former supporter, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who had fallen out with his former friend as a result of Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville , and was now seeking revenge for the loss of his political influence. Warwick's daughter, Anne Neville , was married to Margaret's son Edward, Prince of Wales, in order to cement the alliance, and Margaret insisted that Warwick return to England to prove himself before she followed.

He did so, restoring Henry VI briefly to the throne on 3 October By the time Margaret, her son and daughter-in-law Anne were ready to follow Warwick back to England, the tables had again turned in favour of the Yorkists, and the Earl was defeated and killed by the returning King Edward IV in the Battle of Barnet on 14 April Margaret was forced to lead her own army at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May , at which the Lancastrian forces were defeated and her seventeen-year-old son Edward of Westminster was killed. The circumstances of Edward's death have never been made clear; it is not known whether he was killed in the actual fighting or executed after the battle by the Duke of Clarence.

Over the previous ten years, Margaret had gained a reputation for aggression and ruthlessness, but following her defeat at Tewkesbury and the death of her only son, she was completely broken in spirit. After she was taken captive by William Stanley at the end of the battle, Margaret was imprisoned by the order of King Edward. She was sent first to Wallingford Castle and then was transferred to the more secure Tower of London.

Henry VI was also imprisoned in the Tower in the wake of Tewkesbury and he died there on the night of 21 May; the cause of his death is unknown, though regicide was suspected. In she was placed in the custody of her former lady-in-waiting Alice Chaucer, Duchess of Suffolk , where she remained until ransomed by Louis XI in Margaret lived in France for seven years as a poor relation of the king. She was hosted by Francis de Vignolles and died, impoverished, in his castle of Dampierre-sur-Loire, near Anjou on 25 August at the age of Many letters written by Margaret during her tenure as queen consort are still extant.

One was written to the Corporation of London regarding injuries inflicted on her tenants at the manor of Enfield , which comprised part of her dower lands. Margaret is a major character in William Shakespeare 's first tetralogy of History plays. She is the only character to appear alive in all four plays, but due to the length of the plays many of her lines are usually cut in modern adaptations. In Henry VI, Part 3 she personally stabs the Duke of York on the battlefield after humiliatingly taunting him, and becomes suicidal when her son Edward is killed in front of her. Although in reality, Margaret spent the rest of her life outside England after the death of her husband and son, Shakespeare has her return to the court in Richard III.

Margaret serves as a Cassandra -like prophetess; in her first appearance she dramatically curses the majority of the nobles for their roles in the downfall of the House of Lancaster. All of her curses come to pass as the noblemen are betrayed and executed by Richard of Gloucester, and each character reflects on her curse before his execution. Margaret's prominence in Shakespeare has led many theatre-makers to interpret the story with her at the center, drawing from the plays she is featured in. Margaret is the title character of Giacomo Meyerbeer 's opera Margherita d'Anjou. Delderfield, in the person of Powlett-Jones, appears to have a very good grasp of Margaret's life and the Wars of the Roses, and the content and development of the book give us an entertaining sub-plot to the book's main narrative.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the 13th-century French countess, see Margaret, Countess of Anjou. Queen consort of England. Detail from the Talbot Shrewsbury Book. Angers Cathedral. Henry VI of England. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ancestors of Margaret of Anjou 8. Louis I, Duke of Anjou 4. Louis II, Duke of Anjou 9. Marie of Blois 2. John I of Aragon 5. Yolande of Aragon Violant of Bar 1.

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