Informative Essay On Lance Armstrong

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Informative Essay On Lance Armstrong

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Abraham Joshua Heschel , a writer, rabbi, and professor of theology at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York, was outspoken on the subject of civil rights. He marched arm-in-arm with King in the Selma to Montgomery march. The faculty created it to renew the university's commitment to social justice. Recognizing Brandeis as a university with a commitment to academic excellence, these faculty members created a chance for disadvantaged students to participate in an empowering educational experience. While Jews were very active in the civil rights movement in the South, in the North, many had experienced a more strained relationship with African Americans.

It has been argued that with Black militancy and the Black Power movements on the rise, "Black Anti-Semitism" increased leading to strained relations between Blacks and Jews in Northern communities. In New York City, most notably, there was a major socio-economic class difference in the perception of African Americans by Jews. According to political scientist Michael Rogin , Jewish-Black hostility was a two-way street extending to earlier decades. In the post-World War II era, Jews were granted white privilege and most moved into the middle-class while Blacks were left behind in the ghetto. The culmination of this was the New York City teachers' strike , pitting largely Jewish schoolteachers against predominantly Black parents in Brownsville, New York.

Many Jewish individuals in the Southern states who supported civil rights for African Americans tended to keep a low profile on "the race issue", in order to avoid attracting the attention of the anti-Black and antisemitic Ku Klux Klan. As an example of this hatred, in one year alone, from November to October , temples and other Jewish communal gatherings were bombed and desecrated in Atlanta , Nashville , Jacksonville , and Miami , and dynamite was found under synagogues in Birmingham , Charlotte , and Gastonia, North Carolina. Some rabbis received death threats , but there were no injuries following these outbursts of violence. Despite the common notion that the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr.

Fearing the events during the movement was occurring too quickly, there were some blacks who felt that leaders should take their activism at an incremental pace. Others had reservations on how focused blacks were on the movement and felt that such attention was better spent on reforming issues within the black community. While Conservatives, in general, supported integration, some defended incrementally phased out segregation as a backstop against assimilation.

Based on her interpretation of a study made by Donald Matthews and James Prothro detailing the relative percentage of blacks for integration, against it or feeling something else, Lauren Winner asserts that:. Black defenders of segregation look, at first blush, very much like black nationalists, especially in their preference for all-black institutions; but black defenders of segregation differ from nationalists in two key ways.

First, while both groups criticize NAACP -style integration, nationalists articulate a third alternative to integration and Jim Crow , while segregationists preferred to stick with the status quo. Second, absent from black defenders of segregation's political vocabulary was the demand for self-determination. They called for all-black institutions, but not autonomous all-black institutions; indeed, some defenders of segregation asserted that black people needed white paternalism and oversight in order to thrive. Oftentimes, African-American community leaders would be staunch defenders of segregation. Church ministers, businessmen, and educators were among those who wished to keep segregation and segregationist ideals in order to retain the privileges they gained from patronage from whites, such as monetary gains.

In addition, they relied on segregation to keep their jobs and economies in their communities thriving. It was feared that if integration became widespread in the South, black-owned businesses and other establishments would lose a large chunk of their customer base to white-owned businesses, and many blacks would lose opportunities for jobs that were presently exclusive to their interests.

For them, they took issue with different parts of the civil rights movement and the potential for blacks to exercise consumerism and economic liberty without hindrance from whites. For Martin Luther King Jr. These different views made such leaders' work much harder to accomplish, but they were nonetheless important in the overall scope of the movement. For the most part, the black individuals who had reservations on various aspects of the movement and ideologies of the activists were not able to make a game-changing dent in their efforts, but the existence of these alternate ideas gave some blacks an outlet to express their concerns about the changing social structure.

During the Freedom Summer campaign of , numerous tensions within the civil rights movement came to the forefront. The participation by numerous white students was not reducing the amount of violence that SNCC suffered, but seemed to exacerbate it. Additionally, there was profound disillusionment at Lyndon Johnson's denial of voting status for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention. The Louisiana campaign survived by relying on a local African-American militia called the Deacons for Defense and Justice , who used arms to repel white supremacist violence and police repression.

It permitted its black leaders to openly promote the use of armed self-defense. Charles had taken the lead after his brother Medgar Evers was assassinated in Many black youths were committed to the use of violence to protest inequality and oppression. In Mississippi, Stokely Carmichael declared, "I'm not going to beg the white man for anything that I deserve, I'm going to take it. We need power. Some people engaging in the Black Power movement claimed a growing sense of black pride and identity. In gaining more of a sense of a cultural identity, blacks demanded that whites no longer refer to them as "Negroes" but as "Afro-Americans," similar to other ethnic groups, such as Irish Americans and Italian Americans.

Until the mids, blacks had dressed similarly to whites and often straightened their hair. As a part of affirming their identity, blacks started to wear African-based dashikis and grow their hair out as a natural afro. The afro, sometimes nicknamed the "'fro," remained a popular black hairstyle until the late s. Other variations of traditional African styles have become popular, often featuring braids, extensions, and dreadlocks. The group began following the revolutionary pan-Africanism of late-period Malcolm X , using a "by-any-means necessary" approach to stopping racial inequality.

They sought to rid African-American neighborhoods of police brutality and to establish socialist community control in the ghettos. While they conducted armed confrontation with police, they also set up free breakfast and healthcare programs for children. Black Power was taken to another level inside prison walls. The goal of this group was to overthrow the white-run government in America and the prison system. In , this group displayed their dedication after a white prison guard was found not guilty of shooting and killing three black prisoners from the prison tower.

They retaliated by killing a white prison guard. Numerous popular cultural expressions associated with black power appeared at this time. King was not comfortable with the "Black Power" slogan, which sounded too much like black nationalism to him. When King was assassinated in , Stokely Carmichael said that whites had murdered the one person who would prevent rampant rioting and that blacks would burn every major city to the ground. Riots broke out in more than cities across the country. Some cities did not recover from the damage for more than a generation; other city neighborhoods never recovered.

King and the civil rights movement inspired the Native American rights movement of the s and many of its leaders. King, who was advancing the civil rights agenda of equality under the laws of this country, we thought that we could also use the laws to advance our Indianship, to live as tribes in our territories governed by our own laws under the principles of tribal sovereignty that had been with us ever since We believed that we could fight for a policy of self-determination that was consistent with U.

Due to policies of segregation and disenfranchisement present in Northern Ireland many Irish activists took inspiration from American civil rights activists. There was an international context for the actions of the U. The Soviet media frequently covered racial discrimination in the U. Dudziak wrote that Communists who were critical of the United States accused it of practicing hypocrisy when it portrayed itself as the "leader of the free world," while so many of its citizens were being subjected to severe racial discrimination and violence; she argued that this was a major factor in moving the government to support civil rights legislation. A majority of White Southerners have been estimated to have neither supported or resisted the civil rights movement.

Most of their personal reactions, whether eventually in support or resistance weren't in extreme. King reached the height of popular acclaim during his life in , when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. After that point his career was filled with frustrating challenges. The liberal coalition that had gained passage of the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of began to fray. King was becoming more estranged from the Johnson administration. In he broke with it by calling for peace negotiations and a halt to the bombing of Vietnam. He moved further left in the following years, speaking about the need for economic justice and thoroughgoing changes in American society.

He believed that change was needed beyond the civil rights which had been gained by the movement. However, King's attempts to broaden the scope of the civil rights movement were halting and largely unsuccessful. In King made several attempts to take the Movement north in order to address housing discrimination. Daley marginalized the SCLC's campaign by promising to "study" the city's problems. In , white demonstrators in notoriously racist Cicero , a suburb of Chicago, held "white power" signs and threw stones at marchers who were demonstrating against housing segregation. Politicians and journalists quickly blamed this white backlash on the movement's shift towards Black Power in the mids; today most scholars believe the backlash was a phenomenon that was already developing in the mids, and it was embodied in the " massive resistance " movement in the South where even the few moderate white leaders including George Wallace , who had once been endorsed by the NAACP shifted to openly racist positions.

For instance, prior to the Watts riot, California whites had already mobilized to repeal the state's fair housing law. Even so, the backlash which occurred at the time was not able to roll back the major civil rights victories which had been achieved or swing the country into reaction. Social historians Matthew Lassiter and Barbara Ehrenreich note that the backlash's primary constituency was suburban and middle-class, not working-class whites: "among the white electorate, one half of blue-collar voters…cast their ballot for [the liberal presidential candidate] Hubert Humphrey in …only in the South did George Wallace draw substantially more blue-collar than white-collar support.

The Jim Crow system employed "terror as a means of social control," [] with the most organized manifestations being the Ku Klux Klan and their collaborators in local police departments. This violence played a key role in blocking the progress of the civil rights movement in the late s. Some black organizations in the South began practicing armed self-defense. Williams had rebuilt the chapter after its membership was terrorized out of public life by the Klan. He did so by encouraging a new, more working-class membership to arm itself thoroughly and defend against attack. The following day, the city council held an emergency session and passed an ordinance banning KKK motorcades.

After the acquittal of several white men charged with sexually assaulting black women in Monroe, Williams announced to United Press International reporters that he would "meet violence with violence" as a policy. Williams' declaration was quoted on the front page of The New York Times , and The Carolina Times considered it "the biggest civil rights story of ". The convention nonetheless passed a resolution which stated: "We do not deny, but reaffirm the right of individual and collective self-defense against unlawful assaults. Williams—along with his wife, Mabel Williams—continued to play a leadership role in the Monroe movement, and to some degree, in the national movement. The Williamses published The Crusader , a nationally circulated newsletter, beginning in , and the influential book Negroes With Guns in Williams did not call for full militarization in this period, but "flexibility in the freedom struggle.

The incident along with his campaigns for peace with Cuba resulted in him being targeted by the FBI and prosecuted for kidnapping; he was cleared of all charges in In this period, Williams advocated guerilla warfare against racist institutions and saw the large ghetto riots of the era as a manifestation of his strategy. University of North Carolina historian Walter Rucker has written that "the emergence of Robert F Williams contributed to the marked decline in anti-black racial violence in the U.

After centuries of anti-black violence, African Americans across the country began to defend their communities aggressively—employing overt force when necessary. This in turn evoked in whites real fear of black vengeance Parks gave the eulogy at Williams' funeral in , praising him for "his courage and for his commitment to freedom," and concluding that "The sacrifices he made, and what he did, should go down in history and never be forgotten. While not a key focus of his administration, President Eisenhower made several conservative strides toward making America a racially integrated country.

The year he was elected, Eisenhower desegregated Washington D. Under the previous administration, President Truman signed executive order to desegregate the military. However, Truman's executive order had hardly been enforced. President Eisenhower made it a point to enforce the executive order. By October 30, , there were no segregated combat units in the United States. Expanding his work beyond the military, Eisenhower formed two non-discrimination committees, one to broker nondiscrimination agreements with government contractors, and a second to end discrimination within government departments and agencies.

The first major piece of Civil Rights legislation since the Civil Rights Act of was also passed under the Eisenhower administration. President Eisenhower proposed, championed, and signed the Civil Rights Act of The legislation established the Civil Rights Commission and the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division and banned intimidating, coercing, and other means of interfering with a citizen's right to vote.

Eisenhower's work in desegregating the judicial system is also notable. For the first two years of the Kennedy administration, civil rights activists had mixed opinions of both the president and Attorney General , Robert F. A well of historical skepticism toward liberal politics had left African Americans with a sense of uneasy disdain for any white politician who claimed to share their concerns for freedom, particularly ones connected to the historically pro-segregationist Democratic Party. Still, many were encouraged by the discreet support Kennedy gave to King, and the administration's willingness, after dramatic pressure from civil disobedience, to bring forth racially egalitarian initiatives.

Many of the initiatives resulted from Robert Kennedy's passion. The younger Kennedy gained a rapid education in the realities of racism through events such as the Baldwin-Kennedy meeting. The president came to share his brother's sense of urgency on the matter, resulting in the landmark Civil Rights Address of June and the introduction of the first major civil rights act of the decade. Robert Kennedy first became concerned with civil rights in mid-May during the Freedom Rides , when photographs of the burning bus and savage beatings in Anniston and Birmingham were broadcast around the world. They came at an especially embarrassing time, as President Kennedy was about to have a summit with the Soviet premier in Vienna.

The White House was concerned with its image among the populations of newly independent nations in Africa and Asia, and Robert Kennedy responded with an address for Voice of America stating that great progress had been made on the issue of race relations. Meanwhile, behind the scenes, the administration worked to resolve the crisis with a minimum of violence and prevent the Freedom Riders from generating a fresh crop of headlines that might divert attention from the President's international agenda.

The Freedom Riders documentary notes that, "The back burner issue of civil rights had collided with the urgent demands of Cold War realpolitik. On May 21, when a white mob attacked and burned the First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where King was holding out with protesters, Robert Kennedy telephoned King to ask him to stay in the building until the U.

Marshals and National Guard could secure the area. King proceeded to berate Kennedy for "allowing the situation to continue". King later publicly thanked Kennedy for deploying the force to break up an attack that might otherwise have ended King's life. With a very small majority in Congress, the president's ability to press ahead with legislation relied considerably on a balancing game with the Senators and Congressmen of the South. Without the support of Vice-President Johnson, a former Senator who had years of experience in Congress and longstanding relations there, many of the Attorney-General's programs would not have progressed.

By late , frustration at the slow pace of political change was balanced by the movement's strong support for legislative initiatives, including administrative representation across all U. Government departments and greater access to the ballot box. From squaring off against Governor George Wallace , to "tearing into" Vice-President Johnson for failing to desegregate areas of the administration , to threatening corrupt white Southern judges with disbarment, to desegregating interstate transport, Robert Kennedy came to be consumed by the civil rights movement.

He continued to work on these social justice issues in his bid for the presidency in On the night of Governor Wallace's capitulation to African-American enrollment at the University of Alabama , President Kennedy gave an address to the nation, which marked the changing tide, an address that was to become a landmark for the ensuing change in political policy as to civil rights. In , Robert Kennedy visited South Africa and voiced his objections to apartheid , the first time a major US politician had done so:. At the University of Natal in Durban, I was told the church to which most of the white population belongs teaches apartheid as a moral necessity.

A questioner declared that few churches allow black Africans to pray with the white because the Bible says that is the way it should be, because God created Negroes to serve. What then is our response? Only silence. Robert Kennedy's relationship with the movement was not always positive. As attorney general, he was called to account by activists—who booed him at a June speech—for the Justice Department's own poor record of hiring blacks. This program ordered FBI agents to "expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize" the activities of Communist front groups, a category in which the paranoid Hoover included most civil rights organizations.

Lyndon Johnson made civil rights one of his highest priorities, coupling it with a whites war on poverty. However increasing the opposition to the War in Vietnam, coupled with the cost of the war, undercut support for his domestic programs. Under Kennedy, major civil rights legislation had been stalled in Congress. His assassination changed everything. On one hand, President Lyndon Johnson was a much more skillful negotiator than Kennedy but he had behind him a powerful national momentum demanding immediate action on moral and emotional grounds. Demands for immediate action originated from unexpected directions, especially white Protestant church groups.

The Justice Department, led by Robert Kennedy, moved from a posture of defending Kennedy from the quagmire minefield of racial politics to acting to fulfill his legacy. The violent death and public reaction dramatically moved the conservative Republicans, led by Senator Everett McKinley Dirksen , whose support was the margin of victory for the Civil Rights Act of The act immediately ended de jure legal segregation and the era of Jim Crow.

With the civil rights movement at full blast, Lyndon Johnson coupled black entrepreneurship with his war on poverty, setting up special programs in the Small Business Administration, the Office of Economic Opportunity, and other agencies. Richard Nixon greatly expanded the program, setting up the Office of Minority Business Enterprise OMBE in the expectation that black entrepreneurs would help defuse racial tensions and possibly support his reelection.

The to civil rights movement contributed strong cultural threads to American and international theater, song, film, television, and folk art. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the — movement in the United States. For earlier movements in the United States and others elsewhere, see Civil rights movement disambiguation. Civil Rights Movement. Poor People's Campaign. Main article: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era. Further information: Jim Crow laws , Civil rights movement — , and Civil rights movement — Main articles: Timeline of the civil rights movement and History of civil rights in the United States.

Further information: Civil rights movement — and Civil rights movement — Main article: Brown v. Main article: Emmett Till. Main articles: Rosa Parks and Montgomery bus boycott. Main article: Little Rock Nine. See also: Greensboro sit-ins , Nashville sit-ins , and Sit-in movement. Main article: Freedom Rider. Main article: Albany Movement. Main article: Birmingham campaign. Main article: March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Main article: St. Augustine movement. Further information: Monson Motor Lodge protest. Main article: Chester school protests. Main article: Freedom Summer.

Main article: Civil Rights Act of Main article: Harlem riot of Main article: Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Play media. Main article: Watts Riots. Main article: Long Hot Summer of Further information: Detroit Riot of , Newark riots , and Plainfield riots. See also: Orangeburg massacre. These are the final words from his final public speech. Main article: African-American women in the civil rights movement. Main articles: Black Power and Black Power movement. See also: Northern Ireland civil rights movement. Main article: Civil rights movement in popular culture. Cobb Jr. Farmer Jr. Louis Farrakhan Walter E.

Moore E. Gloria Johnson-Powell A. James Reeb Frederick D. Civil rights movement portal United States portal Society portal s portal s portal. The term civil rights struggle can denote this or other social movements that occurred in the United States during the same period. The social movement's span of time is called the civil rights era. Board of Education". Retrieved November 12, The Atlantic. Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 3, Winter Washington and Lee Law Review. The Warren Court and American Politics. Harvard University Press. Vanderbilt Law Review. Archived from the original PDF on October 3, California Law Review. JSTOR Board of Education of Topeka 1 ". Retrieved October 3, United States".

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New York: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on June 30, Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved February 20, Southern Spaces. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. City of Alexandria. Instructional Strategies. School Culture. Social-emotional learning. Shop Books View all. Add to Cart. Member Book. Become a Member. Most Popular. Upcoming Events Register today for our upcoming events. View all events. October 12, October 20, December 13,

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